The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank dedicated to the study of security transitions in fragile, failed and conflict-affected states, a process also known as security sector reform (SSR). A registered charity based in based in Kitchener, Canada, the CSG maintains a global network of research fellows from a variety of backgrounds, including practitioners, research analysts and academics, and partner organizations from the public and private sector engaged in SSR issues.
The CSG seeks to enhance the effectiveness of donor assistance and support to SSR programs through its research, events, training and direct policy advice. Committed to innovation, the CSG employs various technological tools to advance its impact and reach, most notably long-distance training and conferencing platforms. Supporting promising analysts and academics as well as advancing new ideas and approaches are also core values of the centre. Through its active engagement with SSR donors and recipients on the ground in fragile and conflict-affected states, the CSG endeavours to translate research, advice and training into tangible improvements in SSR policy and programming.
A junior fellowship at the Center for Security Governance (CSG) is a rigorous and rewarding experience, requiring strong research skills, knowledge of international affairs, and an exceptional level of maturity and adaptability. The CSG is seeking three new Junior Research Fellows to support their research, grant development and communications projects over a four-month period from May to August 2017. The fellowship program supports and encourages new researchers and practitioners in the fields of security sector reform, state building peace building and/or post-conflict reconstruction.
For a full description of the Junior Research Fellowship job opening, kindly follow the link.
The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) is a non-profit, non-partisan think tank dedicated to the study of security transitions in fragile, failed and conflict-affected states, a process also known as security sector reform (SSR). A registered charity based in Kitchener, Canada, the CSG maintains a global network of research fellows from a variety of backgrounds, including practitioners, research analysts and academics, as well as partner organizations from the public and private sector engaged in SSR issues.
Position Summary: The candidate will manage the CSG’s various publication series’, notably the SSR 2.0 Briefs , and the CSG Papers .
Specific Duties Include:
- Manage all CSG publications (approximately 1-2 publications per month) under the supervision of CSG Executive Director Mark Sedra.
- Correspond in a timely fashion with publication authors.
- Identify and secure publication contributors.
- Provide content editing of publications and liaise with SGG copy-editor.
- Manage peer review of publications.
- Lay-out publications using Adobe InDesign.
- Manage publication design and the use of graphics.
- Oversee publication outreach via social media and email.
- Supervise a CSG intern supporting the publication process.
- Liaise with CSG staff, fellows and interns.
For more information on how to apply to this position, click here.
Policy and Research Papers
This Centre for Security Governance publication provides a summary of its inaugural eSeminar event "Libya: Dealing with the Militias and Advancing Security Sector Reform".
The purpose of this eSeminar, held on November 6, 2013, was to take stock of the volatile security situation in Libya and discuss the progress of SSR and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) initiatives. The event brought together a panel of four experts — two from Libya and two from the United States — to dissect this multidimensional challenge and provide insight on the way forward.
The CSG has just published its inaugural SSR 2.0 Brief on “Security Sector Reform in the Central African Republic: Chronicle of a Death Foretold,” written by Teodora Fuior and CSG Senior Fellow David Law.
This brief looks into the implementation of SSR in CAR, the deficiencies of its design, and the missteps made in its implementation. Its central finding is that the failure of the peacebuilding process in CAR was predestined, stemming from the earliest stages of SSR implementation in the country.
With the burgeoning use of cyberspace and digital applications, individuals, private companies and governments have all become increasingly concerned about the dangers of attacks that target the cyber domain. Cyber security measures designed to mitigate or respond to such technology-driven threats have traditionally been a focus for more developed countries, which enjoy greater connectivity, advanced information and communications technology and a greater sense of vulnerability. Yet the cyber domain is also a growing concern for developing countries as well. Developing countries have also offered fertile ground for cyber criminals capable of threning developing and developed countries alike. This only increases the urgency of exploring cyber security’s place in security sector reform (SSR).
The CSG has just published its inaugural SSR 2.0 Brief on “A Window of Opportunity for Reforms in the Congo’s Security Sector?” written by Nina Wilén.
