Megan Bastick

Megan Bastick

Megan Bastick is Gender & Security Fellow with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF).

Megan has been with DCAF since 2005, working on violence against women, sexual violence in armed conflict, and gender and security sector reform. She co-steered the development of DCAF's Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit and Gender and Security Sector Reform Training Resource Package , and developed the Gender Self Assessment Guide for the Police, Armed Forces and Justice Sector .

Megan joined DCAF after working in Geneva with the Quaker United Nations Office’s Human Rights and Refugees Programme, and with a humanitarian aid and development organisation. Previously, Megan worked in Australia as a lawyer, and as an International Humanitarian Law Officer with the Australian Red Cross.

Megan has published on issues including women and war, international humanitarian law, human trafficking, gender justice, penal reform and security sector reform.

Megan holds a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws from the University of New South Wales, and a Masters in International Law from the University of Cambridge.

Tools

A Women’s Guide to Security Sector Reform

A Women’s Guide to Security Sector Reform seeks to encourage and empower women to take part in shaping and transforming the security sector in their communities and countries.

The Women’s Guide provides both information on the security sector and tools for action. It draws on the rich and varied experiences of women in civil society from across the world and shares examples of practical, and sometimes innovative, ways to influence reform from the grassroots.

The Women’s Guide to Security Sector Reform includes three sections:

  • Section 1:Understanding Security

Introduces key concepts in security, explaining SSR, and discusses why women’s contributions in civil society are vital to transforming the security sector.

  • Section 2:Get Involved

Outlines concrete ways in which women’s organisations can engage and influence reform: how to research security issues, form coalitions, plan strategically, develop recommendations, advocate and engage directly.

  • Section 3:Tools for Action

Presents an array of practical activities and tools for women’s organisations to take action, including activities to identify local security needs, sample letters to security officials, talking points for meetings with policymakers and media and definitions of security jargon.

Tool

Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit - Annex

Security sector reform (SSR) is increasingly prioritised by governments, and on the agenda of international development, peace and security communities. SSR opens a window of possibility to transform security policies, institutions and programmes, creating opportunities to integrate gender issues

Despite this recognition of the importance of integrating gender issues in SSR, there has been a lack of resources on the topic. This Toolkit  is an initial response to the need for information and analysis on gender and SSR. It is designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with a practical introduction to why gender issues are important in SSR and what can be done to integrate them.

The Toolkit Annex is a compilation of key laws and instruments relevant to gender and SSR, referencing specific articles that relate to particular security sector institutions.Section 1 includes more general standards relating to SSR and gender, as well as a section on norms guiding security sector reform and a compilation of international and regional instruments. Each subsequent chapter refers to a particular area of SSR covered in the Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit .

For translations in French, Arabic, Montenegrin, Russian, and Indonesian, click here.

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

Tool

Gender and SSR Toolkit - User Guide

The Gender and SSR toolkit is an initial response to the need for information and analysis on gender and SSR. It is designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with a practical introduction to why gender issues are important in SSR and what can be done to integrate them.

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

The Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit includes:

- This user guide- 13 Tools (20 pages)
- 13 Practice Notes (4 pages, based on the Tools)
- Annex on International and Regional Laws and Instruments related to SSR andGender

The topics of the Tools and corresponding Practice Notes are:

1. Security Sector Reform and Gender
2. Police Reform and Gender
3. Defence Reform and Gender
4. Justice Reform and Gender
5. Penal Reform and Gender
6. Border Management and Gender
7. Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
8. National Security Policy-Making and Gender
9. Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
10. Private Military and Security Companies and Gender
11. SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender
12. Gender Training for Security Sector Personnel
13. Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform

Tool

Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform (Tool 13)

Reflecting the text of the resolutions, the Tool focuses on reforms in the defence forces, police and the justice sector. Issues examined include: DDR, vetting, specialised services for victims of sexual violence, prosecution of violence against women in armed conflict, measures to increase women’s leadership in police and defence organisations and to promote deployment of women in peacekeeping, peacekeepers’ training , operational strategies to prevent sexual violence, and gender justice. The Tool will also examine progress made in promoting the participation of women in security decision-making, and in integrating Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889 in national security policy-making, including through national action plans.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acronyms

1. Introduction

2. What is security sector reform?
2.1 Security sector reform
2.2 Why women and girls?

3. What are the women, peace and security resolutions?
3.1 Overview
3.2 What do the women, peace and security resolutions mean for UN Member States?

