An interview with Inspector Pauline Pilkington of the UK International Police College,including an example of community policing from Namibia.
Policy and Research Papers
This document draws lessons on what it means to uphold and promote core policing principles in our overseas assistance, providing a crucial insight into both ‘what works’ and the many challenges that we must navigate to achieve success. It is based on the collective UK international policing experience over recent years including Afghanistan, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and most recently in the Democratic Republic of Congo and in Libya.
Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force as an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century
A U.S. report by Colin Gray from the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) based at the U.S. Army War College discussing the future of hard and soft power in military operations.
The main purpose of this handbook is to explain the principles underpinning Community Security interventions, and suggest practical approaches to implementing them, drawing on the work of Saferworld and a select number of other agencies. It is aimed at practitioners–particularly programme managers–and aims to help them work through the steps involved in planning, implementing, evaluating and improving Community Security interventions. It sets out the objectives of Saferworld’s Community Security work, explains why we see it as important, and draws together a significant body of learning and experience.
The origins of the most recent sustained period of conflict in Northern Ireland can be traced back to the civil rights movement that emerged in 1968, the coercive response by the Unionist government and communities, and subsequent armed Republican campaign against the British government and security forces. What followed was over 30 years of sectarian violence, terrorism, counter-terrorism and the separation of communities. The signing of the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement in 1998 was not a conclusion to the conflict nor a resolution of the issues that had been the catalyst for the violence and disorder. Instead, the Agreement provided a framework for the transformation of the conflict through a peaceful political process and the reform of policing and justice institutions in Northern Ireland.
In 2013, Saferworld and Intercomm facilitated roundtable discussions with community development and interface workers from both Loyalist and Republican backgrounds; police officers from an operational and strategic background; academics and members of civil society to reflect on progress, challenges and lessons with regard to community policing, the policing of public disorder, and the management of transition in Northern Ireland.
The resulting paper, Reflections on the Northern Ireland experience: the lessons underpinning the normalisation of policing and security in a divided society , highlights issues of leadership, trust, partnership and accountability as key to progress and offers insight and valuable lessons drawn from the Northern Ireland experience that resonate with other contexts emerging from violent conflict.
Stabilisation Issues Notes provide a short summary of what the Stabilisation Unit has learned to date. They have been developed on the basis of experience and are aimed at improving the effectiveness of our practical engagement in various aspects of stabilisation. They are aimed primarily at the Stabilisation Unit‟s own practitioners and consultants, and those of other HMG departments. They are not a formal statement of HMG policy.
1) Stabilisation planning and implementation is about identifying / addressing the specific activities required to achieve political stability in countries emerging from conflict.
2) Promoting the rule of law in stabilisation environments can help a state to increase its legitimacy, allow fairer political negotiation and uphold the implementation of political agreements. The most urgent priority is often establishing law and order, meeting internal security needs and ensuring basic functioning of the criminal justice system.
3) Security Sector Stabilisation (SSS) activities enable essential and minimum security functions to be established and maintained to achieve stabilisation objectives. They are not the same as Security System Reform (SSR) in more benign environments; they should however help create the conditions for SSR, when conditions permit.
4) The urgency of meeting security needs has often led to quick fix approaches and a singular focus on expanding the size of a single organisation often with a „train and equip‟ mentality. This will often fall short of providing the kind of support that will contribute to lasting security outcomes.
This Issues Note gives readers a basic understanding of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), so that they are in a position to consider whether DDR is an appropriate stabilisation intervention. It clarifies questions, issues and articulates the decisions that the practitioner may face with when considering a DDR programme. This note should be read in conjunction with Post-Conflict Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration: A UK View, and with other Stabilisation Issues Notes, particularly those on Security and rule of Law and Economic Recovery.
Human rights are key to stabilisation - both as a means and as an end in themselves. Although we need to promote universal adherence to human rights, we need to recognise that there can be different cultural and political approaches to dealing with human rights violations, especially during a fragile peace process. Human rights need to be embedded in planning and assessment for stabilisation; the selection of specific tools will depend on needs, opportunities and constraints in any particular context.
A good results framework that enables programme progress to be effectively monitored and explained has never been more important, particularly in times of financial austerity. As a public sector organisation, DFID must have the capacity to prove that its budget is spent wisely, and the ability to demonstrate the impact and value of its programmes to core constituencies.
Governance and conflict programming form an important part of DFID’s global programme portfolio and account for a significant proportion of annual resource allocation (GPR, 2010). This is likely to grow as DFID commits to expand its presence in fragile and conflict-affected environments (DFID, 2009).
It is however widely acknowledged that the effects of governance and conflict interventions on poverty reduction or enduring peace and security are seldom direct and easy to measure. International governance datasets (such as the World Governance Index), whilst comprehensive and well-resourced, seldom have relevance at actual country level as their measurements are often set at higher objective levels, yet there is a paucity of useful programme level tools available to enhance measurement in this area.
In October 2010, ITAD was commissioned by the DFID Politics and the State Team to assess the quality of a suggested list of governance and conflict indicators as part of a wider contract to support elements of the Results Action Plan.
The indicators have been tested using a set of normative criteria that collectively aims to ensure the types of measurements included in the list and the corresponding data sources are fit for intended purpose. Although the study has to some extent been constrained by lack of time and available information, attention has given to interrogating the traction of indicators with existing programme results chains and underlying theories of change, including in contexts of fragility and conflict, such as Nigeria and Afghanistan.