This brief shows that in order to seize the opportunity, there is a need for renewed and reinforced collaboration between Congolese and international partners. In particular, the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) has an opportunity to grasp its long awaited role as a coordinator for SSR efforts.
Mali sits in a precarious position following the 2012-2013 crisis that resulted in France's military intervention. Much of the political and structural problems that led to the country's near collapse remain largely unchanged. This piece provides a useful overview of the challenges facing Mali's government.
To read the full CSG Insight paper, click here.
This paper examines the political and ethnic dimensions of South Sudan’s ongoing civil war and concludes with a number of recommendations to mitigate the potential for future conflict, including a comprehensive disarmament, demobilization and reintegration program, the improvement of state service delivery and the introduction of meritocratic practices to the hiring processes of the government of South Sudan.
Nina Wilén, Visiting Researcher at Stellenbosch University and a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp and currently a Senior Fellow at the Centre for Security Governance. In this article, she explores recent developments in Burundi, how they relate to the military, and proposes that the coming weeks will be decisive for the future of Burundi and the region as a whole.
CGS Insights: Learning from Failure? British and European Approaches to Security and Justice Programming
Originally published on the SSR Resource Centre in March 2015, this article discusses recent evaluation reports of UK and EU security and justice programming and analyses alternative and innovative SSR strategies. The author argues that learning lessons from failure and understanding what is not working are essential tools of such approaches. The blog post provides a useful overview of new approaches to security and justice reform and has therefore been republished here as a CSG Insight.
Peace talks between Colombia’s government and the country’s largest rebel group FARC began in November 2012 with the aim of ending a conflict that has left some 220,000 dead. Thus far, agreements have been reached on land reform, guerilla’s political participation, and the illegal drugs trade. Until now, the conflict had seen significant de-escalation since the FARC’s unilateral cease-fire declaration in December 2014 and the unprecedented joint humanitarian demining agreement of March 2015. Developments since the Cauca attack last April suggest Colombia’s peace process is facing a potentially devastating setback: the army’s offensive on 21 May killed 26 rebels, prompting the FARC’s decision to suspend its ceasefire on 23 May and President Santos’s call for accelerated talks point to a peace process on the brink of collapse.
This backgrounder explores the larger military dimension of the peace process and how it remains a major sticking point towards reaching a final and sustainable peace agreement. The first section examines the challenges of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of such decentralised guerilla organization. The second section explores the military fundamental distrust of the peace process and possible explanations for their ongoing resistance to a final agreement.
Security and insecurity in a police state: Security Sector Reform in the occupied Palestinian territories and the law of unintended consequences
As a wave of protests swept through the Arab world in 2010–11, toppling regimes that had long seemed invulnerable to such popular mobilization, the relative stability of the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt) largely escaped international attention. In a marked break with the unrest and massive sustained popular mobilizations of the past, no significant opposition emerged to challenge the status quo in the oPt, even though dissatisfaction with the status quo runs high in the territories. The author of this article argues that the reason for this historic quiescence is the conflicted version of the security-led mode of governance in the Fatah-dominated Palestinian Authority (PA) that the Oslo process has established in the oPt, backed by US and EU financial and technical assistance.
This article is the second contribution in the Center for Security Governance's new blog series that features recent research findings on security sector reform published in international relations academic journals.
This contribution summarizes research originally published here:
Mustafa, Tahani, (2015). “Damming the Palestinian Spring: Security Sector Reform and Entrenched Repression”. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17502977.2015.1020738
Following the publication in May 2015 of the "Top 10 Programming Tools for Security Sector Reform" by ISSAT, the author of this article, Dr Tony Welch (a former British Army One Star General and United Nations official) examines the proliferation and increasing complexity of programming and monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methodologies in the field of SSR. He suggests that these tools undermine the principle of local ownership in SSR, by keeping the decision-making process in external hands.
