Driven by a need to react to various events, Japan's security contribution in Africa has risen in recent years. As Africa is now being associated more tightly with Japan's strategic core interests, terrorist attacks on the continent are posing a direct risk to Japanese nationals. Threats to the security of vital maritime shipping routes transiting from the Middle East to the Indian Ocean are also directly undermining Tokyo's interests. This paper documents new features of Japan's diplomacy that tend to gradually integrate Africa into Japan's strategic interests, arguing that the inclusion of Africa in the "Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy" demonstrates Japan's willingness to adopt a more strategic approach to Africa.
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The Silk Road Economic Belt (the ‘Belt’) component of the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by China in 2013 is an ambitious vision that has evoked enthusiasm among many stakeholders. Among other objectives, the Belt intends to promote infrastructural development and connectivity, and stimulate economic integration across the Eurasian continent. Europe is an integral part of China’s transcontinental vision, and the European Union (EU) has its own vested interests in the Belt—as the EU–China Connectivity Platform demonstrates. This one-year desk and field study examines the Belt from a security perspective. The report elaborates on whether the Belt is a platform for European Union (EU)–China cooperation on mitigating security threats throughout Eurasia, and provides policy recommendations to the EU on how to proceed. In the context of the report, ‘security’ is defined broadly in relation to intra- and interstate stability: it encompasses human security and developmental conditions.
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After over a decade of SSR assistance in Mozambique coordinated by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), what lessons have been – or could be – learned? This chapter considers the UNDP’s SSR activities in Mozambique from the organisation’s initial involvement during the last stages of the DDR programme to the beginning of 2005. It finds that a fragmented approach to police and judicial reform missed opportunities for mutual reinforcement and undermined sustainability. Managerial reform should be prioritised and short-term programme cycles extended.
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In 2007, amid rampant violence and corruption, the government of Guatemala asked the United Nations to provide institutional support for its beleaguered criminal justice system. At first, the new International Commission against Impunity in Guatemala (known by its Spanish acronym, CICIG) seemed to have little chance of success. Yet CICIG has helped Guatemala score a series of dramatic victories for the rule of law, and although its work is not finished, many Guatemalans now look to CICIG as a symbol of hope that corruption can be overcome.
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This case study examines how the mutual accountability process operates in Mozambique. In particular, it looks at MA as a dynamic process which evolves over time. This repeated interaction between the parties has important implications for the sorts of processes that can be sustained within the confines of voluntary agreements.
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