In October 2010, ITAD was commissioned by the DFID Politics and the State team to conduct research and propose a way forward for Governance programmes in conducting value for money assessments as part of a consultancy on measuring the impact and value for money of DFID Governance programmes. The specific objective stated for our work on value for money (VFM) in the Terms of Reference was:
“To set out how value for money can best be measured in governance and conflict programming, and whether the suggested indicators have a role in this or not”.
This Report presents background on VFM from documentary research (section 2); explains the analytical framework that captures key concepts in VFM, and sets out options for improving VFM (section 3). It outlines one specific option, a “3 Es ratings and weightings approach to VFM” as presented to Governance and Conflict Advisers at a DFID Research Day on 25 November 2010, and includes their response plus some initial reactions from Finance and Corporate Performance Division (FCPD), particularly with regard to Business Case compatibility (section 4). Finally, the Report proposes ways in which initial findings can be refined and further developed to support Governance programming and build staff competence and confidence in conducting VFM assessments (section 5).
This preliminary scoping study was commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), with the aim of considering the security and justice sector reform efforts of 19 of the main Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – Development Assistance Council (OECD-DAC) donors. It focuses on the efforts of each nation’s foreign affairs, development, defence, and justice agencies, and provides an initial assessment of how policy and programming are linked, what evidence of good practice has been collected, and what knowledge and programming gaps exist currently.
Survey of Key Donors and Multilateral Organisations on Monitoring and Evaluation of Security Sector Reform: United Kingdom Case Study
This report provides an overview of the United Kingdom Government’s arrangements for monitoring and evaluating (M&E) the support it provides to security sector reform (SSR). It examines the M&E systems that already exist for similar types of work as well as looking at any specific treatment given to SSR, before also identifying outstanding needs, challenges and any trends and opportunities that exist for improving M&E in this area.
There have been considerable developments in security-policy thinking since the end of the Cold War, and a complex set of transnational threatsand challenges necessitates new security policies and strategies. Not only the attacks of 11 September 2001, but also the dark side of globalisation such as climate change, the global spread of dangerous technologies and international organised crime have changed the security perspective and policy procedures in recent years. Consequently, new
national-security strategies, white papers and security-policy documents have been drafted in order to take into account the changing security landscape.
On 6 April 2009, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) welcomed a group of leading security experts for a seminar entitled “Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives”. The goal of the seminar was to provide a forum for experts from different European states, major international powers and regional and international organisations to take stock of current security polices in the European region and beyond. The participants had an opportunity to assess the direction of security-policy thinking by analysing a number of key security-policy documents such as national-security strategies, defence concepts and white papers, among others. Assumptions regarding future threats were considered, as were a variety of drafting processes and methodologies.
More than 30 participants attended the seminar, including representatives of the Defence Ministries of Finland, Germany and Sweden, as well as representatives of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In addition to faculty members from the GCSP, regional and international experts from a range of academic and policy institutions participated, including speakers from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the International Affairs Institute (Rome), the Institute for International Strategic Studies (Beijing), the Royal Institute of International Relations (Brussels) and the Foundation for Strategic Studies (Paris).
This article discusses a growing tendency among news reporters allowing senior military officers and personnel to dictate defence coverage.
Following performance management principles allows police authorities and forces to continuously improve the service that is provided to local people. This guidance (and its shorter companion reference guide) has been produced to assist police authorities to understand and develop their role – which is complementary to that of the force – in ensuring an effective police performance management regime.
The guide is structured around ten hallmarks of effective performance management developed from research that involved all police authorities. The guide includes case studies and examples provided by police authorities to illustrate the hallmarks in good practice. Commitment to achieving the standards conveyed in the hallmarks will make a significant contribution to the effectiveness of police authorities in fulfilling their important role in police performance management. The guide is intended to form a comprehensive repository of good practice.
As the primary agency for law enforcement, the police operates at close proximity to the public and exerts significant influence over the security of individuals and communities through its behaviours and performance. Therefore, ensuring accountability of both the individuals and institutions of the police is a fundamental condition for good governance of the security sector in democratic societies. The parliament, as the highest representative body in a democratic system, plays a significant role in maintaining police accountability.
The objective of the edited volume on “The Role of Parliament in Police Governance: Lessons Learned from Asia and Europe” is to put forward good practices and recommendations for improving police accountability, with an emphasis on the strengthening of the role of parliament in police governance. The comparative analysis includes insights and lessons learned from eight country case studies including Belgium, Germany, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, Philippines, Thailand and the United Kingdom. The findings of the cases studies can be taken into account when analysing and considering options for improving the accountability of the police to parliament as well as strengthening independent oversight bodies and parliament-police liaison mechanisms. However, it must be emphasised that these good practices always need to be adapted to the exigencies of the local context.
This presentation was delivered at the September 2013 Workshop on Police Reform and Development held in Tripoli by the Libyan Ministry of Interior and UNSMIL.
Briefly covers the build-up to the 'Troubles', the 1998 Belfast Agreement, application of possible lessons from Northern Ireland to the Libyan context, and a useful graphical overview of the reform process.
Also available in Arabic.