European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) (ECFR)

Established in 2007, the ECFR Council has grown from 50 founding members to over 270 members from across Europe.

Currently chaired by Carl Bildt, Emma Bonino and Mabel van Oranje, our unique European strategic community includes serving foreign ministers, former prime ministers, members of national parliaments and European Parliament, EU Commissioners, former NATO secretaries generals, thinkers, journalists and business leaders. The Council gathers once a year as a full body for the Annual Council Meeting, hosted in a different European capital each year.

The Council is the strongest and most visible expression of ECFR’s pan-European identity. Through their individual networks and collective engagement with ECFR policy and advocacy initiatives, Council Members help us to europeanise the national conversations in the EU capitals on the EU’s foreign policy priorities and challenges.

Working alongside the ECFR Senior Management Team and policy staff across seven European offices and Brussels, the expertise and outreach of our Council Members ensure ECFR has a truly pan-European perspective.

No programmes have been added yet.
No support mandates have been added yet.
No vacancies have been added yet.

Tools

Mapping Armed Groups in Mali and the Sahel

Violence is tearing Mali and the Sahel apart. But who are the armed groups behind the bloodshed? Where are international actors stationed in the region? And what motivates them all? This project maps jihadist and non-jihadist groups and pinpoints the presence of external actors in the region as of May 2019.

Since 2012, Mali has faced a succession of violent conflicts. The Tuareg rebellion and subsequent jihadist occupation of northern Mali in that year revealed several cleavages in society and governance that, while not new, have grown worse with time. The departure of the government from more than half of the country’s landmass and the pressure placed on local areas by resource competition, weapons proliferation, and clashing ideologies have all exacerbated Mali’s internal conflicts, patterns that have also played out elsewhere.

The French intervention under the guise of Operation Serval in January 2013 dislodged the jihadist groups from Mali’s cities, but did not eliminate them. They slipped away and reorganised, coming back to attack the United Nations peacekeeping mission established in Mali, MINUSMA, as well as Malian and French forces and civilian targets in the capital Bamako and even beyond Mali’s borders. The signing of peace accords in Algiers in June 2015 did not appreciably improve the situation. MINUSMA is the largest UN peacekeeping mission in the world but efforts to restore state authority have faltered, jihadist groups have grown and spread into Burkina Faso and parts of Niger, and local conflicts have also erupted in new and deadly ways.

Please follow the link provided to learn more about the Mapping armed groups in Mali and the Sahel project.

Tool

Policy and Research Papers

Vers une approche plus globale pour stabiliser le Sahel ?

Aux prises avec le changement climatique, la croissance démographique, l'insécurité alimentaire, la corruption, et la criminalité, le Sahel est l'une des régions les plus pauvres du monde. Une nouvelle publication du Conseil européen pour les relations internationales (ECFR) soutient que l’Europe doit embrasser une approche plus globale pour stabiliser la région, en mettant l’accent sur le besoin d’une plus grande intégration régionale entre l’Afrique du Nord et le Sahel ainsi que sur la création de canaux d’immigration légale et d’emplois. Cette approche pourrait réduire les flux migratoires clandestins vers l’Europe en créant un marché du travail plus grand et plus dynamique en Afrique.

Pour accéder à l'étude Vers une approche plus globale pour stabiliser le Sahel ?, veuillez suivre le lien. 

Paper

Yemen's Forgotten War: How Europe can Lay the Foundations for Peace

The article focuses on the conflict in Yemen, which is is on the verge of absolute collapse.The EU and its member states have a moral and strategic interest in ending the conflict. Failure to act could result in Yemen becoming a new hub for globally oriented terror groups, and could spur a new wave of refugees into Europe.

For full access to the report Yemen's Forgotten War : How Europe can Lay the Foundations for Peace, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Bringing the desert together: How to advance Sahel-Maghreb integration

Global interest in the Sahel has expanded significantly in recent years. The growth of regional terrorism, the collapse of Malian State in 2012, and the migration crisis after 2014 all mean that world must think about the Sahel. Yet despite the newfound attention to the region, regional and international efforts to resolve these crises remain inadequate. This paper proposes a holistic approach to regional stabilisation, one that acknowledges the need for better security capacity and coordination while also emphasising the need for greater regional integration between North Africa and the Sahel. 

