Switzerland requested that ISSAT provides support to the 3C Conference that took place in Geneva on 29-30 March 2009. The Conference discusses 3C (coherent, coordinated, complementary) as a strategic approach to enhance the impact of external assistance in situations of conflict and fragility - in terms of sustainable peace, stability, state-building and long-term development. 3C is understood as the common denominator of Whole-of-Government and Whole-of-System Approaches.
The conference brought together around 150-200 participants, including the Swiss Minister of Foreign Affairs, selected other ministers, senior level staff and heads of departments from OECD countries, representatives of selected international organizations and partner countries.
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted a course on Whole-of-Government Security Sector Reform (SSR) Workshop from the 6 – 8 October 2009. The training course was carried out in partnership with ISSAT.
The course aims to develop capacity, knowledge and coherence in SSR, and to help participants to better understand the concept and evolution of SSR, including actors, concepts and principles, as well as develop the basic skills required to facilitate a “whole-of- government approach” to SSR
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the Seminar included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Development Agencies).
Some spaces on the course are available for other ISSAT members who may wish to send personnel.
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted an Introductory Security Sector Reform (SSR) Training Course on the 7th till the 9th of June, and an SSR Train-the-Trainers course on the 9th till the 11th of June. The courses were carried out in partnership with the ISSAT.
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the courses will include participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies). Some spaces on the courses were made available for other ISSAT governing board members to send personnel.
The Level 1 introductory SSR Training Course is aimed at individuals who have recently taken on an SSR portfolio or who plan to work on SSR in the field or at Headquarters. Its main objective is to offer an overview of the key SSR policies, principles and actors.
The Train-the-Trainers SSR Workshop is aimed at individuals with a background as trainers and/or in SSR-related issues. Its main objective is to build individuals’ capacity to design and deliver high quality SSR training programmes and to foster awareness of different SSR-friendly training techniques.
The Level One SSR training was a two-and-a-half day course, aimed at practitioners engaged in SSR activities. Its main objective is to offer an overview of the key SSR policies, principles and actors. The course also dealt with the highly political nature of SSR, highlighted some of its key challenges on the ground and propose some solutions. Key topics covered include: introduction to SSR policies, principles and actors; SSR in different contexts; who’s who in the security sector; oversight and accountability; coordinating SSR programmes etc.
The training took place in STANS, Switzerland, in partnership with ISSAT. It targeted a broad, "Whole of Government" participation, the courses included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies), particularly middle management or desk-officer level with responsibilities on SSR issues.
As a follow-on from the recommendation of the UNSG’s report for the development of rosters of experts, the UN Inter-Agency SSR Task Force has initiated the development of a UN Roster of SSR Experts.
The SSR Unit, on behalf of the UN Inter-Agency SSR Task Force, has requested DCAF/ISSAT to support them in facilitating part of a 2-day Induction Workshop of the UN Roster of SSR Experts.
The participants were SSR consultants, widely acknowledged as leaders in this field, have solid SSR experience and are available for deployment into UN areas of operation.
Despite considerable progress on the concept of SSR in recent years, a considerable gap remains in terms of practical knowledge and expertise with regards to the subject. In response to this gap and in order to increase the operational effectiveness of SSR practitioners, the Swiss Inter-Departmental Working Group on SSR ran the first pilot “Level 2 Advanced Training on Security Sector Reform (SSR)” from November 1st till November 5th 2010 in Stans-Oberdorf, Switzerland.
Switzerland has committed itself to strengthening its engagement in the field of Security Sector Reform (SSR). In order to increase its involvement in SSR activities, the Swiss Government had to ensure that its personnel have a common and coherent understanding of and approach to SSR, as well as identify what SSR-related activities were being undertaken at the time. ISSAT was requested to provide the technical capacity/knowledge and human resources to undertake the mapping.
ISSAT was mandated to map existing SSR and SSR-related Projects and Programmes within the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DFAE), including the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and Political Division IV (PD IV Human Security), and the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS).