4. How can the women, peace and security resolutions be implemented in security sector reform?
4.1 In national and regional security policies and Action Plans
4.2 Through women’s participation in SSR processes
4.3 In defence reform
4.4 In police reform
4.5 In transitional justice and justice reform
4.6 In preparation for the deployment of personnel to peacekeeping missions
4.7 By Countries involved in armed conflict

5. Key recommendations

6. Additional resources

Tool

Security Sector Reform and Gender (Tool 1)

The tool includes:

- An introduction to SSR and gender 
- The rationale for why integrating gender issues strengthens SSR processes
- Practical ways of integrating gender into SSR policy and programme cycles
- An overview of specific gender and SSR issues in post-conflict, transitional, developing and developed country contexts.

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

Tool

Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform (Tool 13)

This tool is intended for use by policymakers, NGOs and international actors supporting SSR and/or the design and implementation of SCR 1325 National Action Plans. The focus of the Tool is national-level implementation of the standards set by the four United Nations Security Council Resolutions on women, peace and security (SCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889) in security sector institutions.

Reflecting the text of the resolutions, the Tool focuses on reforms in the defence forces, police and the justice sector. Issues examined include: DDR, vetting, specialised services for victims of sexual violence, prosecution of violence against women in armed conflict, measures to increase women’s leadership in police and defence organisations and to promote deployment of women in peacekeeping, peacekeepers’ training , operational strategies to prevent sexual violence, and gender justice. The Tool will also examine progress made in promoting the participation of women in security decision-making, and in integrating Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889 in national security policy-making, including through national action plans.

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

Tool

Gender & Security Sector Reform Toolkit

Security sector reform (SSR) is increasingly prioritised by governments, and on the agenda of international development, peace and security communities. SSR opens a window of possibility to transform security policies, institutions and programmes, creating opportunities to integrate gender issues.

The integration of gender issues is being recognised as a key to operational effectiveness, local ownership and strengthened oversight. For example, increasing the recruitment of female staff, preventing human rights violations, and collaborating with women'€s organisations contribute to creating an efficient, accountable and participatory security sector, which responds to the specific needs of men, women, girls and boys.

Despite this recognition of the importance of integrating gender issues in SSR, there has been a lack of resources on the topic. This Toolkit is an initial response to the need for information and analysis on gender and SSR. It is designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with a practical introduction to why gender issues are important in SSR and what can be done to integrate them.

Each SSR context is unique. As such, the strategies and recommendations provided in the Toolkit may not always be directly applicable, and should always be adapted to the local context.

For more information on the Gender & Security Sector Reform Toolkit, please follow the link provided.

Tool

Policy and Research Papers

Security Sector Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings

In recent years trafficking in human beings has become an issue of increasingconcern to European states. Trafficking in human beings is understood as ahuman rights issue, a violation of labour and migration laws, and as underminingnational and international security through its links to organised crime andcorruption.

United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Council of Europe and theOrganisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, amongst others, makeimportant contributions to coordinating the fight against human trafficking.However, there remain significant deficits in concrete information sharing andcooperation between the security agencies of different states necessary to achieve success. In many countries, cooperation among local security sector actors, other state agencies and non governmental organisations has improved. However, ensuring that the human rights of trafficking victims are protected requires more substantial training and specialised operational procedures within the security sector.

This paper brings a governance analysis to security sector responses to humantrafficking. It focuses on security governance approaches concerningcriminalisation and harmonisation of laws, prosecution of traffickers, protectionof trafficked persons, prevention in countries of origin and prevention incountries of destination. The authors identify key shortcomings in current securityresponses to human trafficking, and make recommendations to states with aparticular focus on national and international coordination and the prevention ofhuman trafficking.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Nature and Scope of Trafficking in Human Beings
2.1. Key concepts
2.2. Overview of Global Patterns in Human Trafficking
2.3. Overview of Patterns in Human Trafficking in Europe
2.4. Both Organised Crime and Violation of Human Rights

3. A Security Governance Analysis of Responses toTrafficking in Human Beings

4. Improving Security Sector Responses to Traffickingin Human Beings
4.1. Legal measures
4.2. Prosecution
4.3. Protection
4.4. Prevention in Countries of Origin
4.5. Prevention in Countries of Destination

5. Conclusions

Appendix

Paper

Security Sector Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings

In recent years trafficking in human beings has become an issue of increasingconcern to European states. Trafficking in human beings is understood as ahuman rights issue, a violation of labour and migration laws, and as underminingnational and international security through its links to organised crime andcorruption.

