Niger

Niger

Tools

Tool 1 : Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 1 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa by DCAF addresses political will and national ownership, fundamental requirements of SSR processes.

Without the strong political commitment of national authorities, SSR will fail, regardless of the material resources and technical expertise invested into it. SSR must be home-grown, designed to meet country-specific needs, and led by national stakeholders who take full responsibility for it. For SSR to produce sustainable results, it is also essential to ensure the active involvement of a critical mass of citizens - men and women - from all strata of society in the definition and implementation of a reform agenda that reflects a shared vision of security. Unless it relies on an inclusively defined and widely shared vision of security, SSR cannot succeed.

Acknowledging the challenges that may arise in the process of operationalising these principles, Tool 1 offers practical guidance on how to reinforce national ownership and leadership while defining an inclusive, national vision of security as a basis for a security sector reform. It provides an overview of potential entry points for SSR in the broader framework of national governance in a West African setting. It also suggests how to institutionalise the national leadership and coordination of an SSR process, including through strategic communication.

The Tool is primarily intended for policy and other strategic decision makers, government officials involved in security sector governance, national SSR advisers and practitioners. It will also provide members of parliament, other oversight institutions, civil society organisations and development partners with an overview of the responsibilities of the executive in SSR and how to uphold national ownership throughout the process.

For more information on the tool Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 2: Security Sector Reform Programming

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

The publication is also available in français and português.

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Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming

The conduct of an SSR process requires translating a political, national vision of security into an operational programme and defining the different concrete actions needed to generate the desired societal change and improve security for all. SSR programming provides tools both to determine the nature of the change sought in the functioning of the security sector and to plan implementation in a structured manner that is measurable over time.

Tool 2 of the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa addresses the successive programming steps that enable the development and rolling out of a context-relevant SSR programme. These steps range from an initial needs assessment to the setting up of coordination mechanisms aimed at ensuring overall coherence of national SSR efforts. The Tool offers practical advice for prioritising and sequencing reform actions, budgeting the programme and mobilising the resources necessary for its implementation, establishing viable and efficient management mechanisms, coordinating national and international actors involved in the implementation of the programme and developing a communication strategy to support transparency and sustain national ownership.

For more information on Tool 2 : Security Sector Reform Programming, kindly follow the link to the DCAF website.

Follow the links to access the other documents in the Toolkit for Security Sector Reform and Governance in West Africa: 

Tool 1: Political Leadership and National Ownership of Security Sector Reform Processes

Tool 4: Effective Management of External Support to Security Sector Reform

Tool 6: Civil Society Involvement in Security Sector Reform and Governance

This publication is also available in français and português.

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Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 1 « Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », fornece orientações práticas para as autoridades nacionais da África Ocidental sobre como abordar a RSS de uma forma que demonstre liderança e garanta uma apropriação nacional inclusiva. Ressalva a importância da vontade política na formulação de políticas relacionadas com o sector de segurança, a necessidade de envolver actores não-estatais não só na fase inicial, mas também durante todo o processo de reforma, e a necessidade de articular a RSS com outras políticas e reformas à escala nacional. A ferramenta também se debruça sobre o papel desempenhado pela CEDEAO, que apoia os estados-membros na construção de processos de reforma endógenos. Aborda igualmente os desafios práticos que as autoridades nacionais poderão vir a enfrentar na concepção e implementação de processos de RSS, propondo também soluções para enfrentá-los.

A ferramenta pretende ser um recurso para os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões estratégicas, funcionários governamentais, consultores nacionais e outros profissionais de RSS. Também disponibilizará aos membros do parlamento, a outras instituições de supervisão, às organizações da sociedade civil (OSC) e aos parceiros de desenvolvimento uma visão geral das responsabilidades que o poder executivo tem na RSS e sobre como garantir a apropriação nacional ao longo do processo.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

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Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta publicação faz parte da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental. Visa apoiar a implementação do quadro de políticas para a reforma e governação do sector de segurança da Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental (CEDEAO). Através de orientações e conselhos práticos, adaptados ao contexto da África Ocidental e baseados em experiências regionais, a Caixa de Ferramentas visa facilitar a elaboração de políticas, bem como a implementação e gestão de processos de reforma do sector de segurança (RSS) a nível nacional.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