For full access to Bringing the desert together: How to advance Sahel-Maghreb integration, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Mali’s impunity problem and growing security crisis

On June 13 Malian soldiers and security forces were responsible for killing more than 30 civilians throughout the country - the government and international forces have been unable to reverse the trend

Since 2012, Mali has experienced a procession of horrors, from the slaughter of soldiers to the mutilation and murder of civilians, to the destruction of treasured world heritage sites. The Tuareg rebellion, the subsequent jihadist takeover of northern Mali, and the 2013 French intervention to oust jihadist groups has focused regional and international attention on the country in an unprecedented way. Despite this attention and the hundreds of millions of euros that have poured into Mali’s government and security services, the security situation continues to deteriorate. International actors often attribute this rising instability to a failure to fully implement the 2015 peace accords signed in Algiers. 

For full access to the article  Mali’s impunity problem and growing security crisis, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Stabilising Mali - why Europe must look beyond technicalities

To foster long-term stability in Mali, the international community must not content itself with the implementation of technicalities.

France’s new president Emmanuel Macron sought to send a clear message with his arrival in Mali on Friday, on his first official voyage as chief of state. In visiting Gao, the main base of the Sahel-wide Operation Barkhane and the largest French operational base abroad, Macron no doubt intended to show his support for French soldiers and continue his forceful stance against terrorist groups – whether in France, in the Levant, or in this case in the Sahel. 

As RFI noted, Macron’s agenda had three components: an increased mobilization of Barkhane forces in northern Mali, an accelerated effort to apply the June 2015 Algiers Accords meant to settle the conflict unleashed by the 2012 Tuareg rebellion, and deepened efforts to support the G5 Sahel, the grouping of five Sahelian countries that includes Mali and is intended to spur security and development cooperation in the region.

For full access to the article on Stabilising Mali - why Europe must look beyond technicalities, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Halting Ambition: EU Migration and Security Policy in the Sahel

Stretching from Senegal to Chad, the European Union’s growing presence in the Sahel runs through a security environment that the upheaval of recent years has dramatically reshaped.Yet while its efforts to stabilise the Sahel have had some limited successes, the EU’s attempts to integrate security and development initiatives there may prove costly, unsustainable, and incomplete in the long term.

This policy brief assesses EU programmes in the Sahel and aspects of the G5 Sahel, focusing on CSDP missions and other security-related initiatives in Mali and Niger. It is particularly important to re-examine the merits and evolution of these programmes, and the EU’s pursuit of an integrated regional approach, in the current environment, given Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita’s recent re-election – and the departure of two long-serving EU chiefs of mission in Niger and Mali, as well as several other senior EU officials.

For full access to the brief,  Halting Ambition: EU Migration and Security Policy in the Sahel, please follow the link. 

Paper

Halting ambition: EU migration and security policy in the Sahel

This policy brief assesses EU programmes in the Sahel and aspects of the G5 Sahel, focusing on CSDP missions and other security-related initiatives in Mali and Niger. It is particularly important to re-examine the merits and evolution of these programmes, and the EU’s pursuit of an integrated regional approach, in the current environment, given Malian President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita’s recent re-election – and the departure of two long-serving EU chiefs of mission in Niger and Mali, as well as several other senior EU officials.

For full access to the report, Halting ambition: EU migration and security policy in the Sahel, please follow the link.

Paper

L’ordre dans le chaos : stabiliser la Libye au niveau local

Depuis la guerre civile en Libye de 2014, la capacité de gouverner du pays s'est effondrée. Depuis l'instabilité n'a fait que s'aggraver en raison de querelles politiques et notamment l'émergence d'un gouvernement rival. Maintenant, de nouvelles mesures pour stabiliser le pays sont nécessaires.

Pour les Européens, le sort de la Libye reste une priorité centrale étant donné son rôle de pays de transit pour les migrations et d'éventuel incubateur de menaces terroristes. Cette publication de l'ECFR invite les acteurs européens à intensifier leurs efforts de stabilisation en vue d’obtenir des résultats durables.

Dans cette optique, une nouvelle stratégie et une approche multilatérale demeurent le meilleur espoir de mettre fin au cycle destructeur d'instabilité et de reprise des conflits en Libye. 

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, L’ordre dans le chaos : stabiliser la Libye au niveau local, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Guarding the guardians: Ukraine’s security and judicial reforms under Zelensky

Despite Ukrainians’ deep unhappiness with the corruption and inefficiency of the judiciary and security bodies, the Poroshenko administration failed to reform these services. Political interference and personal enrichment have long been part of the practice of these services, overshadowing the strong work they are often capable of and holding back reformist elements. The EU, US, and NATO have worked together on encouraging reform in Ukraine, but they must now ensure that these services remain high in the minds of the Zelensky administration and of Rada members.

To access the full document on Guarding the guardians: Ukraine’s security and judicial reforms under Zelensky, please follow the link. 

Paper