United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Council of Europe and theOrganisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, amongst others, makeimportant contributions to coordinating the fight against human trafficking.However, there remain significant deficits in concrete information sharing andcooperation between the security agencies of different states necessary to achieve success. In many countries, cooperation among local security sector actors, other state agencies and non governmental organisations has improved. However, ensuring that the human rights of trafficking victims are protected requires more substantial training and specialised operational procedures within the security sector.

This paper brings a governance analysis to security sector responses to humantrafficking. It focuses on security governance approaches concerningcriminalisation and harmonisation of laws, prosecution of traffickers, protectionof trafficked persons, prevention in countries of origin and prevention incountries of destination. The authors identify key shortcomings in current securityresponses to human trafficking, and make recommendations to states with aparticular focus on national and international coordination and the prevention ofhuman trafficking.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Nature and Scope of Trafficking in Human Beings
2.1. Key concepts
2.2. Overview of Global Patterns in Human Trafficking
2.3. Overview of Patterns in Human Trafficking in Europe
2.4. Both Organised Crime and Violation of Human Rights

3. A Security Governance Analysis of Responses toTrafficking in Human Beings

4. Improving Security Sector Responses to Traffickingin Human Beings
4.1. Legal measures
4.2. Prosecution
4.3. Protection
4.4. Prevention in Countries of Origin
4.5. Prevention in Countries of Destination

5. Conclusions

Appendix

Paper

Integrating Gender in Post-Conflict Security Sector Reform

The importance of security sector reform (SSR) has increasingly been emphasizedin international engagement with post-conflict countries. Many governments and UN and donor agencies have emphasized women’s participation and efforts to achieve gender equality as crucial elements of post-conflict reconstruction. In 2000 the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 on ‘Women, peace and security4, highlighting the interdependence of postconflict gender equality, peacebuilding and security. Women are acknowledged as playing important roles in peacebuilding and in sustaining security on a communal level. Gender inequality is understood to inhibit development and violence against women to be a pervasive form of insecurity with widespread ill-effects across society. There is also growing awareness of the need to address the particular experiences of men and boys, both as victims and as sources of insecurity.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Gender and security sector reform
2.1 Gender and security
2.2 Gender and (in)security in post-conflict settings
2.3 Principles for integrating gender in security sector reform

3. Gender mainstreaming and promoting women’s participation in post-conflict security sector reform
3.1 Gender mainstreaming in security sector reform
3.2 The challenge of women’s participation in security sectorreform
3.3 Women’s civil society groups in security sector reform
3.4 Women parliamentarians in security sector reform

4. Securing women’s full and equal participation in post-conflictsecurity situations
4.1 The challenge of women’s participation in security services
4.2 Women’s participation within post-confl ict security services

5. Gender and specifi c post-conflict security sector reform issues
5.1 Integrating gender in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration
5.2 Integrating gender in transitional justice and justice reform

6. Conclusions

Paper

Gender and Complaints Mechanisms: A Handbook for Armed Forces and Ombuds Institutions to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Related Discrimination, Harassment, Bullying and Abuse

Around the world, armed forces are recognizing the important contribution that women make within their ranks, and the fact that increasing the representation of female personnel is fundamental to capability and operational effectiveness. In tackling barriers to women’s full participation in armed forces, a key priority is to prevent gender-related discrimination, harassment, bullying and abuse –to ensure that all personnel, men and women, serve in an environment that is healthy, safe and respectful, and upholds their human rights. Effective and trusted complaints mechanisms are a crucial component of such an environment.

