Following the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between northern and southern Sudan, Switzerland developed a series of programmes to help reinforce the peace agreement and its implementation. Today, its programme supports the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) through providing expertise to its efforts to transform its armed forces into a professional, accountable army through building the capacity of Senior Officers. It does this through support to career development and training on such topics as International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and Law of Armed Conflicts (LOAC).
This project aims to support prisons in carrying out trainings in textile production. Its purpose was to:
The overall goal of the program is to help cover the basic needs of ex-combatants and their families after they have been discharged from the military and to reduce the time gap between demobilization and reintegration.
This mission was a feasibility study to see if/how Norway can support defence sector reform in RSS; specifically, to explore possible capacity building of RSS Ministry of Defence (MoD) through direct institutional engagement for Norway MoD.
Reform of the security sector, including the defence sector, is recognised by the Government of South Sudan and the international community as crucial for the consolidation of peace and development in the new state. Institutional development of the Ministry of Defence has been identified as a priority programme area in the conflict prevention and security sector pillar of the draft South Sudan Development Plan (2011–2013). This feasibility study will identify whether and how could Norway contribute to enabling the RSS MOD to be more effective and accountable and jointly strengthen Norway’s relationship with South Sudan.
In the framework of the Swiss SSR programme running in Juba, supporting the Government of South Sudan, Switzerland has requested ISSAT to provide ongoing support for its project staff based in Juba on strategic planning, programme design and coaching on fulfilling advisory roles.
ISSAT’s support and coaching includes periodic missions to southern Sudan, providing on the job support. In addition, continuous assistance is ensured through regular phone and virtual contact.
ISSAT provides coaches drawn from its core staff, backed-up by other members of the ISSAT team. Initial conversations with staff in Bern and Juba have outlined roles and responsibilities between ISSAT and the Swiss project team.
The SPLA aims to develop itself from a guerilla force into a professional military after over 30 years of fighting. There are a number of components to this transformation including the Doctor John Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) which aims to training senior SPLA staff as well as senior civil servants. The Swiss Government is in a multi-year ToR to assist in the strategic guidance of developing the DGMMA. This mission focused on the development of the DGMMA curriculum.
The training covered the different dimensions of security sector governance, provided an overview of the definitions, importance and implementation mechanisms of democratic control of armed forces, as well as an opportunity to map the security system in Southern Sudan. Participants will also be introduced to different codes of conduct, conventions, regulations etc governing the conduct of armed forces, as well as discussing the key concepts and challenges of human rights of armed forces and military justice. The main features of the GoSS Defence White Paper will be reviewed, and participants will have the opportunity to identify current gaps and challenges.
The Swiss are undertaking a 3 phased approach in their support to Southern Sudan. This training is a part of the first year’s activities, which involves the provision of content and knowledge transfer regarding SSR.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, requested the ISSAT to assist in the mid-term review of the Swiss programme of support the SSR process in Southern Sudan.
The goal of the project was defined as followed: the promotion and implementation of norm and democratic control of armed forces, the intermediation of the principles of the International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and the law of armed conflict and further aspects for the consolidation of reliability and rule of law of the armed forces.
The Swiss SSR-Project Southern Sudan programme was nearing the end of Phase 1 of its implementation and was in the appropriate time to review progress, so as to make recommendations on whether to move to Phase 2 or to revise implementation modalities and approaches. Another reason for the review were uncertainties on the side of SPLA. There were, in effect, four main objectives for this review:
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence requested ISSAT to assist in the redesign of their programme of support for the SSR process in Southern Sudan. This followed the agreement to implement the recommendations of the interim review of the programme undertaken earlier this year with ISSAT support.