In an effort to curtail the insurgency in Afghanistan, the US military and International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) blended military and humanitarian operations, much to the dismay of many within the nongovernmental organization (NGO) community. One of the major debates surrounding this effort concerns the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) initiative, which several NGOs have faulted for causing “blurred lines” between military and aid activity. PRTs were small units that combined diplomatic, military, and development components in an effort to improve stability in Afghanistan through the enhancement of economic viability, rule of law, and public services. Because of this mixed approach, NGOs such as CARE International, MSF, Save the Children, Oxfam, and others accused the US military and ISAF of increasing risks to aid workers in the field.
Read the article here. It is based on research originally published here:
Mitchell, D.F., (2015). Blurred Lines? Provincial Reconstruction Teams and NGO Insecurity in Afghanistan, 2010–2011. Stability: International Journal of Security and Development . 4(1), p.Art. 9. DOI: http://doi.org/10.5334/sta.ev
Once again, Haiti finds itself at a crossroads. Having partly recovered from a devastating earthquake in 2010, Haiti is planning to hold multi-tiered elections this year. If a legitimate government and parliament emerge from that process, they could address some of the country’s deeper governance, economic, social and environmental challenges. The progress of police reforms is a crucial piece of the equation, given the significant reduction of the United Nations Mission for Stabilization in Haiti (MINUSTAH) already underway.
Centre for Security Governance (CSG) Senior Fellow Stephen Baranyi has co-authored a new report, with Yves Sainsiné, on the development of the National Police, public security and the rule of law in Haiti. The full report is available in French here. The English Executive Summary is available on the SSR Resource Centre Blog.
In the absence of a strong state, insurgents, traffickers or tribal warlords may provide political and socioeconomic goods through arrangements we characterize as "complementary governance". When formulating an effective response to this security challenge, policymakers and researchers must account for the complex connections and interactions between multiple non-state governing entities.
You can read the full article here.
Over the last 25 years Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration (DDR) has been utilized as a post-conflict tool in over 60 peacekeeping and peacebuilding efforts globally. Supporting efforts ranging from post Cold War statebuilding in southern Africa and Central America, to nation building across Asia, Europe and Africa, DDR remains integral in linking security and development issues in countries recovering from armed conflict. Today DDR is undergoing a significant shift. Initiatives across the Middle East, Asia and the Sahel are calling for DDR during protracted conflict. The advent of interim stabilization measures (ISMs), the inclusion of mercenary groups, and those associated with terrorism and the introduction of countering violent extremism (CVE) permeate this new DDR landscape.
Dean Piedmont, the Director for the Peacebuilding, Reintegration and Stabilization Group, has chosen a reading list that provides a sound foundation cross-referencing the fundamentals of DDR and the emerging CVE environment. As this is a ‘new frontier’ in the DDR landscape, these provide an instructive policy orientation for these interested in the dynamics of contemporary DDR.
Escalation since April in the conflict in South Sudan left little hope a settlement could be reached any time soon. Both government and opposition forces appeared dedicated to a military solution. In the past weeks however renewed hope has come from a series of engagements by 1) the South African government, 2) progress in reconciliation between the G10 group of leaders, and 3) renewed offers of conciliation by President Kiir himself. Those close to the situation however continue to see a major impasse from the various commanders of the opposition forces, who continue to reject deals on offer. This research article by Matthew Leriche examines the causes and implications of these obstacles, as well as the "new security market" in South Sudan derived from the SSR agenda.
Read the piece here.
Following the publication of his own reading list on DDR, De-radicalisation and Countering Violent Extremism, Dean Piedmont authored the third Centre for Security Governance SSR 2.0 Brief on "The Role of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration in Countering Violent Extremism". He argues that there is no policy guidance to address the DDR-CVE nexus. As this brief shows, there is a need for a new, innovative policy framework for DDR that better equips the concept to address the DDR-CVE challenge. A paradigm shift in policy is needed to reframe DDR as a conflict-prevention measure, rather than merely a post-conflict peacebuilding tool.
You can access the brief and its abstract here.