This handbook brings together knowledge and experience as regards prevention of misconduct and handling and monitoring of complaints within armed forces, with particular regard to gender. It is a resource for armed forces, ministries of defence, ombuds institutions and others that manage and oversee armed forces in:

  • establishing a safe and non-discriminatory environment for men and women in the armed forces;
  • dealing with instances and complaints of gender-related discrimination, harassment, bullying and abuse in the armed forces; and
  • monitoring and overseeing the handling of instances and complaints of gender-related discrimination, harassment, bullying and abuse in the armed forces.

The handbook was developed by DCAF in partnership with the Parliamentary Ombudsman for the Norwegian Armed Forces, and with the support of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme, the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and the Swiss Confederation.

Ce document est aussi disponible en français.

Paper

Integrating Gender into Oversight of the Security Sector by Ombuds Institutions & National Human Rights Institutions

  • How can ombuds institutions and NHRIs build their own institutional capacity to address gender issues in the security sector?
  • How can ombuds institutions and NHRIs ensure that they are accessible to men and women in the security sector and handle their complaints in a gender-responsive manner?
  • How can ombuds institutions and NHRIs proactively investigate gender-related problems in the security sector?

This guidance note on Integrating Gender into Oversight of the Security Sector by Ombuds Institutions & National Human Rights Institutions, developed by DCAF,OSCE/ODIHR and the OSCE Gender Section  is a practical resource for ombuds institutions and NHRIs, and those who support them. It can help an ombuds institution or NHRI engage more effectively with police, militaries and other security sector institutions to monitor and reinforce how the human rights of men and women working there are upheld.  It can strengthen oversight of how well police and others meet the needs of communities.

Designed as a complement to the DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR , UN-INSTRAW Tools on Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender and Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender, and DCAF’s Gender Self Assessment Guide, the guidance note contains checklists, examples of good practice from across the OSCE, and a self assessment table.

Associated guidance notes are available on: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Internal Oversight within Armed Forces and Integrating Gender into Internal Police Oversight.

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Integrating Gender into Internal Police Oversight

  • How can a police service monitor its success in providing equal opportunities for men and women?
  • How can it monitor how it addresses the different security needs of men and women?
  • How can it ensure that attention to gender is embedded in all its internal systems and processes?

This guidance note on Integrating Gender into Internal Police Oversight, developed by DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR  and the OSCE Gender Section is a practical resource for police services, and those who manage and support them. It can help a police service move beyond a policy commitment to integrate gender  ̶  by designating responsibilities for gender, by monitoring how gender issues are addressed in human resource management and in police operations, and by strengthening prevention and respond to sexual harassment and discrimination.

Designed as a complement to the DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, UN-INSTRAW Tool on Police Reform and Gender, and DCAF’s Gender Self Assessment Guide, the guidance note contains checklists, examples of good practice from across the OSCE, and a self assessment table.

It is an essential resource for those: working at the strategic or management level in police services, responsible for human resources, providing specialist services for victims of domestic and sexual abuse, and supporting police reform and/or gender mainstreaming.

Associated guidance notes are available on: Integrating a Gender Perspective into Internal Oversight within Armed Forces and Integrating Gender into Oversight of the Security Sector by Ombuds Institutions & National Human Rights Institutions.

Paper

Integrating a Gender Perspective into Internal Oversight within Armed Forces

  • How can armed forces measure the impact of a gender perspective on operations?
  • How can armed forces monitor their success in providing equal opportunities for men and women, and tackling sexual harassment and abuse?
  • How can armed forces embed a gender perspective in all internal systems and processes?

This guidance note on Integrating a Gender Perspective into Internal Oversight within Armed Forces, developed by DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR and the OSCE Gender Section, is a practical resource for militaries, and for those who manage and support them. It can help an armed forces move beyond a policy commitment to integrate gender  ­̶  by designating responsibilities, by monitoring how gender issues are addressed in human resource management and in operations, and by strengthening responses to misconduct.

Designed as a complement to the DCAF, OSCE/ODIHR, UN-INSTRAW Tool on Defence Reform and Gender, and DCAF’s Gender Self Assessment Guide, the guidance note contains checklists, examples of good practice from across the OSCE, and a self assessment table.

