World Bank

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Our mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors.

Telephone: (202) 473-1000
Fax: (202) 477-6391
1818 H Street, NW
DC 20433 Washington
No programmes have been added yet.

Africa Union DDR Conference

AU, World Bank mandate in Ethiopia 12/05/2015 - 13/05/2015

The Defence and Security Division (DSD) of the Peace and Security Department (PSD) of the African Union has been implementing a DDR Capacity Programme with support from the World Bank. The Programme aims at strengthening DDR capacities within the AU, its member states, the Regional Economic Communities and Regional Mechanisms to support national and regional DDR initiatives.  It is divided into three pillars, namely institutionalizing DDR capacity in the AU, Knowledge Management and Direct support to member states.  The workshop is being organised under the Knowledge Management component. The two expected products, i.e., the Compendium on DDR Experiences on the African continent and the Training Manual on DDR aim to be tools to train DDR practitioners according to best practices and recent innovations in the field.

 

ISSAT’s participation in the event will strengthen the evolving work relations with the African Union’s Peace and Security Department.

Mandate

SSR Contribution to UN-World Bank Prevention Report

UN, World Bank mandate in UN 01/03/2017 - 30/04/2017

In 2017, the UN and the World Bank requested DCAF's contribution to their planned study on the prevention of violent conflict. DCAF, used its subject-matter expertise to contribute knowledge and operational experience of how SSR processes have supported prevention efforts. DCAF provided the UN and the World Bank with a short paper setting out examples and available elements of evidence reflecting opportunities and entry-points for SSR processes to actively contribute to conflict prevention objectives in various contexts. This enabled the UN and the World Bank to present a more comprehensive definition of conflict prevention thus widening the space for various actors to work together from different angles.

To access the briefing paper by DCAF-ISSAT, The Contribution and Role of SSR in the Prevention of Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link. 

For the final report from the World Bank and UN, Pathways for Peace – Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link. 

Mandate

Assistance to Public Expenditure Review of the Security Sector in Guinea-Bissau

World Bank mandate in Guinea Bissau 04/06/2018 - 30/06/2018

The purpose of the mandate is to assist the World Bank team in finalizing a public expenditure review (PER) of security and justice institutions in Guinea-Bissau. The PER will provide a rapid assessment of the fiscal affordability of the security sector (military and internal security). To this end, it will (i) outline the main historical and sectoral challenges pertaining to security and justice institutions in Guinea-Bissau, including various phases of its security sector reform efforts; (ii) present an overview of security and justice institutions, with an emphasis on the composition of security spending by economic and functional classification; (iii) examine the affordability of security spending against revenue and growth projections as well as benchmark trends in security expenditures against other fragile and neighbouring countries; and (iv) discuss options for policy reform.     

Mandate

Security Officer P3

Application Deadline: 26/04/2018 11:55 pm

To support the management of WFP’s security operations to enable the effective delivery of programmes that meet food assistance needs and maintain the security and safety of WFP personnel, activities and facilities.
KEY ACCOUNTABILITIES (not all-inclusive)

Under the general supervision and guidance of the Manager, the Security Officer will be responsible for the following key duties:

CORE TECHNICAL

  • Keep up to date with and advise upon local security developments and issues and the potential impact upon WFP activity to inform security and operational activities
  • Monitor and maintain an effective security management communications system that enables rapid and coordinated security activities.
  • Supports emergency security preparedness practices to meet emergency food assistance needs.
  • Supports the monitoring and evaluation of WFP activities, providing technical analysis and information as required, to support the assessment of activity impact.
  • Prepare accurate and timely reporting, e.g. mandatory Field Security reports that enable informed decision making and consistency of information presented to stakeholders.
  • Facilitate training sessions as required to build the security capabilities of WFP and external partners.
  • Provides technical advice, guidance and support e.g. security assessments and plans to Country Offices to strengthen the capacity within security and crisis management, contributing to the development of country strategy, policies and planning.
  • Contribute to the development of systems and tools for the monitoring and assessment of security situation needs in line with innovative methodologies and best practices.
  • Act with autonomy in an assigned emergency response capacity as required, to meet emergency food assistance needs.