The purpose of mapping SSR/SSR-related projects and programmes within the Partners was to identify ways in which Switzerland supported SSR and provide recommendations on how to enhance this support. The mapping was to:
The Swiss Department of Defence hosted an SSR Train-the-Trainers course from 23-25 November 2011. The course was carried out in partnership with the ISSAT.
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the course included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Development Agencies). Some spaces on the courses were available for other ISSAT governing board members who wished to send personnel.
The 2½ days programme aimed at individuals with a background as trainers and/or in SSR-related issues. Its main objective was to build individuals’ capacity to design and deliver high quality SSR training programmes and to foster awareness of different SSR-friendly training techniques. Participants were given the opportunity, through hands-on activities, to develop their skills as SSR trainers. Topics that were dealt with were: the specificities of SSR training; planning and designing an SSR course; methodologies used in SSR training; preparing and delivering a session in an SSR course, etc.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport requested ISSAT support for new SSR modules as part of the Swiss UN Military Observer Course (SUNMOC). ISSAT was invited to support this workshop. The objectives of this workshop were to:
The target audience was a multinational group of military officers who were candidates for UN monitoring missions. Rank range was from lieutenant to lieutenant colonel. Countries participating include: Egypt, Bulgaria; Germany; Finland; France; Pakistan; Netherlands; Kyrgystan and Switzerland.
Switzerland has committed itself to strengthening its engagement in the field of Security Sector Reform (SSR). In order to increase its involvement in SSR activities, the Swiss Government must both ensure that its personnel have a common and coherent understanding of and approach to SSR, as well as identifying fully what SSR-related activities are currently being undertaken by the Swiss Government.
ISSAT was requested to provide the technical capacity/knowledge and human resources to undertake the mapping.
ISSAT is mandated to map existing SSR and SSR-related Projects and Programmes within the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (DFAE), including the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and Political Division IV (PD IV Human Security), and the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS).
The purpose of mapping SSR/SSR-related projects and programmes within the Partners is to identify ways in which Switzerland supports SSR and provide recommendations on how to enhance this support. The mapping will:
The Swiss Armed Forces International Command SWISSINT will conduct an Introduction Course for Peace Support Operations (ICPSO). The entire course will last for 3 weeks (16 April – 4 May 2012), including three separate modules: 1) Interacting Operational Environment (IOE), 2) Peace Support Operations (PSO), and 3) Basic Security Training (BST).
During the second module on PSO, a two-day training will be delivered on PSO & SSR organised by the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport in collaboration with the International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).
The course will bring together approximately 24 participants who wish to develop key skills and competencies for future field deployment in Peace Support Operations. The target audience will include military personnel from various countries (e.g. Switzerland, Thailand, China, Jordan, Algeria, Serbia and Kazakhstan).
The main objectives of the course include:
The workshop will take place in Stans, Switzerland, at SWISSINT. The ICPSO training will take place in the context of the Partnership for Peace programme (PfP).
The main topics to be delivered in the PSO/SSR part of the programme include: Introduction to SSR, SSR in post-conflict contexts, DDR & SSR, PSO, SSR & stabilisation and Governance & SSR. On the second day there will be a simulation exercise on South Sudan. The simulation exercise will be co-facilitated with the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport has organised an SSR workshop as part of the Swiss UN Military Observer Course (SUNMOC). ISSAT has been invited to support this workshop for one day.
The target audience was a multinational group of military officers who are candidates for UN monitoring missions. Rank range was from lieutenant to lieutenant colonel. Participant group was between 25-30 people.
The main objectives of this workshop included:
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport has requested ISSAT’s support to carry out an introductory training on peace support operations and SSR for the Peace Support Operations Training Centre (PSOTC) in Bosnia Herzegovina. This training is part of the Swiss Government’s 3-year progressive strategy to build PSOTC capacity to conduct SSR trainings. PSOTC trainers will be involved in designing and delivering the training in collaboration with ISSAT’s training team. It is hoped that PSOTC staff will be able to take over and conduct the SSR training at the end of the 3 year strategy. The training will bring together approximately 20 senior level participants essentially from the BiH armed forces, Ministry of foreign affairs and the Ministry of Security as well as civil society representatives including the Centre for Security Studies. Some participants from regional countries are also expected to attend the training.