International and Intergovernmental Organizations have a shared desire to ensure peace and stability in post-conflict states. However officials in international institutions have their own agendas as to the conduct and outcomes of security sector reform (SSR). It can be argued that these rivalries and contradictory agendas can significantly impede the pursuit of effective SSR programmes. As SSR is a crucial but challenging component of peacebuilding it is essential to identify the sources of this competition, explain its impact, and suggest ways by which impediments to SSR outcomes may be mitigated.
Read the article here.
Originally published as a dissertation, this research by Valarie Findlay explores both the notion of terrorism and counterterrorism policies throughout history, asking whether the events of 9/11 were responsible for the transformation of law enforcement and a watershed of legislation in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. The author uses qualitative and quantitative data, as well as the examination of key factors that set the foundational context and measurement criteria, such as relevant aspects in the history of law enforcement, the organisational structure of law enforcement, the incidence of militarisation, the powers of law enforcement and specific legislative responses to terrorist incidents, societal conflict and societal change.
Read the article online.
The influence of research and local knowledge on British-led security sector reform policy in Sierra Leone
Research on security sector reform (SSR) has rapidly grown over the last years, and numerous academic books and articles, case studies, ‘lessons learned’, and recommendations now enrich this burgeoning literature. Nevertheless, very few studies have investigated whether and how policy practitioners have used such research to develop and implement SSR policies in fragile, conflict-affected countries.
Drawing from interviews conducted with policy advisers and researchers who worked on SSR in Sierra Leone from 1998 to 2013, the article “The influence of research and local knowledge on British-led security sector reform policy in Sierra Leone”, recently published in Conflict, Security & Development, focuses on the ways in which research has influenced and interacted with British-led SSR policy in Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone has often been considered as one of the first and successful examples of externally-led SSR. While most of the conditions that contributed to this success are unique and hardly replicable in other fragile, conflict-affected countries or in current, multilateral post-war recovery efforts, findings from the article highlight nonetheless several issues and themes pertaining to the use of research in SSR policy.
This CSG Paper analyzes the nature of civil military relations and describes how they affect civil military cooperation and civil affairs in complex humanitarian emergencies. Understanding these relationships helps professionals to improve security sectors through practice and develop more effective security sector reform programming.
Most recent CSG paper:
As part of the Centre for Security Governance Papers series, this paper examines how diverse non-state security providers – warlords, tribal leaders and local strongmen – affect the process of state formation and statebuilding in Afghanistan. Its analysis of the nature and scope of international engagement of informal security actors in northeast and southwest Afghanistan suggests that external donors have not primarily promoted liberal peace, but rather a hybrid political order.
The support of international actors has allowed non-state security actors to operate without the consent of communities, a situation in stark contrast, for instance, to Afghan tribal leadership in the past, whose authority and survival was predicated on the support of community constituencies. This practice of international state builders has thus impeded the development of a social contract and prevented non-state actors from winning the legitimacy that could potentially make their governance a viable alternative to the centralized state. Considering the adverse effects that international donor support for non-state security providers has had in Afghanistan, the paper argues that a hands-off, “do no harm” approach from international actors with regard to non-state security providers would increase stability more than its current form of engagement.
For full access to the report on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in Afghanistan, kindly follow the link.
Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in South Sudan: The Case of Western Equatoria’s Arrows Boys
The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) published of a new CSG Paper analysing the arrow boys, a militia in South Sudan’s south-western region established as a civilian protection mechanism, to understand how non-state security providers affect the process of state formation and security governance in South Sudan.
This is the second of four papers produced as part of the CSG’s project on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in Conflict-Affected States.
For full access to the paper on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in South Sudan: The Case of Western Equatoria’s Arrows Boys, kindly follow the link.
The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) published a new CSG Paper showing that non-state security providers will remain a central feature of the Somali political landscape into the foreseeable future, and the Somali state will be forced to negotiate messy and fluid partnerships with these actors.
This is the third of four papers produced as part of the CSG’s project on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in Conflict-Affected States.
For full access to the paper on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in Somalia, kindly follow the link.
