The overarching goal is contributing to peace and reconciliation in the Great Lakes area through the completion of the DDR process for the remaining Rwandan armed groups and the further reduction in size of Rwandan defence forces.
The Rwanda Peace Academy, ran a PSO/SSR/ToT Training Course from 6-17 February 2012 in Musanze, Rwanda. This course was carried out in close collaboration with DCAF’s ISSAT.
The first week of the course focused on ISSAT's Level 1 training package and included several modules covering topics such as Concepts of SSR, Gender, Mapping the security sector, Post-conflict SSR, Role of non-state actors and Coordination. The main goal of the first week was to familiarize the participants with the topic of SSR, as well as, SSR in relation to the environment of Peace Support Operations. The second week focused on training future trainers on SSR-related issues, through the use of an interactive exercise-based methodology.
It should be noted that this course is the second pilot course in the context of PSO/SSR/ToT training courses. The first pilot course took place in August 2011 at the l’Ecole de Maintien de la Paix Alioune Blondin Beye, in Mali.
The Rwandan Military and Police authorities approached the Dutch Embassy with the request to reinforce their training capability for Peace Keeping operations, both through transfer of training skills as well as through the provision of training equipment for use in the Military and Police Academies as well as materiel for the training ground of the Rwandan National Police.
The objective was to formulate a single comprehensive project proposal, which combines the various peacekeeping related requests, for funding by the Dutch Stabilisation Fund.
ISSAT provided one advisor to undertake a scoping study as part of a Dutch team to review the feasibility of the three different possible support areas:
This project built on ISSAT’s delivery of the SSR/PSO/ToT course in February 2012. UNITAR, in collaboration with the Rwanda Peace Academy, organised the implementation/delivery of a 4-5 days SSR Level 2 advanced course, as well as a 1-2 days seminar related to SSR capacity building from 8-14 October 2012 in Musanze, Rwanda. ISSAT is requested to reinforce UNITAR and the RPA in carrying out this course.
The main objectives of this training included:
The Level 2 training brought together approximately 25 participants (mid-level officers) from various African countries (mainly Eastern Africa). In addition, the background of the participants was diverse (military, police, civilians), but all had experience in the field of SSR (or a related area).
The Rwanda Peace Academy is a project of the Ministry of Defence to offer training and research programs relevant to post-conflict challenges in Africa. Drawing from the Rwandan experience, the academy aims to enhance regional capacity for conflict prevention and management, including post-conflict recovery and peacebuilding by employing international best practice.
The Examples from the Ground are concrete illustrations of ways in which a gender perspective has been integrated in different security sector institutions around the world. They range from measures to counter human trafficking in Kosovo, to women’s organisations’ involvement with security institutions in Nepal, to female parliamentarians’ contribution to post-conflict reconstruction in Rwanda. These examples can help policymakers, trainers and educators better understand and demonstrate the linkages between gender and SSR.
The examples are organised around the following nine themes, for which a short introduction is provided:
• Police Reform and Gender
• Defence Reform and Gender
• Justice Reform and Gender
• Penal Reform and Gender
• Border Management and Gender
• Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• National Security Policy-Making and Gender
• Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender
Individual examples can also be downloaded individually, in English or in French, at:http://gssrtraining.ch/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4&Itemid=131&lang=en
Case studies are provided for Kosovo, Liberia, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Hungary, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the Central African Republic, Indonesia, Peru, Somalia, Afghanistan, the Russian Federation, Tajikstan, Rwand, Brazil, Israel, Jamaica, Nepal, the United States, and the regions of West Africa and the Pacific.
Buying Time for Peace" is a documentary that will take you on a journey into the heart of the Great Lakes region to show you the unique role of an international partnership that is trying to break the conflict cycle and create the conditions for peace in central Africa. You will meet and hear from adult ex-combatants and children formerly associated with armed forces as they try to reclaim their lives after conflict. They are participating in the largest program of its kind in the world: the Multi-Country Demobilization and Reintegration Program (MDRP), a multi-agency effort funded by the World Bank and 13 donor governments, that supports the demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants in Angola, Burundi, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda. You will also meet MDRP specialists living and working in the region, such as Dinga, a former Colonel from Chad now in Burundi, Gromo in Rwanda, who has spent most of his life working on humanitarian issues in Africa and who witnessed the Rwandan genocide in 1994 first hand, and Harald, who spends much of his time in the more unstable parts of eastern Congo.
This film was directed by Philip Carr and produced by Bruno Donat.
The film is not available for embedding on our site but you can watch it on Youtube here: http://youtu.be/fsJMHBo9EPQ.