The course aims to build both SSR knowledge and skills within the framework of Peace Support Operations. Through an interactive and practical training approach, this course will help participants to:
The Swiss Armed Forces International Command SWISSINT conducts an Introduction Course for Peace Support Operations (ICPSO). The entire course will last for 3 weeks (October/November 2012), including three separate modules: 1) Interacting Operational Environment (IOE), 2) Peace Support Operations (PSO), and 3) Basic Security Training (BST).
During the second module on PSO, a two-day training (25 & 26 October 2012) was delivered on PSO & SSR organised by the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport who asked for support from ISSAT.
The main topics to be delivered in the PSO/SSR part of the programme included: Introduction to SSR, SSR in post-conflict contexts, DDR & SSR, PSO, SSR & stabilisation and Governance & SSR. On the second day there will be a simulation exercise on South Sudan. The simulation exercise was co-facilitated with the Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport.
The Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, in cooperation with the Austrian Ministry of Defence, was organised an advanced training course on “Security Sector Reform (SSR)”, in Stans from 17-21 October 2011. The course was carried out in partnership with DCAF/ISSAT.
The main objective of this training was to provide participants with opportunities to learn about the key processes in SSR through a series of hands-on exercises in which they were exposed to many of the tools and techniques that SSR practitioners use on the ground. The course focused both on technical and political aspects of SSR and aimed at broadening both knowledge and skills.
The five-day training brought together approximately 25 participants from the Swiss government, as well as representatives from donor and recipient countries. The course included several modules covering topics such as 1. Concepts of SSR, 2. Context of SSR (e.g. local ownership, accountability & effectiveness, governance of the security sector), 3. Components of the security sector (e.g. Police reforms, rule of law, defence reforms), 4. SSR processes (e.g. assessments, evaluation), 5. Cross-cutting issues (e.g. gender, cultural awareness, civil society & non-state actors), and 6. Soft skills and tools (e.g. negotiation, coordination, stakeholder analysis).
Switzerland requested ISSAT support to the 3C Conference that took place in Geneva on 29-30 March 2009.
The Conference discussed 3C (coherent, coordinated, complementary) as a strategic approach to enhance the impact of external assistance in situations of conflict and fragility - in terms of sustainable peace, stability, state-building and long-term development. 3C is understood as the common denominator of the Whole of Government and Whole of System approaches.
The conference brought together around 150-200 participants, including the Swiss Minister of Foreign Affairs, selected other ministers, senior level staff and heads of departments from OECD countries, representatives of selected international organizations and partner countries.
DCAF is an international foundation under Swiss law, based in Geneva, Switzerland. DCAF is the world’s leading institution in the area of security sector reform (SSR) and security sector governance (SSG). DCAF’s core area of activities are 1) advisory field support, 2) policy-relevant research, 3) promotion of emerging norms and standards, and 4) advocacy and training in the areas of SSR/SSG.
The International Council on Human Rights Policy provides a forum for applied research, reflection and forward thinking, grappling with the challenge of translating universal human rights principles into policy realities. The ICHRP identifies issues that impede the promotion and protection of human rights across the globe, and proposes approaches and strategies that will advance that purpose, rather than focus on highlighting specific human rights violations by individual States or actors.
The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) is Switzerland’s international cooperation agency within the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA). In operating with other federal offices concerned, SDC is responsible for the overall coordination of development activities and cooperation with Eastern Europe, as well as for the humanitarian aid delivered by the Swiss Confederation.
The DDPS is structured into five sectors: Defence, Civil Protection, Sports, armasuisse and the Federal Intelligence Service. The departmental sectors are directly accountable to the Head of Department.
The Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (FDFA) formulates and coordinates Swiss foreign policy on the instructions of the Federal Council. A coherent foreign policy is a precondition for the effective protection of Swiss interests vis-à-vis foreign countries.
The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) works for the elimination of anti-personnel mines, cluster munitions and explosive remnants of war. The Centre contributes to the social and economic well-being of people and communities in affected countries. The Centre supports the national mine action programmes, while cooperating with other relevant organisations, and follows the humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence.