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Podcasts

Le Forum consacré à Boko Haram (RTBF La Première)

Georges Berghezan et Françoise Wallemacq sont les invités de Fabienne Vande Meerssche dans l’émission « Midi Première - Le Forum » (RTBF) consacrée à l’histoire et l’évolution de Boko Haram. Deux ans après l’enlèvement de 276 jeunes filles au Nigeria par Boko Haram, quelles sont les situations au Nigeria et dans les trois pays voisins, le Niger, le Cameroun et le Tchad, connaissant les attaques de la formation djihadiste. Dans cette émission, Geaorges, Françoise et Fabienne reviennent sur les tactiques, communications et objectifs mises en place par la formation djihadiste.

Veuillez cliquer sur lien pour accéder au podcast de l’émission en ligne.

Podcast

Policy and Research Papers

Dépenses militaires et importations d’armes dans cinq États ouest-africains

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La présente note publiée par le Groupe de recherche et d’information sur la paix et la sécurité (GRIP) est consacrée à l’évolution des dépenses militaires et aux achats d’armes de la dernière décennie de cinq pays francophones d’Afrique de l’Ouest : le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Aucun de ces pays ne peut être considéré comme une grande puissance, mais la plupart d’entre eux ont récemment choisi la voie d’un net renforcement de leur potentiel militaire, apparemment en riposte aux menaces terroristes et sécessionnistes qui secouent la sous-région. Sans trancher sur le bien-fondé d’une réponse militaire à ce type de menaces, la note tente de fournir un éclairage sur la quantité de ressources affectées à la défense et la sécurité, en les comparant dans la durée et au regard des dépenses affectées aux besoins sociaux des populations de ces pays.

Pour accéder à la note Dépenses militaires et importations d’armes dans cinq États ouest-africains, veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

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Ombuds Institutions for the armed forces in francophone countries of sub-Saharan Africa

Ombudsmen Sub Saharan Africa DCAF

This mapping study on ombuds institutions for the armed forces in francophone sub-Saharan African states is a project initiated under the aegis of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) in collaboration with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), in the framework of the OIF programme “Providing Support to Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding”.

The mapping study is the continuation of extensive research conducted within the context of a first project entitled “Ombuds Institutions for the Armed Forces in Francophone Africa: Burkina Faso, Burundi and Senegal.” The objectives of the mapping study are to develop a comprehensive analysis of the activities and role of the ombuds institutions; to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the establishment and functioning of such institutions; to encourage ombuds institutions to deal with the armed forces and to improve the functioning and effectiveness of existing institutions; and to involve the ombuds institutions of the states concerned in the global process of exchanging good practice and experience between existing ombuds institutions.

The research explores sub-Saharan states, some with ombuds institutions whose mandates include military matters (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Niger, Senegal, and Togo), some who have established general ombuds institutions, but without such jurisdiction over the armed forces (Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Republic of Guinea, Madagascar and Mali), and some who lack these institutions (Comoros and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). The paper delineates some common characteristics of general ombuds institutions, before pointing the challenges they confront, from the level of resources to a lack of visibility.

To access the Ombuds Institutions for the armed forces in francophone countries of sub-Saharan Africa, kindly follow the link.

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Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l'Ouest (Octobre à décembre 2016)

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, est réalisé dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé « Contribution à l’amélioration de la sécurité humaine, à la prévention des conflits et au renforcement de l’état de droit en Afrique sub-saharienne », financé par le ministère des Affaires étrangères du Grand-Duché du Luxembourg. Il a pour but de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Il se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers.

Pour accéder à l'étude Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l'Ouest , veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

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La Force mixte peut-elle maintenir le cap ?

Cet article se penche sur les premiers pas de la force militaire mixte déployée au Cameroun et au Nigéria, afin d'en évaluer les succès, mais également de cerner les limites liées à certaines lacunes rencontrées en matière de coordination et de commandement.