It is an essential resource for those working at the strategic or management level in armed forces; gender units, gender advisers and gender focal points; equal opportunities officers and others responsible for human resources; and those supporting reform processes or gender mainstreaming.

Associated guidance notes are available on: Integrating Gender into Internal Police Oversight and Integrating Gender into Oversight of the Security Sector by Ombuds Institutions & National Human Rights Institutions.

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The Role of Penal Reform in Security Sector Reform

Penal reform activities have been carried on in Europe and the United States sinceat least the late eighteenth century. Security sector reform (SSR), a much newerconcept, is a governance-driven approach that looks to strengthen the roles ofboth state and non-state actors to deliver security to individuals and communities.As such, attention to the penal system is important in any comprehensive SSR process. However, much SSR programming overlooks penal elements, and lessonslearnt through long experience in penal reform have not been applied to other SSR activities. There is limited discourse between the penal reform community ofpractice and the wider SSR community. This paper seeks to initiate a dialogue concerning the relationship between penal reform and wider security sector reform and governance. It is based on desk research and a number of interviews with penal reform practitioners. Follow this link for the publication.

Paper

Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform

This tool is intended for use by policymakers, NGOs and international actors supporting SSR and/or the design and implementation of SCR 1325 National Action Plans. The focus of the Tool is national-level implementation of the standards set by the four United Nations Security Council Resolutions on women, peace and security (SCRs 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889) in security sector institutions.

Reflecting the text of the resolutions, the Tool focuses on reforms in the defence forces, police and the justice sector. Issues examined include: DDR, vetting, specialised services for victims of sexual violence, prosecution of violence against women in armed conflict, measures to increase women’s leadership in police and defence organisations and to promote deployment of women in peacekeeping, peacekeepers’ training , operational strategies to prevent sexual violence, and gender justice. The Tool will also examine progress made in promoting the participation of women in security decision-making, and in integrating Security Council Resolutions 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889 in national security policy-making, including through national action plans.

For full access to Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform, please follow the link. 

Paper

Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector

Information about sexual violence perpetrated during armed conflict is scarce, scattered and selective. Policy makers, donors and humanitarian groups consistently call for better documentation of sexual violence in conflict. This Global Overview demonstrates the horrifying scope and magnitude of sexual violence in armed conflict. It brings to light sexual violence in the world’s underreported conflicts, as well as in those countries where it is notoriously commonplace, and highlights the shared and varying vulnerabilities of specific popu lation groups within and between regions. The report also shows that sexual violence is not confined to African or European conflicts, or to conflicts in developing or developed nations, but is a global scourge.

This report, Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector, proposes various ways in which the security and justice sectors can improve or develop strategies to prevent and respond to sexual violence in armed conflict and postconflict situations. It is a resource for security sector agencies, as well as for policymakers and researchers, civil society groups and humanitarian agencies that work with affected populations and security agencies. DCAF hopes that this report will challenge security institutions to develop their own good practice standards in responding to conflict-related sexual violence.

For full access to the report, Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict: Global Overview and Implications for the Security Sector, please follow the link. 

Paper

Mise en œuvre des résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité dans la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Le Dossier « Mise en œuvre des résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité dans la réforme du secteur de la sécurité » fait partie de la Boîte à outils « Place du genre dans la réforme du secteur de la sécurité ». Conçue pour expliquer de manière empirique aux décideurs et aux praticiens les questions de genre au regard de la RSS, cette Boîte à outils se compose de treize dossiers, accompagnés des notes pratiques correspondantes. Ce dossier répond notamment à des questions telles que: En quoi consistent les résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité ? En quoi les résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité sont-elles importantes pour la RSS ? Comment les résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité peuvent-elles être appliquées dans la RSS ? Le dossier intègre aussi les questions relatives à la problématique « femmes, paix et sécurité » à inclure dans un examen préliminaire à la RSS. 

Pour accéder à l'intégralité du dossier, Mise en œuvre des résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité dans la réforme du secteur de la sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien.

Vous pouvez aussi accéder à une note pratique sur l'Application des résolutions sur les femmes, la paix et la sécurité dans la réforme du secteur de la sécurité en suivant ce lien.

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