Maritime security has become a key issue for policy experts, academics, researchers and various stakeholders. The concept of maritime security can best be defined as the security of sea lines of communication (SLOC), good governance at sea and serene activities for seaborne trade. This article from the Security Sector Reform Resource Centre aims at examining crucial aspects of maritime security for Pakistan in the Indian Ocean region by understanding the possible nature of challenges it faces – both internal and external. It argues that it is essential for Pakistan to develop a collective, common, cooperative and comprehensive maritime security strategy in the Indian Ocean region.
Given the current security environment in Ukraine, the need to undertake fundamental reform in management of defence resources in that sector is essential. The focus of this Centre for Security Governance paper is to provide a governance framework for such transformational reform in procurement that could be applied in Ukraine. The three core elements that comprise the foundation for this defence procurement reform are: development of a defence industry strategy, selecting a defence procurement strategy and reform of the defence industrial base. The paper argues that the Ukraine capital equipment program is central to a defence strategy articulated by the government, and reform of both the defence industrial base and capital equipment procurement process are primary enablers that will facilitate strategy execution. With the two primary priorities in the Ukraine defence sector of greater security and greater effectiveness of its state institutions, reform of the defence procurement process will contribute to strengthening capacities and effectiveness in both areas.
For full access to the Foundation for Defence Procurement Reform in Ukraine, kindly follow the link.
In spite of a broad international consensus about the desirability of security sector reform (SSR) and its model of implementation, the concept continues to suffer from a relatively poor record of implementation, particularly in challenging environments. Nevertheless, SSR continues to be seen as a lynchpin of international development assistance in fragile and conflict-affected states. It will also play a central role in the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in particular SDG 16, to “promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.”
This brief by the Centre for Security Governance argues that the inability of SSR to make a sustainable impact at both the national and community level must be addressed in order for it to contribute to the achievement of SDG 16. Too often SSR has been an externally led exercise involving like-minded political elites and failing to account for the complex interplay between actors, programs and processes at the international, national and local level. SDG 16, by contrast, emphasizes legitimate and inclusive political processes at all levels.
For full access to the brief about Security Sector Reform, Legitimate Politics and SDG 16, kindly follow the link.
This paper published by the Centre for Security Governance discusses the practice of banning or restricting foreign ownership of private security companies (PSCs). It outlines the current trends of expansion and consolidation in the global private security industry and presents a survey of foreign ownership legislation in a variety of case study countries. The research indicates that the practice is relatively common globally, but is not strictly motivated by a desire to exert greater governance over the domestic security sector. Rather, local governments responded to a range of relevant factors, including security concerns, economic and political interests, and obligations under international free trade agreements. The attitudes and assumptions of states enacting foreign ownership restrictions represent an important critical perspective on efforts to improve the governance of transnational private security provision, and should be given careful consideration by policy makers, researchers and industry representatives.
For full access to the Foreign Ownership Bans and Private Security: Protectionism or Security Sector Governance?, kindly follow the link.
This paper by the Centre for Security Governance (CSG) is part of a multi year CSG research project titled "Exploring the transition from first to second generation SSR in conflict-affected societies". The project assesses and evaluates the impact of orthodox security sector reform (SSR) programming in conflict-affected countries. Employing a common methodology, the project features original research on four case study countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. Funding for this project was provided by the Folke Bernadotte Academy.
Exploring the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina two decades after the Dayton peace agreement, the paper asses the application of orthodox norms and principles to SSR in the country and notes the effectiveness of the various efforts. It highlights the role of international actors in the SSR process, notably with regards to European Union potential membership, and points out the uneven results across the different sectors. The paper argues that the lack of local ownership is a key issue for the sustainability of the reforms, and that the competing visions of local actors are a challenge to SSR efforts.
To access the CSG Paper No. 9 Assessing the Impact of Orthodox Security Sector Reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina, kindly follow the link.
This paper by the Centre for Security Governance (CSG) is part of a multi year CSG research project titled "Exploring the transition from first to second generation SSR in conflict-affected societies". The project assesses and evaluates the impact of orthodox Security Sector Reform (SSR) programming in conflict-affected countries. Employing a common methodology, the project features original research on four case study countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. Funding for this project was provided by the Folke Bernadotte Academy.
