Introduction to SSR

This presentation gives a background on the theory behind the concept Security Sector Reform, as well as an overview of the international efforts within SSR today.


SIPRI Searchlight: Towards peace, justice and inclusive governance by 2030

This new SIPRI film evaluates how far we have to go to achieve peace, justice and strong institutions in the world by 2030—one of the goals set by the United Nations in its sustainable development agenda set out in 2015.

There is a clear concern raised throughout the film that current global trends are working against peacebuilders, particularly with regard to reducing violence everywhere.

The challenges explored include, but are not limited to: a lack of inclusion of populations in decision making, particularly youth globally; a lack of understanding of what causes structural violence; and the difficulty in convincing power holders to open up the political space.


Sweden and the 2030 Agenda

This video from the Swedish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, puts the emphasis on the country's strategy to achieve SDG16 - Peace, Justice and Strong institutions - "to promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels".

To watch the full clip, Sweden and the 2030 Agenda kindly follow the link. 



L'Europe du Nord face à la menace russe

C’est l’Europe du Nord qui se retrouve dans le Collimateur de l’IRSEM cette semaine, où Alexandre Jubelin reçoit Barbara Kunz, chercheuse à l’Institut pour la recherche sur la paix et sur les politiques de sécurité à l’Université de Hambourg, et auteur d’une note de recherche de l’IFRI « L’Europe du Nord face au défi stratégique russe : quelles réponses politiques et militaires ».

Pour écouter le podcast L'Europe du Nord face à la menace russe, veuillez suivre le lien. 


Policy and Research Papers

Security sector reform and NATO and EU enlargement

Security sector reform (SSR) is a relatively new concept that now shapes
international programmes for development assistance.1
 Originating within the
development community, the concept is based on the assumption that democracy and sustainable socio-economic development—including the objectives
of poverty reduction and social justice—cannot be achieved without meeting
the basic security needs of individuals and communities. Recognizing that it is
often state security institutions themselves that threaten the security of individuals and society, whether through inefficiency, unprofessionalism, inadequate state regulation, corruption or human rights violations, SSR focuses on
the sound management and accountability of the security sector consistent
with the principles and practices of good governance. The objective of SSR is
to achieve efficient and effective security institutions that serve the security
interests of citizens, society and the state, while respecting human rights and
operating within the rule of law and under effective democratic control. 

Access full paper at: http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2003/files/SIPRIYB0307.pdf


Codes of Conduct in Defence Ministries and Armed Forces

Corruption risk in defence and security establishments is a key concern for defence officials and senior military officers, as corruption wastes scarce resources, reduces operational effectiveness and reduces public trust in the armed forces and security services. Part of the solution to these risks is clear guidance on the behaviour expected of senior officers and officials, and strong application of those standards of behaviour. 

The report presents the conclusions of an analysis of the written codes of conduct and related documents from 12 participating nations: Argentina, Australia, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Kenya, Lithuania, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Review of the Development Cooperation Programme between the South African Police Service and the Swedish National Police Board

This is a review of the development co-operation programme between the South African Police Service (SAPS) and the Swedish National Police Board that has been financed by Sida – the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency. The programme has been in operation since late 1999 and the current agreement covers the period 31 August 2002 to 31 December 2005. It purpose is twofold: First to give a clear picture of what has been achieved in the programme up to date in relation to plans, with an emphasis on the period after the first review of October 2001. Secondly, in the light of the principles of transformation for development cooperation in the new country strategy for 2004–2008, the review should provide a basis for an assessment of whether the cooperation should continue in a third phase and in such a case, make recommendations for the areas most suitable for cooperation.


Review of Development Cooperation between Sri Lanka Police and Swedish National Police Board

This is the result of the review of a swedish assistance project aimed at “Enhancing the Capacity of Civilian Policing in Sri Lanka” whose specific objectives were to: (i) Improve crime investigations including crime scene examinations; (ii) Strengthen the respect and promotion of ethnic integration and human rights in SLP and; (iii) Increase management capacity of SLP. The Review was carried out in October 2007.


The Regionalisation of Peace Operations in Africa - Advantages, challenges and the way ahead

Published by the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), this report analyses regional peace operations launched by the African Union and sub-regional organisations, identifying advantages, challenges and trends. It argues that there is currently an international division of peacekeeping, whereby African operations have come to act as a first responder, providing initial stabilisation missions in operational environments where the UN cannot yet go, or to allow the UN time to mobilise a broader operation. The authors also address the lack of predictable and sustainable funding, and further issues of division of roles and responsibilities between actors. Finally, the report highlights some considerations for partners.


Environmental Governance, Climate Change and Peacebuilding

This brief from the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) summarizes the presentations and discussions from the eighth International Expert Forum (IEF) on environmental governance, climate change and peacebuilding. The brief revisits the links between environmental factors and issues pertaining to peace and conflict and discusses how environmental governance and climate change policies can contribute to peacebuilding. Furthermore, the author argues that there is a growing need to understand these linkages, and integrate a more holistic approach for organizations working in the field of peacebuilding and conflict prevention. 

Read the full brief on Environmental Governance, Climate Change and Peacebuilding


How Does the Media on Both sides of the Mediterranean Report on Migration?

A study by journalists, for journalists and policy-makers

Funded by the European Union Migration media coverage in 17 countries from 2015 to 2016

We have all seen the stark images depicted in the media of migrants and asylum seekers packed aboard vessels of questionable seaworthiness, risking life and limb to make the perilous journey across the Mediterranean in search of a safe haven and a better future. These images convey in sharp relief the human struggle in its most desperate moments. Over the course of the last three years, we have witnessed a range of different approaches to covering migration in traditional media on both sides of the Mediterranean.