The GICHD provides advice and capacity building support, undertakes applied research, disseminates knowledge and best practices, and develops standards. The Centre aims to enhance performance and professionalism in mine action, and supports the implementation of the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention, the Convention on Cluster Munitions and other relevant instruments of international law.
The GICHD is an international expert organisation, registered as a not-for-profit foundation in Switzerland.
Most armed conflicts today take place within States and are waged by at least one NSA fighting State forces and/or other NSAs. This means that efforts to protect civilians in situations of armed conflict must address not only the behaviour of States, but also that of NSAs. From the legal perspective, however, international law remains primarily State-centric.
IHL and IHRL are the main bodies of international law providing for the protection of civilians in situations of armed conflict. IHL equally binds both State and non-State parties to a conflict, which is considered a significant development in that it addresses NSAs directly. IHRL has traditionally only created obligations on States, although there is currently a movement towards making IHRL standards applicable to NSAs.
Yet, while NSAs play an increased role in contemporary warfare and are responsible for many abuses, the State-centric nature of international law still poses challenges for addressing the behaviour of NSAs. First, the mechanisms to enforce both IHL and IHRL remain mostly focused on States. Second, NSAs cannot negotiate or become parties to international treaties, and there is no consensus on whether they can contribute to the formation of international customary law. Therefore there is little opportunity for NSAs to express their adherence to IHL and IHRL norms. NSAs may not feel bound by rules they have not been involved in making, nor are allowed to sign on to.
Geneva Call was launched in March 2000 as a neutral and impartial humanitarian organization dedicated to engaging NSAs towards compliance with IHL and IHRL norms, consistent with common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions . The organization focuses on NSAs involved in situations of armed conflict that operate outside effective State control and are primarily motivated by political goals. These include armed movements, de facto authorities, and non-internationally recognized States.
Geneva Call engages NSAs in a constructive dialogue aimed at persuading them to change their behaviour and respect specific humanitarian norms, starting with a total ban on anti-personnel (AP) mines. The organisation originated in 2000 from the International Campaign to Ban Landmines following the international community’s realisation that the landmine problem would not be effectively addressed unless NSAs were included in the solution. The Deed of Commitment for Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines and for Cooperation in Mine Action is an internationally recognized mechanism through which 41 NSAs have already adhered to a total ban on the use of AP mines and to cooperate in humanitarian mine action activities. Geneva Call plays an important role in monitoring and supporting the implementation of these commitments. The organization is now expanding its advocacy work with NSAs to the protection of women and children in situations of armed conflict.
As a pioneer and leader in the humanitarian engagement of NSAs, Geneva Call has won increasing international recognition and support for its efforts and achievements, notably from States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction , the United Nations, the European Union, and the African Union.
The Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) is an international foundation established in 1995 with over 40 member states for the primary purpose of promoting the building and maintenance of peace, security and stability through training, research and dialogue. Committed to the highest professional standards, the GCSP trains government officials, diplomats, military officers, international civil servants and NGO staff in pertinent fields of international peace and security. Through research and publications, workshops and conferences, the GCSP also provides an internationally recognised forum for dialogue on key security and peace policy issues in the interest of effective security policy decision-making. Some of the latter activities aim to facilitate discreet dialogue in post-conflict situations.
swisspeace is a practice-oriented peace research institute. It carries out research on violent conflicts and their peaceful transformation. The Foundation aims to build up Swiss and international organizations' civilian peacebuilding capacities by providing trainings, space for networking and exchange of experiences. It also shapes political and academic discourses on peace policy issues at the national and international level through publications, workshops and conferences. swisspeace therefore promotes knowledge transfer between researchers and practitioners.
swisspeace was founded in 1988 as the Swiss Peace Foundation in order to promote independent peace research in Switzerland. Today the Foundation employs more than 40 staff members. Its most important donors are the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, the Swiss National Science Foundation and the United Nations.
swisspeace is an associate institute of the University of Basel.