Pour accéder à l'étude La Force mixte peut-elle maintenir le cap?, veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

Paper

Le Niger face à Boko Haram : au-delà de la contre-insurrection

Depuis deux ans, le Niger est en guerre contre Boko Haram. Ce conflit armé pèse sur les équilibres fondamentaux, notamment financiers, de ce pays pauvre et déstabilise le Sud-Est, théâtre principal des affrontements. La lutte contre Boko Haram dans le Sud-Est du Niger suscite des tensions locales et exacerbe les violences intercommunautaires autour de l’accès aux ressources. Face aux limites de l’intervention militaire, les autorités doivent mettre l’accent sur la démobilisation des militants du mouvement, le règlement politique des conflits locaux, ainsi que la relance de l’économie et des services publics.

Pour accéder à l'étude Le Niger face à Boko Haram : au-delà de la contre-insurrection, veuillez cliquer sur le lien.

Paper

Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria’s Pivotal Ambivalence

The past year has seen a ratcheting up and convergence of security concerns in the Sahel and Maghreb with the growing potency of al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, the influx of mercenaries and weaponry from Libya, the expanding influence of narcotics traffickers, and Boko Haram's widening lethality. Nonetheless, regional cooperation to address these transnational threats remains fragmented.  In Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria's Pivotal Ambivalence , the latest Africa Security Brief from the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Laurence Aïda Ammour examines the central role that Algeria plays in defining this cooperation and the complex domestic, regional, and international considerations that shape its decision-making... 

◆ Efforts to counter al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’s (AQIM) growing influence in both the Maghreb and the Sahel are fragmented because of the inability of neighbors to forge collaborative partnerships.

◆ Algeria faces inverse incentives to combat AQIM outside of Algiers as it gains much of its geostrategic leverage by maintaining overstated perceptions of a serious terrorism threat.

◆ The Algerian government’s limited legitimacy, primarily derived from its ability to deliver stability, constrains a more comprehensive regional strategy.

The full paper can be downloaded from

http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ASB18.pdf

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Elections and Stability in West Africa

This meeting note summarizes the discussions at a conference organized by the United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA) in Praia, Cape Verde on May 18-20, 2011. The conference addressed the need for a sustained effort to strengthen electoral processes in West Africa as a means to consolidate peace and democracy in the region. 

Many West African countries face numerous challenges in organizing free, fair, and peaceful elections, and the conference discussed the existing regional and national frameworks that support democracy and electoral processes in the subregion. Best practices and lessons learned from recent electoral processes in Cape Verde, Ghana, and Niger were shared, with a view to informing the organization of upcoming elections in neighboring countries. The role and modalities of electoral assistance were also discussed, supported by concrete cases of UNDP’s electoral initiatives in Niger and Guinea. 
The conference further underlined the importance of collaborative initiatives in strengthening democratic processes and preventing conflict. Finally, key standards, processes, and actors that can help to build democracy and stability were discussed: human rights and gender-equality norms, electoral litigation, and the role of security forces and the media during electoral processes all present opportunities to reduce election-related violence and improve election outcomes in West Africa.
The note also reprints the full text of the “Praia Declaration on Elections and Stability in West Africa,” which was adopted at the close of the conference.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

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Books

Security Sector Governance in Francophone West Africa

Experience shows that successful democratic transitions need to be underpinned by a security sector that is effective, well managed, and accountable to the state and its citizens. This is why it is so important to carefully examine security sector governance dynamics in contexts where security has often remained a 'reserved domain.' Understanding the issues and perspectives that divide political elites, the security sector, and citizens is the only way to develop security sector reform programs that are legitimate and sustainable at the national level. Through drawing on the close contextual knowledge of practitioners, researchers, and diverse local actors, this book supports this goal by analyzing security sector governance dynamics in each of the nine Francophone countries within West Africa. From this basis, strengths and weaknesses are analyzed, local capacities evaluated, and entry points identified to promote democratic security sector governance in the West African region. (Seri

Book

Other Documents

Boko Haram : évolution de 2012 à aujourd’hui

Cette note présente les moments forts de l’évolution de Boko Haram depuis 2012, quand la formation djihadiste – initialement active surtout dans le nord-est du Nigeria – a étendu ses attaques à trois pays voisins, le Niger, le Cameroun et le Tchad.

Outre l’évolution des zones sous son contrôle, d’autres caractéristiques expliquent le développement de Boko Haram : structuration, tactiques, communication, alliance avec d’autres mouvements djihadistes, approvisionnement en armes, etc.

Document disponible: Boko Haram : évolution de 2012 à aujourd’hui 

Other Document