This study aims to unpack some of these approaches in order to identify and better understand the prevailing media narratives on migration that exist in different national contexts. It looks at the strengths and shortcomings and provides some insight into the interplay between editorial lines, political narratives, journalistic approaches and public discourse on this sensitive and often polarising subject. 

For full access to the paper, How Does the Media on Both sides of the Mediterranean Report on Migration?, kindly follow the link. 


Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives

There have been considerable developments in security-policy thinking since the end of the Cold War, and a complex set of transnational threatsand challenges necessitates new security policies and strategies. Not only the attacks of 11 September 2001, but also the dark side of globalisation such as climate change, the global spread of dangerous technologies and international organised crime have changed the security perspective and policy procedures in recent years. Consequently, new
national-security strategies, white papers and security-policy documents have been drafted in order to take into account the changing security landscape.

On 6 April 2009, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) welcomed a group of leading security experts for a seminar entitled “Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives”. The goal of the seminar was to provide a forum for experts from different European states, major international powers and regional and international organisations to take stock of current security polices in the European region and beyond. The participants had an opportunity to assess the direction of security-policy thinking by analysing a number of key security-policy documents such as national-security strategies, defence concepts and white papers, among others. Assumptions regarding future threats were considered, as were a variety of drafting processes and methodologies.

More than 30 participants attended the seminar, including representatives of the Defence Ministries of Finland, Germany and Sweden, as well as representatives of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In addition to faculty members from the GCSP, regional and international experts from a range of academic and policy institutions participated, including speakers from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the International Affairs Institute (Rome), the Institute for International Strategic Studies (Beijing), the Royal Institute of International Relations (Brussels) and the Foundation for Strategic Studies (Paris).


Sweden’s Regional Strategy for the Syria Crisis 2016 – 2020

The aim of the activities within the scope of this strategy is to contribute to strengthening the resilience of the Syrian population and of vulnerable groups in Syria's neighboring countries that are being severely affected by the conflict. The strategy will also contribute to strengthening democracy and gender equality and to greater respect for human rights in Syria and for refugees from Syria in neighboring countries. The strategy will apply to the period 2016–2020 and will comprise a total of SEK 1.7 billion.


Swedish Strategy for Sustainable Peace 2017–2022

The aim of Swedish international development cooperation is to create preconditions for better living conditions for people living in poverty and under oppression. Development cooperation will be based on the principles of aid effectiveness, and the new international agreements the international community agreed upon in 2015. The overall objective of the Strategy for sustainable peace is to contribute to the prevention of armed conflict, effective conflict resolution, sustainable peacebuilding, and state-building increased human security in fragile and conflict-affected states, and empowerment of women as well as of youth, children and other excluded groups in these situations. The strategy will apply between 2017–2022 and covers the funds allocated in the appropriation directions of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) and the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) for each budget year.


International support to Security Sector Reform in Ukraine: a mapping of SSR projects

In 2015, the Swedish National Contact Group for Security Sector Reform (NCSSR) conducted an SSR assessment of Ukraine on behalf of the Swedish government. Building on this experience, and on the report submitted to the Swedish government, the FBA has continued to work on mapping international support to SSR in Ukraine. This publication is a contribution to information-sharing and coordination in favour of an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector in Ukraine.

Find out more about this mapping here


Security Sector Reform Assessment Framework

The Security Sector Reform Assessment Framework by the Folke Bernadotte Academcy is intended to facilitate information gathering and analysis in support of decision-making, programming, monitoring and evaluation. While primarily based on Swedish conditions, the framework may serve as an outline for assessments carried out by other governments, institutions and organizations. As such, the FBA sees the framework as a living document, to be continuously updated and developed, and therefore encourages feedback on the material to improve future editions.

For full access to the Security Sector Reform Assessment Framework, kindly follow the link. 


Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces

DCAF's newest addition to its SSR series has just been published, co-authored by Albrecht Schnabel and Marc Krupanski and titled "Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces." It is widely assumed, at least from a Western perspective, that the armed forces provide national defence against external threats. In reality, within many consolidated Western democracies the armed forces are assuming an increasingly wide range of internal roles and tasks. These can include domestic security roles and the provision of humanitarian assistance in situations of natural or humanitarian catastrophe, often under the command and control of different civilian agencies. This SSR Paper seeks to make sense of this complex reality. Different internal roles of armed forces are analysed, drawing on the cases of Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Through carefully examining evolving internal roles and identifying patterns and lessons from these experiences, this SSR Paper provides an important contribution to understanding the evolving nature of contemporary armed forces.



Public Finance Management in Development Co-operation – A Handbook for Sida Staff

This handbook is a result of the special initiative on Public Finance Management launched by the Director General in 2004. It underlines the importance of PFM for poverty reduction and gives concrete advise on how PFM issues can be handled in the development cooperation.


SIPRI Yearbook 2008

The 39th edition of the SIPRI Yearbook analyzes developments in 2007 in o Security and conflicts o Military spending and armaments o Non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament The SIPRI Yearbook contains extensive annexes on the implementation of arms control and disarmament agreements and a chronology of events during the year in the area of security and arms control.


SIPRI Yearbook 2011

The 42nd edition of the SIPRI Yearbook analyzes developments in 2010 in: · Security and conflicts · Military spending and armaments · Non-proliferation, arms control and disarmament The SIPRI Yearbook contains extensive annexes on the implementation of arms control and disarmament agreements and a chronology of events during the year in the area of security and arms control. Purchasers of the print edition will also be able to access the Yearbook online.