The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies is a leading institution of research and higher education dedicated to the study of world affairs, with a particular emphasis on the cross-cutting fields of international relations and development issues.
Through our core activities, we aim to promote international cooperation and make a contribution to the progress of developing societies. More broadly, we endeavour to develop creative thinking on the major challenges of our time, foster global responsibility and advance respect for diversity.
We are a cosmopolitan community located in the heart of Geneva, an international city and a centre of global governance. By intensely engaging with international organisations, NGO’s, governments and multinational companies, we participate in global discussions and prepare future policy-makers to lead tomorrow’s world.
The CCDP is the Graduate Institute’s focal point for research in the areas of conflict analysis, humanitarianism, peacebuilding, and the complex relationships between security and development. Its research projects focus on the factors and actors that are implicated in the production and reproduction of violence within and between societies and states, as well as on policies and practices to reduce violence and insecurity and enhance development and peacebuilding initiatives at the international, state, and local levels.
The overarching research concerns of the CCDP are reflected in four main research streams:
These streams are inherently interconnected, and specific research projects are consciously framed in such as a way as to maximise disciplinary and methodological collaboration across them.
Founded in 2008, the Geneva Peacebuilding Platform is an action-oriented forum where stakeholders can build upon the contributions of Geneva to peacebuilding worldwide. It is led and operated by its stakeholders through an Advisory Board, serving the needs they determine, and working to showcase their policy, research, problems and successes in peacebuilding activities. The Platform facilitates cooperation and dialogue among peacebuilding actors in Geneva through a number of structured activities as well as informal discussions and debates.
The Platform works to consolidate the critical mass of peacebuilding actors, resources and expertise in Geneva. In particular, it plays a creative role in facilitating interaction with the Peacebuilding Commission, to which International Geneva can add much expertise, field experience, and a vibrant network of civil society organisations. Geneva is also an ideal location to strengthen stakeholder relations. The Platform thus acts as a Knowledge Platform, an Interface, and a Neutral Forum for Dialogue.
The Platform is a partnership between the Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding (CCDP) at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP), Interpeace and the Quaker United Nations Office (QUNO).
The International Security Sector Advisory Team (ISSAT) provides practical support to the international community in its efforts to improve security and justice, primarily in conflict-affected and fragile states. It does this by working with a group of member states and institutions to develop and promote good security and justice reform practices and principles, and by helping its members to build their capacity to support national and regional security and justice reform processes.
|Cours avancé RSS||17 octobre - 21 octobre 2011||English|
|Cours avancé RSS||26 novembre - 30 novembre 2012||English|
This report explores the role of private actors in preventive diplomacy. The report is structured along five main themes: (1) The comparative advantage of private actors vis-à-vis large institutions; (2) entry points, access, leverage, and resources available to private actors for preventive diplomacy; (3) challenges faced by private actors; (4) concrete experiences of private actors, especially with regard to assistance and design of political processes; and (5) strategic coordination and partnerships between private actors, the United Nations, and regional organizations.
The report finds that:
The report concludes by highlighting the underlying challenge for preventive diplomacy of finding the right balance between international demands for stabilization and local demands for political space to drive transformative change.
Conflict prevention is experiencing renewed momentum within and outside the United Nations system. This momentum is built on growing understanding that timely investments towards tensions and stress factors yield significant results in political, economic and social terms. To fully unlock the potential of preventive action to consolidate peace and end violence, there needs to be better communication across sectors and institutions: on how conflict prevention practice has evolved over the last decade, and on the changing nature of conflict itself. What is more, there is a need for a more pronounced effort to distil the concrete evidence about when and how conflict prevention works. The paper locates conflict prevention within the emerging practise of strengthening resilient national systems, and explores operational issues about how to better assist such conflict prevention. The paper also reviews various conflict prevention approaches that have emerged from the fields of armed violence reduction, mediation, or the private sector.