The Swiss programme re-focused its project on two main areas of support: the provision of strategic advice on the strategy/development of the Dr Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) and the review of the curricula in relation to IHL, democratic control and civil-military relations. Support to these two areas of support were to take place in three steps, some of which depending on the circumstance on the ground could run in parallel or overlap:
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence requested ISSAT to continue its support to the redesign of their programme of support for the SSR process in Southern Sudan. This followed the agreement to implement the recommendations of the interim review of the programme undertaken in 2009 with ISSAT support.
Since the interim review in 2009, the Swiss programme refocused its project on two main areas of support:
As part of this support, a joint Swiss Armed Forces/ISSAT team travelled to Juba in late June to support the management of the Dr Garang Memorial Military Academy (DGMMA) in conducting a five day workshop to:
Switzerland requested ISSAT to provide ongoing support for its project staff based in Juba on strategic planning, programme design and coaching on fulfilling an advisory role. Support and coaching included periodic missions to southern Sudan to provide face to face support. In addition, continuous assistance was provided through regular phone and virtual contact.
To review progress made with regard to the Swiss SSR project in Southern Sudan. The Swiss project has two key goals:
ISSAT requested to be part of the review team, which also consisted of members of the Swiss Army and Security Policy. The assignment included conducting desk research and holding interviews with national and international stakeholders, including personnel in the field (Juba).
The objectives of the review were as follows:
DFID, together with the UK’s Stabilization Unit, requested ISSAT to support their review of the South Sudan Security Sector Development and Defence Transformation (SSDDT) programme and to provide guidance on future programme design.
DFID, through its SSDDT programme has been supporting peace and security efforts in South Sudan, through the development of an effective security decision making architecture, and including the transformation of the South Sudan Armed Forces.
ISSAT was requested to provide an SSR advisor to join a team from the UK’s Stabilization Unit. The team was tasked to revalidate the focus and content of the SSDDT project and the individual work streams; and to confirm the need, justification and feasibility for continued UK support in some or all of these.
Switzerland was requested by the GRSS and the SPLA to support them in finding a good way of collaboration between the new Ministry of Defence and Veteran Affairs (MoDVA) and the SPLA. This first step in the project aims to find out how to proceed with this project. DDPS intends to support the DCAF process in South Sudan for the next 18 months. To make sure that Switzerland offers valuable and pertinent support, it will conduct an assessment of the current needs.
ISSAT was requested to support the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sports in conducting a desk review of the current situation with regard to democratic control of armed forces in South Sudan, including identifying the international support being provided; and to help come up with a process to engage with the Government of the Republic of South Sudan (GRSS) on this issue with a view to developing, if appropriate, a Swiss Armed Forces programme on the democratic control of armed forces (DCAF).
The Security Sector Development and Defence Transformation Programme (SSDDTP) has been implemented by Adam Smith International (ASI) over 4 years to 31 December 2012.
The Programme's Goal is sustainable peace in Sudan (subsequentaly amended to Sudan and South Sudan following South Sudan's independence). The Purpose is the development of an effective security decision making architecture in South Sudan, complemented by the treansformation of the SPLA, underpinned by a sustainably policy, institutional and legal framework enshrining the principles of civil control, accountability and transparency.
The Programme Completion Review will assess the achievement of the outputs and the achievements of the outcome. This will include an assessment of results, value for money and an in-depth look at lessons learned.
