Second Generation Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Practices in Peace Operations

The report is primarily based on four field studies (Afghanistan, Côte d’Ivoire, Haiti and Liberia) but also draws from experiences of other DDR settings based on a desk review and interviews with partners. The term “Second Generation DDR” is used to describe the set of evolving practices documented in the report. Scholar-practitioners and security oriented thinktanks are beginning to use Second Generation DDR and “Interim stabilization” to describe wider security promotion efforts. From the outset, however, it must be underscored that many of the ideas and practices highlighted in the report are not new, and have been implemented, albeit in a fragmented manner, by national Governments and UN agencies. Whereas traditional DDR focuses mainly on combatants that are present within military structures, the focus of Second Generation programmes shifts away from military structures towards the larger communities that are affected by armed violence.

The set of Second Generation DDR practices outlined in this report is a reflection of the broader change in UN peacekeeping. Among the paradigm shifts is the fact that the success of a peacekeeping operation cannot be guaranteed by top-down implementation of a Security Council mandate. Peacekeepers today require more sophisticated skills and tools to negotiate the local dynamics on the ground, which may not reflect the higher level agreement reached between national actors. It is also critical to ensure that programmes are linked to broader peacebuilding/early recovery strategic frameworks, exit strategies of missions, and the development frameworks of UN Country Teams and Governments.

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