National, regional and local territories where the state (including central and local authorities) has weak capacity to carry out basic governance functions, and lacks the ability to develop mutually constructive relations with society. Fragile states are also more vulnerable to internal or external shocks such as economic crises or natural disasters (OECD 2011b). These situations tend to be characterised by poor governance, to be prone to violent conflict, and to show limited progress towards development. An aggregate of governance and security criteria, or of capacity, accountability and legitimacy criteria are usually used as measures of fragility.