Modérateur: Professeur Eboe Hutchful, Président du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN)
Monsieur l’Ambassadeur Antoine Ntamobwa, Directeur général des affaires nord-américaines du Ministère des Relations extérieures et de la coopération internationale, Burundi
Dr. Norman Mlambo, point focal pour la RSS, Union africaine
Brigadier Général Kellie Conteh, Conseiller de la MINUSS auprès du Ministère de la Sécurité nationale, Soudan du Sud
Modérateur: M. Gabriel Negatu, Directeur régional du Centre de ressources pour l'Afrique de l'Est, Banque africaine de développement (BAD))
Dr. Julius T. Rotich, Secrétaire Général Adjoint de la Communauté d’Afrique de l’Est (EAC) chargé de la Fédération Politique
M. David W. Njoka, Directeur des Affaires Politiques, Ministère pour la Communauté d'Afrique de l'Est, Kenya
Commandant Abebe Muluneh Beyene, Directeur du Programme du Secteur de la sécurité de l’IGAD (ISSP)
Dr. Medhane Tadesse Gebresilassie, Conseiller principal du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN) auprès de l’Union Africaine
The purpose of this paper is, however, not to add to the extensive literature speculating on various outcomes and their consequences. Serious efforts are currently
being made by the parties themselves, the African Union, other regional partners, the UN and other international stakeholders to address the immediate challenges so as to secure a peaceful transition after the expiry of the interim period. This paper, rather, focuses on the one variable that remains constant in both scenarios, which is long-term and strategic in nature: The ability of the South – where ‘everything’, in the words of its President, ‘is at zero’ – to develop and improve the lives of its ten million people.
Just ahead of the historic separation between North and South Sudan, this report highlights the environment of violence within all of Sudan that is miring the event. There are many challenges ahead for economic development, improvement of governance and security, and sustaining a peace between the North and South while also defusing their own internal conflicts. The report sets out a number of recommendations for the international community in continuing and improving upon relations with both the North and the South to ensure that the principles of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) are left to the side following cessation.
Few other countries have been through the birth pains that have been epitomized by Southern Sudan. The scars of civilian conflict and bitter internecine fighting will take a generation or more to heal, yet the results of the January 9, 2011 referendum are reflective not only of an abrogated and militarized history, but also of the determination of the peoples of Southern Sudan for the first time to be in the driving seat of their own destiny. However, the experience of other countries treading a similar path towards independence reveals that the road from war to peace and from dependence to full sovereignty is often as big a challenge as the struggle itself. This short briefing paper seeks to identify, based on international experience, the major challenges and state building priorities likely to be faced by the Government of Southern Sudan. The paper outlines core state-building priorities across the triple-transition (political, security and socio-economic) using political economy as the lens of analysis. Core challenges include securing the integrity of the new state, boundary demarcation, and a plethora of issues resulting from the division of one state into two, such as revenue sharing arrangements, national debt (USD36 billion owed to international creditors) nationality and immigration issues in both the north and south, signature to international treaties including on the Nile, simmering land conflict in the south and overly high expectations bound to be dashed given low delivery capacities. The birth of Southern Sudan comes with a clause; the umbilical cord is still attached!
The overall purpose of the High Level Panel (October 2nd-3rd 2012) was to take stock of the challenges when implementing security and justice reforms at a national level; to identify lessons that could be applied to other SSR processes in the Eastern African region; and to look at what role regional and international actors could optimally have in SSR initiatives. The High Level Panel brought together over 200 SSR policy makers and practitioners to unpack the key issues faced by both those implementing and leading SSR. Those attending the event were experts responsible for leading and implementing processes in Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan, as well as key donors, regional and multilateral organisations and representatives from the African Security Sector Network and other civil society organisations.
This report reflects the informal conclusions drawn from the selected country-case studies as well as thematic debates at the High-Level Panel.
This Working Paper describes the first year of renewed war in South Kordofan (June 2011–July 2012), focusing on the conduct and dynamics of the conflict and the primary armed actors. It also identifies shared weapons and ammunition holdings based on detailed accounts of materiel seized, as well as photographs and first-hand physical inspections.
While the war in South Kordofan is fundamentally a conflict between primarily (Northern) Sudanese actors for control of the state, it also has clear cross-border implications—as SAF’s air strikes in Unity state and the Southern fighters’ temporary seizure of the Hejlij oil fields attest. This paper reviews these border aspects of the conflict and its impacts on relations between Khartoum and Juba.