SOFT SKILLS

  • Maintain productive relationships with local partners to align activities with wider programmes and ensure compliance with security policies and guidance.
  • Assist with communications and negotiations to garner security guarantees or “acceptance” within communities for WFP to operate, including in some cases within NSAG’s areas of control.
  • Represent WFP at local and inter-agency meetings e.g. Security Co-ordination Cells to present relevant security issues and contribute to technical discussions, exchange of knowledge and experience.
  • Manage junior security staff, providing coaching and guidance as required to ensure appropriate development and enable high performance.
  • Take responsibility for incorporating gender perspective in areas of work, to ensure equal participation of women and men.
  • Other duties as required.

For further information on the eligibility and application process of Security Officer P3, please kindly follow the link. 

Vacancy

Tools

Pathways for Peace : Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict

The resurgence of violent conflict in recent years has caused immense human suffering, at enormous social and economic cost. Violent conflicts today have become complex and protracted, involving more non-state groups and regional and international actors, often linked to global challenges from climate change to transnational organized crime. It is increasingly recognized as an obstacle to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.  

To understand ‘what works,’ Pathways for Peace reviews the experience of different countries and institutions to highlight elements that have contributed to peace. Central to these efforts is the need to address grievances around exclusion from access to power, opportunity and security. States hold the primary responsibility for prevention, but to be effective, civil society, the private sector, regional and international organizations must be involved. Enhancing the meaningful participation of women and youth in decision making, as well as long-term policies to address the aspirations of women and young people are fundamental to sustaining peace.

To access the toolkit, Pathways for Peace : Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, please follow the link.

Tool

World Bank Group Strategy for Fragility, Conflict and Violence 2020–2025

Fragility, conflict, and violence (FCV) has become the new development frontier. By 2030, at least half of the world’s poor people will be living in fragile and conflict-affected settings.1 The impact of FCV is particularly profound on the most vulnerable people and communities, whose livelihoods and economic opportunities are threatened. The global fragility landscape has worsened significantly, with more violent conflicts than at any time in the past 30 years; the largest forced displacement crisis since World War II; high levels of interpersonal and gang violence; and conflicts driving 80 percent of all humanitarian needs.

Today, conflict and violence impact more civilians than at any point over the last two decades. FCV situations have a clear impact on poverty and, strikingly, the extreme poverty rate is rising only in fragile countries.2 In many contexts, this is due to large-scale violence, a collapse in basic services delivery, and the weakening of core state functions—dynamics that characterize most FCV situations and represent both a humanitarian and development challenge that calls for comprehensive and coordinated international responses. It will prove impossible to achieve the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity unless fragility, conflict, and violence are tackled.

For these reasons, addressing FCV has become the core business of the World Bank Group (WBG).

Please follow the link provided to access the full concept note World Bank Group Strategy for Fragility, Conflict and Violence  2020–2025.

Tool

Policy and Research Papers

Justice Sector Assessments: A Handbook

This handbook is a practical guide, primarily intended for World Bank staff involved in justice sector assessments. It also may be of interest to the wider justice reform and
development community. Assessment methodologies for other sectors and justice sector assessment methodologies from other institutions have informed the handbook. As far as we could ascertain, this is the first time that practices in justice sector assessments as they have evolved have actually been described. This handbook is not the last word in assessments; rather, it is a basis for further development.

Paper

Legal and Judicial Reform: Strategic Directions

This paper will proceed in four parts. The first part will examine the basic theoretical relationship between legal systems and market-oriented poverty reduction. The second part will examine various elements of legal and judicial reform and current activities. The third part will describe a strategy framework and methodology for designing and preparing legal and judicial activities. Lastly, the fourth part will examine the role of the World Bank and the organizational mechanisms available to the Bank to ensure that its
theoretical and policy approaches are constantly refined for new circumstances and in light of new interdisciplinary research.

