This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of constitutional choices made after conflict, drawing upon comparative studies of six constitutions and peace agreements. The paper attempts to synthesize the practical lessons drawn from the cases, with a focus on (i) the constitution-making process; (ii) the extent of reliance on executive and geographical power-sharing; (iii) the viability of checks and balances; (iv) the electoral model; (v) the role of political parties in the transition; and (vi) issues of implementation.
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In the year 2000, the Security Council passed Resolution 1325, which stresses the relevant need to integrate women into the maintenance and promotion of international peace and security, and which has led the United Nations to issue frequent reports and initiatives in that regard. The goal of this book is to contribute its development, especially on the eve of its tenth anniversary.
In Latin America, the practical development of Resolution 1325 faces diverse challenges as the region has given relevance to its participation in peace operations and is currently looking forward fostering institutional capabilities which could allow it to address present needs and integrate new trends. The book shows these facts through researching women integration in the defence and security sphere and their contribution to peace operations in the region. The first part deals with the gender perspective in the current conflicts and developments of international security. The second part includes a comparative analysis on the female integration of the armed forces, the police and national contributions to United Nations peace operations.
Pakistan is one of the world best-kept tourist secrets, being endowed with a deep history, a rich and embracing culture and the majestic splendour of most the world’s highest mountains – features which are generally not well known abroad. Those of us that have had the privilege to live and work in Pakistan have had much to appreciate. What is generally better known is that Pakistan is a large poor country which ranks between Papua New Guinea and Nepal on the United Nation’s human development index, and faces a range of profound governance and economic challenges to its development.
This aim of this paper is to illuminate and reflects on one focused and substantial effort to improve this situation. It complements an earlier article outlining the purpose, goals and objectives of the project published at its outset.2 It will review the ongoing experience being gained in Pakistan’s Access to Justice reform program with a view to distil lessons learned for the emerging discourse on law and justice development programs. The paper approaches the subject in four parts: history, objectives, progress to date, and lessons learned.
This Note approaches the interplay of formal and informal justice systems and their respective merits by focussing on the justice needs of people. Needs, as expressed through the demand for justice services, has been neglected by the donor community as a factor in informing approaches and attitudes towards plural legal systems. Instead much of the current debate, both in academia and in the communities of law and development practitioners, has run along quasi-ideological lines, with positions often rooted in beliefs and anecdotes but not in evidence.
This paper aims to provide
• a high-level analysis of what needs to be done over the next 12 years to build and maintain a minimally functional justice system in Afghanistan
• a preliminary forecast of what it would cost to fill its gaps
• an analysis of current gaps in programming and funding