This paper examines the SSR processes that took place from 1997 onwards in Sierra Leone. It notes the different phases of SSR in the country: the process had, initially, a narrow focus that prevented the integration of influential actors, and evolved later into an ad-hoc process until a more structured and effective approach was devised and implemented after the end of the conflict in 2002. The paper then examines the considerable challenges that have faced and keep facing the project and examines its general record. While a study of a conventional approach to SSR, early efforts to develop innovative initiatives are highlighted.
To access the CSG Paper No. 11 - Assessing the Impact of Orthodox Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone, kindly follow the link.
Injustice and (In)Security: Public perceptions of Nigeria and Kenya’s security forces and their implications for the fight against violent extremism
The authors focus on issues of public trust in security forces, corruption and the success and failure of security-led approaches vs development-oriented approaches to violence and violent extremism. For that, they use evidence from Afrobarometer surveys, analyze public perceptions of security in Nigeria and Kenya and the implications this has on countering violent extremism.
This blog article from Centre for Security Governance features forthcoming research to be published in the journal State Crime and its forthcoming special edition which will address the theme “Post-Conflict Reconstruction, the Crimes of the Powerful and Transitional Justice” (to be published in April 2017).
Poverty and socio-economic inequalities are inextricably linked with crime and conflict in Colombia. Unless they are addressed the current peace process will be unsuccessful and crime and insecurity will continue to afflict Colombia and its people, particularly the more vulnerable and marginalized.
Read the full article on Poverty, Crime and Conflict: Socio-Economic Inequalities and the Prospects for Peace in Colombia
This article analyzes the impact on democracy and governance of the protests and the state of emergency in Ethiopia declared by the government. The author argues that, although messy, and perhaps disruptive to Ethiopia’s economic progress, what is needed is genuine democratic dialogue to solve this crisis.
Read the full paper on Ethiopia: Sliding Further Away from Democracy
This new three-part blog from the Centre for Security Governance (CSG) provides a security sector perspective on the ongoing crisis in Mali and focuses on stabilization and security sector reform challenges to address in this context. The blog addresses several issues associated with the crisis putting a particular focus on the security sector inadequacies that prevailed in the country when the original crisis broke, and that continue to plague it a half-decade later.
For full access to The Malian Crisis: A Security Sector Perspective, kindly follow the link.
The power of legitimacy is increasingly invoked by scholars, practitioners, and donors as a crucial prerequisite for any international peacebuilding project. This short article disenchants the almost magical powers accorded to legitimacy via three research findings: First, it shows the causal mechanism behind legitimacy’s impact; second, legitimacy works only in certain contexts and situations; third, it is the only direct power international peacebuilding operations wield.
For full access to the blog and original research article Police reform in Kosovo and Bosnia: The power of local legitimacy unpacked, kindly follow the link.
This article delves into the ever-evolving field of gender security sector reform (GSSR), in order to uncover its shortcomings. It argues that practices within the subfield of gender sensitive police reform (GSPR) display radical alternatives to overcome SSR’s issues, specifically through its focus on ‘gender-mainstreaming’ as a transformative approach to reform.
For full access to the article Mainstreaming Gender Sensitive Police Reform, kindly follow the link.
This comparative multi-year CSG research project seeks to provide policy-oriented research and analysis to enrich and advance the emerging second generation SSR discourse. Led by CSG Executive Director Mark Sedra, the project assesses and evaluates the impact of orthodox security sector reform (SSR) programming in conflict-affected countries. Employing a common methodology, the project features original research on four case study countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. The case study countries chosen each feature two broad characteristics: they are recovering from conflict and making transitions from war to peace; and they are mature cases of SSR, in that they have been subjected to at least ten years of externally supported SSR programming of some form. It is also important to note that geographical diversity played an important role in case study selection, with four distinct regions represented— Balkans, Central America, West Africa, and Asia-Pacific
For full access to the research project Exploring the Transition from First to Second Generation SSR in Conflict-Affected Societies, kindly follow the link.