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This report is an assessment of peace, conflict and peacebuilding in South Sudan, conducted between June 2011 and March 2012. It analyses how local, national and international dynamics around independence in July 2011 and the end of the six-and-a-half-year formal Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) process with Sudan have impacted on peace and conflict in 2011–2012 and how they are likely to influence peace and development over the next decade. Utilising International Alert’s Peacebuilding Framework, it assesses the dynamics, structures and opportunities for building a positive peace under five Peace Factors: Power, Economy, Safety, Justice and Well-being. It also analyses some of the challenges and impact of peacebuilding actors, institutions and strategies over the CPA period and provides a series of recommendations on improving peacebuilding programming beyond 2012 in terms of prioritising approaches, target locations and actors/partners. It concludes that, while the enjoyment of peace is highly variable across South Sudan, the nation as a whole and few if any of its constituent peoples or counties have yet experienced a positive, sustainable peace. Conflictual and rapidly worsening relations with Sudan as well as uncertainty about the length of suspension of oil exports (and thus revenues) appear likely to aggravate longstanding deficits in governance, security, economic opportunity, justice and reconciliation. This in turn increases the risk that South Sudan will become more violent in 2012 and beyond. Follow this link to view the publication.
This paper cautions that unless there is an opening of political space and a participatory transition, the soon to be independent government risks recreating the kind of centralised, authoritarian and ultimately unstable state it finally managed to escape. The ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) cobbled together an important, though tentative, Southern consensus ahead of the January 2011 referendum. But its choke-hold on power and a “winner-takes-all” approach to the transition have since jeopardised those gains. Meanwhile, armed insurgencies, militia activity and army defections highlight internal fault lines and latent grievances within the security sector.
This document shares some of the challenges and learning experienced on a recent ISSAT mission to South Sudan.
A Brenthurst discussion paper (2012/01) tackling the case of South Sudan six months on from achieving statehood. South Sudan is facing serious challenges: economic warfare with Sudan, the emergence of Cashmir-like scenarios on their border and renewed internecine conflicts within its own territory. None of these threats were unforeseen by the African Union or the wider international community in the months and years leading up to independence. In some respects, how the new state of South Sudan would address these issues could either soften the firm stance against changing Africa's borders or cement international opinion against any further 'balkanisation' of Africa.
This Discussion Paper considers whether South Sudan's secession has made independence more likely for other would-be states in Africa, from Somaliland to Cabinda. Based on extensive discussions between senior policy makers and academics at a high-level workshop convened by the Brenthurst Foundation in collaboration with the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung in September 2011, as well as additional research, the Paper argues that Africa's borders are likely to remain stubbornly resistant to change despite Sudan's historic split - and this stance has likely only been reinforced by South Sudan's troubled start. Although the South Sudan case is likely to remain an exception rather than a precedent, the Arab Spring is a salutary reminder, if any was needed, that events have a way of building on themselves. For all the powerful constraints on secession highlighted in this Paper, the much-feared balkanisation of Africa must never be dismissed as fanciful.
The idea of self-determination is not on the wane in Africa - South Sudan's long struggle will surely embolden existing secessionist groups and may inspire new movements - but the obstacles to independent statehood appear as formidable as ever.
Between October 2nd and 3rd 2012, DCAF’s ISSAT organised a High Level Panel (HLP) on the Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform1 (SSR) in East Africa, in partnership with the United Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON), the Governments of Burundi, Kenya, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Somalia and South Sudan, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the African Security Sector Network (ASSN). It was attended by over two hundred SSR policy makers and practitioners.
This report seeks to take those discussions further, including more of the points raised by participants during the HLP, and adding in lessons from experience gathered from individual missions and related trainings. Three case studies featured in the HLP (Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan) and as such provide many of the examples, although the report also draws from examples beyond East Africa. An introductory section on SSR in each of these countries is provided in section one and full case studies are included in the annex.
It is hoped that this report, which keeps to the same thematic areas as those covered in the HLP, will offer information on contemporary thinking in security and justice reform, as well as provide some recommendations and examples of good practice to those interested in or engaged in SSR.
Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes.
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