Third World Quarterly (TWQ)

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Policy and Research Papers

A Hybrid Peace through Locally Owned and Externally Financed SSR-DDR in Rwanda

 This article aims to critically examine Rwanda’s SSR-DDR process through a theoretical framework outlining four different models of peace processes in order to identify what sort of peace that can emerge from Rwanda’s SSR-DDR approach. The author analyses how the Rwandan government has managed to keep the SSR-DDR process ‘locally’ owned while largely financed by external actors, despite strong criticism for its apparent lack of democratization. The ‘genocide credit’, the Rwandan government’s preference for national, rather than international solutions and its recent troop contribution to peacebuilding operations in the region are identified as main reasons for this development. The paper argues that the peace emanating from the SSR-DDR process may be considered as a hybrid form of stateformation and statebuilding, due to the local agency’s preference for security and stability while simultaneously enjoying financial and technocratic support for its ‘liberal’ peacebuilding actions in the region. 

The article can be accessed here


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Towards UN Counter-Terrorism Operations?

The United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operation in Mali (MINUSMA) has become among the deadliest in UN history, suffering from attacks by violent extremists and terrorists. There are strong calls to give UN peacekeeping operations more robust mandates and equip them with the necessary capabilities, guidelines and training to be able to take on limited stabilisation and counter-terrorism tasks. This article conceptually develops UN counter-terrorism operations as a heuristic device, and compares this with the mandate and practices of MINUSMA. It examines the related implications of this development, and concludes that while there may be good practical as well as short-term political reasons for moving in this direction, the shift towards UN counter-terrorism operations will undermine the UN’s international legitimacy, its role as an impartial conflict arbiter, and its tools in the peace and security toolbox more broadly, such as UN peacekeeping operations and special political missions.

For full access to the article Towards UN counter-terrorism operations?, kindly follow the link. 

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