Bosnia’s security sector reform (SSR) has largely been shaped by dominant approaches to peacebuilding and statebuilding. Local and international SSR experts suggest there is a need to move away from state-centric, topdown orthodox approaches to the more flexible, bottom-up approaches of the second generation SSR model. However, second generation approaches to SSR remain nascent in Bosnia. This paper points to some possible entry points for the development of second generation SSR, such as community policing and wider civil society engagement; however, it acknowledges that empowering local actors is no simple task as there are great power imbalances and little incentive for senior officials to accept these changes in approach. In addition, the top-down nature of the peacebuilding process in Bosnia has served to disempower local actors. Ultimately, the paper suggests that a second generation approach to addressing remaining gaps in SSR in Bosnia might involve working within existing political frameworks rather than using SSR as a political tool.
For full access to the report The Gradual Emergence of Second Generation Security Sector Reform in Bosnia-Herzegovina, kindly follow the link.
First generation security sector reform (SSR) was implemented in El Salvador following the end of the civil war. Despite institutional reforms, Salvadoran SSR remains unfinished. Today, 12 years after the deployment of the new civilian police force, El Salvador is plagued by crime and violence. New strategies are necessary to increase the effectiveness of the security and justice sector to control crime and address insecurity, a primary objective of SSR. This paper argues that renewed SSR should address violence and crime through local initiatives that can then inform the national debate and policy-making process. In that perspective, it looks at two initiatives that were put in place in recent years to address crime and violence in El Salvador: the US Central America Regional Security Initiative and the gang truce. These efforts point to the need to rethink how security is delivered and how the state can tackle crime and violence. Most importantly, the case of El Salvador demonstrates that non-state criminal actors who play an important role in the control of communities cannot be left out of the picture when it comes to violence control and SSR. As such, donors and policy makers must rethink how to deal with those armed actors and adopt more flexible, less state-centric strategies that are more likely to bear results.
For full access to the report The Gradual Emergence of Second Generation Security Sector Reform in El Salvador, kindly follow the link.
Twelve years after independence, Timor-Leste currently experiences relative political stability. Even after the pull-out of UN armed personnel at the end of 2012, no serious incidents troubled the country as in 2006 during the violent clashes between members of the police and the military, or the almost deadly assaults on the Timorese President and Prime Minister in 2008. However, this stability should not be misinterpreted. Indeed the relative calm is mainly a result of Prime Minister Xanana Gusmão’s “buying peace” policy.
To access the full report Timor-Leste: The Continuing Challenge of Police Building and Security Governance, kindly click on the link.
Timor-Leste has experienced a combination of United Nations (UN), bilateral and Government of Timor-Leste (GoTL)-led Security Sector Development (SSD) efforts since its people voted for independence from Indonesia in 1999. The overcrowded SSD field with multiple agencies and contradictory influences was a further hindrance to coherent SSD. The failure of international actors to engage politically and engender state ownership of the SSD processes was a lost opportunity. As a result, many of the government’s own initiatives did not meet internationally-upheld democratic benchmarks. The compromises made continue to blight the security sector context today, however, they were, in the eyes of the government, political necessities for the survival and stability of the new state. Following the withdrawal of the last UN mission, UNMIT, in 2012, the SSD field has become less crowded. While there are fewer bilateral agencies involved, some inconsistencies and contradictions between approaches to SSD remain. The GoTL is however being more directive of international support and is demanding more collaboration, coordination and consistency from its partners. New, second generation approaches to SSD are emerging that are working more closely with government systems as well as non-state actors and informal justice systems to bring about a more gradual, but more embedded process of transition towards improved democratic accountability in Timor-Leste’s security sector.
To access the full report Assessing the Impact of Orthodox Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste, kindly click on the link.
The Centre for Security Governance has just published its latestSSR 2.0. Brief , “A Decade of Police Reform in Liberia: Perceptions, Challenges and Ways Ahead“, written by Franzisca Zanker.
