SOUTH AMERICA

SOUTH AMERICA

Policy and Research Papers

Crime, Violence, and the Crisis in Guatemala: A Case Study in the Erosion of the State

This monograph examines the relationship between organized crime, internal violence, and institutional failure in Guatemala. It aims to increase awareness of this growing threat to regional security and to provide a granular, textured case study of a phenomenon that, while most striking in Guatemala, is present throughout Latin America as a whole. Organizationally, the monograph comprises three substantive sections. The first, offers an overview of the emerging security environment in Latin America, examining
organized crime as a form of irregular warfare. The second, zooms in on Guatemala, exploring the origins, nature, and effects of the current crisis in that country. The third, considers the implications for Guatemalan and U.S. policy.

Paper

Political Will, Constituency Building, And Public Support in Rule of Law Programs

The focus of this paper is the “demand-side” model of administration of justice/rule of law (AOJ/ROL) reform as developed by USAID and increasingly adopted by other donors. It explores the basic arguments as they have been presented in USAID documents, compares them with actual experience of Latin American projects, and suggests some lessons to be incorporated in a revised theory of “demand-side” reform.

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Women in the armed and police forces - Resolution 1325 and peace operations in Latin America

In the year 2000, the Security Council passed Resolution 1325, which stresses the relevant need to integrate women into the maintenance and promotion of international peace and security, and which has led the United Nations to issue frequent reports and initiatives in that regard. The goal of this book is to contribute its development, especially on the eve of its tenth anniversary.
In Latin America, the practical development of Resolution 1325 faces diverse challenges as the region has given relevance to its participation in peace operations and is currently looking forward fostering institutional capabilities which could allow it to address present needs and integrate new trends. The book shows these facts through researching women integration in the defence and security sphere and their contribution to peace operations in the region. The first part deals with the gender perspective in the current conflicts and developments of international security. The second part includes a comparative analysis on the female integration of the armed forces, the police and national contributions to United Nations peace operations.

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Women in the Armed and Police Forces. Resolution 1325 and Peace Operations in Latin America

This book is a tool intended for all those who are interested in acquiring knowledge in an area still unexplored within the region, and for the promotion of a joint collaboration among civilian, military and police forces, in order to boost gender equality within democratic institutions.

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Illicit Networks: the systemic risk in Latin America

A wave of corruption scandals has gripped Latin America over the past year. From Argentina and Brazil, to Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras, rackets involving state actors, the judiciary, business and organized crime have caused internal unrest and caught international attention.

Published in a special edition of PRISM, the journal of the Center for Complex Operations (part of the United States National Defense University), this article argues that in order to understand these dynamics it is crucial to look more closely at two interconnected realities characterizing many Latin American countries: first, the existence of criminalized areas that are beyond formal state control; and second, the presence of illicit networks within the state.

Document available: Illicit Networks: the systemic risk in Latin America

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Books

Envisioning Reform: Conceptual and Practical Obstacles to Improving Judiciary Performance in Latin America

Judicial reform became an important part of the agenda for development in Latin America early in the 1980s, when countries in the region started the process of democratization. Connections began to be made between judicial performance and market-based growth, and development specialists turned their attention to “second generation” institutional reforms. Although considerable progress has been made already in strengthening the judiciary and its supporting infrastructure (police, prosecutors, public defense counsel, the private bar, law schools, and the like), much remains to be done.

Linn Hammergren’s book aims to turn the spotlight on the problems in the movement toward judicial reform in Latin America over the past two decades and to suggest ways to keep the movement on track toward achieving its multiple, though often conflicting, goals. After Part I’s overview of the reform movement’s history since the 1980s, Part II examines five approaches that have been taken to judicial reform, tracing their intellectual origins, historical and strategic development, the roles of local and international participants, and their relative success in producing positive change. Part III builds on this evaluation of the five partial approaches by offering a synthetic critique aimed at showing how to turn approaches into strategies, how to ensure they are based on experiential knowledge, and how to unite separate lines of action.

Book

Envisioning Reform

Judicial reform became an important part of the agenda for development in Latin America early in the 1980s, when countries in the region started the process of democratization. Connections began to be made between judicial performance and market-based growth, and development specialists turned their attention to "second generation" institutional reforms. Although considerable progress has been made already in strengthening the judiciary and its supporting infrastructure (police, prosecutors, public defense counsel, the private bar, law schools, and the like), much remains to be done. Linn Hammergren's book aims to turn the spotlight on the problems in the movement toward judicial reform in Latin America over the past two decades and to suggest ways to keep the movement on track toward achieving its multiple, though often conflicting, goals. After Part I's overview of the reform movement's history since the 1980s, Part II examines five approaches that have been taken to judicial reform, tracing their intellectual origins, historical and strategic development, the roles of local and international participants, and their relative success in producing positive change. Part III builds on this evaluation of the five partial approaches by offering a synthetic critique aimed at showing how to turn approaches into strategies, how to ensure they are based on experiential knowledge, and how to unite separate lines of action.

Book

Influencing Change

This book: (i) reviews how evaluation can lead the change process in policy and institutional development; (ii) presents a variety of good practices and lessons learned in building up evaluation capacities; and (iii) introduces new perspectives on evaluation capacity building.

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Governance in Post-Conflict Societies: Rebuilding Fragile States

This book explores the problem of states that fail, leading to conflict and war, and how to rebuild them. Focusing on governance as critical to post-conflict reconstruction, the contributors illustrate the connections among the core functions that governance fulfills in any society: assuring security, achieving effective provision of public goods and services, and generating legitimacy. This volume brings together chapters by scholars and practitioners studying and working on governance issues from a variety of perspectives. Divided into three sections, this volume opens by taking a fresh look at the historical record on nation-building, constitutional design in deeply divided societies, the dynamics of elections, and governance of the security sector. It then explores the range of actors involved in governance reconstruction and highlights the evolving role of the US military, the influence of multinational firms, the importance of the civil service, and the potential impact of Internet-based diasporas. Finally, it looks at local governance, highlighting the subnational state-society structures and relations in fragile and post-conflict states, and draws on case studies from Latin America, Africa, and Afghanistan." "This book will be of much interest to students of international public administration, global governance, post-conflict reconstruction, foreign policy and international relations in general, as well as to practitioners in the field.

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Public Security And Police Reform in the Americas

How are security problems being addressed in the Americas? What lessons can be learned from these experiences? This book from the University of Pittsburgh Press examines public security and police reform in Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and the United States. Public perception of increased crime and violence has led to public security policies that emphasise punishment and symbolism, such as highly publicised national plans and the importation of unadapted ideas from abroad. Procedural safeguards are needed to monitor human and civil rights in the region as security forces are strengthened.

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Other Documents

Interpreting International Norms for a More Impactful Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in SSR

HRBA3

How can a system-wide guidance tool grounded in international human rights norms and standards strengthen the holistic approach inherent to SSR? This second paper from the HRBA Working Group from ISSAT’s Methodology Cell explores international human rights norms and standards with jurisprudence set by the ECHR, IACHR and UN international instruments.

Read Paper 1: Rethinking a Human Rights-based Approach to SSR

For further information on the Working Group's research, please refer to the Rethinking a Human Rights-based Approach (HRBA) in Security Sector Reform blog

Other Document