Visit a village in Rwanda and hear from landowners telling their story. This video documents how their lives have changed since they received a title to their own plot of land a few years ago.
State-building is currently considered to be an indispensable process in overcoming state fragility: a condition characterized by frequent armed conflicts as well as chronic poverty. In this process, both the capacity and the legitimacy of the state are supposed to be enhanced; such balanced development of capacity and legitimacy has also been demanded in security sector reform (SSR), which is regarded as being a crucial part of post-conflict state-building.
To enhance legitimacy, the importance of democratic governance is stressed in both state-building and SSR in post-conflict countries. In reality, however, the balanced enhancement of capacity and legitimacy has rarely been realized. In particular, legitimacy enhancement tends to stagnate in countries in which one of multiple warring parties takes a strong grip on state power. This paper tries to understand why such unbalanced development of state-building and SSR has been observed in post-conflict countries, through a case study of Rwanda. Analyses of two policy initiatives in the security sector – Gacaca transitional justice and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) – indicate that although these programs achieved goals set by the government, their contribution to the normative objectives promoted by the international community was quite debatable. It can be understood that this is because the country has subordinated SSR to its state-building process. After the military victory of the former rebels, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), the ruling elite prioritized the establishment of political stability over the introduction of international norms such as democratic governance and the rule of law. SSR was implemented only to the extent that it contributed to, and did not threaten, Rwanda’s RPF-led state-building.
This working paper suggests the best practices in reintegration program design include: planning of pilot activities for reintegration support at the start of the DDR process; investing in regular communication and outreach with ex-combatants, communities and other stakeholders; ensuring specialised services and program adaptations for vulnerable groups of ex-combatants including children, women and the disabled; and building broad-based partnerships that facilitate the evolution of reintegration activities into wider development programming.
As evidenced by the successes and challenges of reintegration programs around the world, the institutional structures and arrangements governing DDR and reintegration programs can have a significant impact on the effectiveness of these operations. Minimum institutional features of particular relevance include: strong national ownership; the separation of political oversight and technical implementation bodies; decentralized program structures; timely and regular monitoring and evaluation; rigorous financial systems and controls; and a clear exit strategy
To access the full paper, click here.
To reflect on its activities and refine programming during its final two years, the Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission and Program (RDRC/RDRP) commissioned a series of specialized studies in 2005. These studies addressed questions related to the social and environmental impact of programming, as well as to the impact of program activities on particular
sub-groups of ex-combatants. The major findings, lessons learned and recommendations of three of these studies are summarized in this note.
To access the full text, click here.
The report is intended to serve both as a general knowledge resource and as a practitioner’s guide for national bodies seeking to employ traditional justice mechanisms as well as external agencies aiming to support such processes. It suggests that in some circumstances traditional mechanisms can effectively complement conventional judicial systems and represent a real potential for promoting justice, reconciliation and a culture of democracy.
In addition, even in situations where communities are more inclined to demand straightforward retribution against the perpetrators, traditional justice mechanisms may
still offer a way both of restoring a sense of accountability and of linking justice to democratic development.
In Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice, fourteen leading researchers study seventy countries that have suffered from autocratic rule, genocide, and protracted internal conflict.
Countries emerging from armed conflict or authoritarian rule face difficult questions about what to do with public employees who perpetrated past human rights abuses and the institutional structures that allowed such abuses to happen. Justice as Prevention: Vetting Public Employees in Transitional Societiesexamines the transitional reform known as "vetting" -- the process by which abusive or corrupt employees are excluded from public office. More than a means of punishing individuals, vetting represents an important transitional justice measure aimed at reforming institutions and preventing the recurrence of abuses. The book is the culmination of a multiyear project headed by the International Center for Transitional Justice that included human rights lawyers, experts on police and judicial reform, and scholars of transitional justice and reconciliation. It features case studies of Argentina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, El Salvador, the former German Democratic Republic, Greece, Hungary, Poland, and South Africa, as well as chapters on due process, information management, and intersections between other institutional reforms.
The changing nature of conflict and the increase in intrastate conflict during the 1990s, followed by its slow decline since the turn of the century, have led to changing priorities in the field of conflict resolution. No longer is the international community solely concerned with resolving existing conflicts; it also is managing emerging conflicts to ensure that they do not flare into violent conflict.This book outlines some of the strategies parliaments and parliamentarians can adopt to reduce the incidence of conflict and effectively manage conflict when it does emerge. It is hoped that by developing a better understanding of the nexus between parliament, poverty, and conflict parliamentarians will be more aware of the array of options open to them as they seek to contribute to conflict management in conflict-affected societies.