Like other donors, SDC has dealt with rule of law issues for years. In several countries, SDC supports judicial reform and the improvement of the legal framework for economic and social development. This concept paper aims to provide information and guidance to SDC’s staff and partners at headquarters and in partner countries. The concept paper begins by identifying the essential elements of the rule of law. Although there is no internationally accepted definition of the rule of law, key elements generally include: non-discrimination and equality before the law, the hierarchy of norms, and the substantive coherence of the legal framework, the government is bound by law, the separation of powers, the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, and respect for human rights.
The rule of law is interlinked with other concepts used in international cooperation: the rule of law is a means to realize human rights and gender equality, a key element for good governance, decentralization, poverty reduction, economic development, and peace building. Depending on these different perspectives, the concept is multicoloured, and it results in different and sometimes even conflicting approaches to and priorities for legal and judicial reforms. SDC will use the rule of law concept as a means to realize human rights, and implement its principles with flexibility, taking into account the relevant context, and potential entry points for cooperation.
Part two of this concept paper looks at the growing trend to include the rule of law dimension in legal and judicial reform projects. The performance of judicial institutions depends not just on operational efficiency, but also on their accessibility to vulnerable groups and effectiveness in realizing human rights. Justice sector reforms are increasingly seen from a systemic perspective, as a series of interconnected institutions and procedures to be analysed and improved. Moreover, legal and judicial systems are not restricted to formal, “modern” laws and institutions: they include informal and traditional law and procedures.
Part three provides illustrative examples of SDC’s engagement and experience involving the rule of law dimension both in legal and judicial reform and in other areas of development cooperation. The examples show that the legal dimension of development can be addressed in a variety of contexts and manners with different partners and entry points.
There have been considerable developments in security-policy thinking since the end of the Cold War, and a complex set of transnational threatsand challenges necessitates new security policies and strategies. Not only the attacks of 11 September 2001, but also the dark side of globalisation such as climate change, the global spread of dangerous technologies and international organised crime have changed the security perspective and policy procedures in recent years. Consequently, new
national-security strategies, white papers and security-policy documents have been drafted in order to take into account the changing security landscape.
On 6 April 2009, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) welcomed a group of leading security experts for a seminar entitled “Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives”. The goal of the seminar was to provide a forum for experts from different European states, major international powers and regional and international organisations to take stock of current security polices in the European region and beyond. The participants had an opportunity to assess the direction of security-policy thinking by analysing a number of key security-policy documents such as national-security strategies, defence concepts and white papers, among others. Assumptions regarding future threats were considered, as were a variety of drafting processes and methodologies.
More than 30 participants attended the seminar, including representatives of the Defence Ministries of Finland, Germany and Sweden, as well as representatives of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In addition to faculty members from the GCSP, regional and international experts from a range of academic and policy institutions participated, including speakers from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the International Affairs Institute (Rome), the Institute for International Strategic Studies (Beijing), the Royal Institute of International Relations (Brussels) and the Foundation for Strategic Studies (Paris).
Democracy is unlikely to develop or to endure unless military and other security forces are controlled by democratic institutions and necessary safeguards, checks and balances are in place. The result of a 2-year research project managed under the auspices of the European Group on Armed Forces and Society (ERGOMAS) and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), this comparative study examines how contemporary European states, both mature Western democracies and emerging democracies of post-communist Europe, manage the issue of how best to control the very institution that has been established for their protection and wields the monopoly of legitimate force. This volume contains 28 case studies from 14 countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Georgia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, and the Ukraine. The studies cover a variety of situation from corruption to military incompetence, disobediencetowards civilian superiors, lack of expertise among civilians, to unauthorized strikes and accidents. They focus on the relationship between political, civilian and military actors while identifying problems and dangers that can emerge in those relations to the detriment of effective and legitimate democratic control. This book will be of much interest to students of Civil-Military Relations, military sociology, IR and strategic studies.
This report is an independent evaluation of SDC‘s work in fragile and conflict affected states. The evaluation considers in particular the performance of instruments; analysis, flexibility and adaptability; complementary of SDC and Swiss instruments and SDC‘s role in the wider system. It does not directly address the performance of non-SDC elements of the Swiss government engagement in fragile states, but does look at how well SDC works with these other entities. The scope is multi-sector, addressing all of the instruments being used by SDC.