Despite a decade of police reform, the effectiveness of the Liberia National Police is still limited. Corruption, perceptions of insecurity, lack of resources and overlapping institutions are major challenges that still need to be dealt with. This brief analyzes the main challenges of post-conflict police reform in Liberia and provides useful policy recommendations to improve this process. As this brief argues, a more problem-oriented, reflexive and flexible police reform process is required, including better communication and transparency.
This paper is the product of a multi-year CSG research project, titled Exploring the Transition from First to Second Generation SSR in Conflict-Affected Societies . The project assesses and evaluates the impact of orthodox security sector reform programming in the conflict-affected countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. Funding for this project was provided by the Folke Bernadotte Academy.
To access the full paper The Gradual Emergence of Second Generation Security Sector Reform in Sierra Leone, kindly click on the link.
This paper is the product of a multi-year CSG research project, titled Exploring the Transition from First to Second Generation SSR in Conflict-Affected Societies . The project assesses and evaluates the impact of orthodox security sector reform programming in the conflict-affected countries of Bosnia-Herzegovina, El Salvador, Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste. Funding for this project was provided by the Folke Bernadotte Academy.
To access the full paper The Gradual Emergence of Second Generation Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste, kindly click on the link.
In a small number of crisis-affected countries, humanitarian organizations work amid active conflict and under direct threat of violence. This insecurity, reflected in rising aid worker casualty rates, significantly constrains humanitarian operations and hinders the ability of people in emergencies to access vital aid. Extensive field- based research in Afghanistan, southern Somalia, South Sudan and Syria measured humanitarian coverage in each context to determine how this coverage is affected by insecurity.
To access the full article Out of Reach: How Insecurity Prevents Humanitarian Aid from Accessing the Neediest, kindly click on the link.
The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) hosted the third in a series of eight online seminars focusing on the theme of “Contemporary Debates on Peacebuilding and Statebuilding.” The event examined the regional refugee crisis fuelled by conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen, with a particular focus on Syrian refugees. The distinguished panellists discussed how the refugee and IDP crisis should factor into peacebuilding approaches throughout the region. Some of the key topics and questions that arose as part of the discussion included the ability of refugees to play a constructive role in peacebuilding, the potential for refugee flows to create conflict and instability in the bordering countries, the economic conditions facing refugees as well as the educational opportunities available to refugee children in neighboring countries.
To access the eSeminar n°6 - Refugees, IDPs and Peacebuilding in the Contemporary Middle East, kindly follow the link.
This paper by the Centre for Security Governance (CSG) is part of a multi year CSG research project titled "Exploring the transition from first to second generation SSR in conflict-affected societies". In 1992, the Chapultepec peace accords brought to an end El Salvador’s civil war and laid the foundation of a profound transformation of national politics. More than 20 years later, the Salvadoran peace has been maintained, but the country remains unable to address epidemic levels of crime and violence. This report assesses the impact of orthodox SSR on peace and security in El Salvador; it evaluates the extent to which the reform process respected the core principles of SSR as conceived by key stakeholders such as the OECD-DAC. SSR in El Salvador was a modest success, based on the first generation SSR model. The reform process was locally owned and changed the security sector in several ways, contributing to the sustainability of the peace process. However, it lacked a long-term and holistic vision that would have truly transformed the security sector, while cronyism and lack of transparency remain an important issue in Salvadoran politics. As a consequence, the Salvadoran security institutions remain unable to prevent and address in a sustainable manner armed crime and violence.
To access the CSG Paper n°10 - Assessing the Impact of Orthodox Security Sector Reform in El Salvador, kindly follow the link.
A New Leader in International Support to Security Sector Reform: Exploring the Experience and Potential Role of Japan
Few countries have undergone security sector reform more profoundly than Japan after World War II, yet Japan has not been a leading voice in this field, despite a foreign policy centered on human security and institution building. A new international SSR assistance platform would enable Japan to support enhanced governance, oversight, and professionalism of the security sectors of fragile states while further raising its profile in UN peacekeeping and the sustaining peace agenda.
To access the entire conference report A New Leader in International Support to Security Sector Reform: Exploring the Experience and Potential Role of Japan, kindly click on the link.