Paper

Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment Manual

Legal and judicial reform is a long-term process, and for the process to be sustainable, it requires a corresponding long-term commitment from the countries. For this reason, it is critical that any effort in this area is grounded in a long-term sector strategy that includes reforms targeted at the legal and judicial system as whole and all the relevant stakeholders. Law and justice sector activities must be approached strategically, bringing together all the elements that promote the rule of law through holistic and comprehensive sector reform programs. This approach entails the following sequence:
* Legal and Judicial Sector Assessments
* Development of a comprehensive plan
* Identification of priorities and sequencing based on available capacity and in coordination with other active donors
* Dialogue with the stakeholders throughout each stage

Paper

Judicial Reform: The Why, the What, and the How

For over a decade, the international community has been helping developing nations reform their judiciaries. The World Bank, the Interamerican Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank have extended over $800 million in loans for judicial reform. At the same time, the United Nations Development Program, the European Union and its member states, and the American, Australian, Canadian, and Japanese governments have provided significant grant aid to help developing nations improve the operation of the judicial branch of government. Why are international donors supporting reform? What kinds of projects are included within a reform program? How can a successful reform be achieved?

Paper

Rule of Law Reform in Post-Conflict Countries: Operational Initiatives and Lessons Learnt

This paper aims to provide a tour d’horizon of common operational initiatives and policy approaches adopted by agencies and institutions involved in the area of rule of law reform in fragile or post-conflict countries, and identify key lessons highlighted in the policy literature.

The paper reviews some of the key lessons to have emerged from the last two decades of rule of law experience, typically undertaken in fragile or post-conflict countries (and more generally in developing countries) by a multiplicity of uncoordinated actors and projects. There is a striking lack of systematic results-based evaluations of the programs, especially independent rigorous cross country evaluations, or comprehensive case studies of all the programs in a country. The rule of law expertise that exists is not centralized or institutionalized, and resides in individuals who have often learnt through trial and error. The field lacks a common foundation or basic agreement on the goals of rule of law reform, on how different aspects should be sequenced to avoid them working against each other, and fundamentally what sortsof strategies are effective. The paper highlights 11 important lessons: lack of coherent strategy and expertise; insufficient knowledge of how to bring about change; a general trend to focus on form over function; emphasis on the formal legal system over informal and traditional systems; short-term reforms in contrast to longer term strategies; wholesale vs. incremental and context-determined change; the need for local change agents; how to engender local ownership; rushed and compromised constitution making; poorly designed training and legal education programs; and the need to sequence and prioritize change.

Paper

Transitional Justice, Security and Development

This annex can only provide a brief overview of transitional justice measures (§ I), and summarize an argument that clarifies the aims that these measures arguably are designed to seek (§ II). This is important, in turn, in order to clarify the contributions that transitional justice can make to security and development, particularly in the context of fragility. Contrary to misconceptions, particularly on the part of non-experts, transitional justice is neither past-oriented, nor of concern to victims alone; rather, to the extent that it achieves any of its goals, it does so in virtue of its potential to affirm general but basic norms—therein its potential contributions to both security and development. The argument thus is also meant to counter the perception that transitional justice measures hamper development and reconstruction, or that transitional justice is not urgent in the aftermath of the cessation of conflict (§ III). The next section clarifies the ‘mechanisms’ through which transitional justice can be thought to make their contributions to development, emphasizing their norm affirming function, and their (related) potential to disarticulate and articulate networks (§IV). Finally, I close by showing the relevance of the foregoing analysis to the WDR and offer four cautionary notes about the approach it adopts (§V).

Paper

What is the role of legal and judicial reform in the development process?

This speech, delivered by Amartya Sen at the first World Bank conference on Comprehensive Legal and Judicial Development, discusses the importance of legal reform within a comprehensive development framework. Legal reform advances freedom-a crucial and constitutive quality of comprehensive development. Legal reform is thus important on its own; its cause need not be indirectly established through its contribution to economic development. Legal reform is, however, also causally interconnected with other constitutive elements of comprehensive development. By acting as a platform where the poor have equal voice and by creating the backbone of the capitalist system, a sound legal system is necessary to advance political and economic development.

Paper

Informal and formal systems of rule of law

This Note approaches the interplay of formal and informal justice systems and their respective merits by focussing on the justice needs of people. Needs, as expressed through the demand for justice services, has been neglected by the donor community as a factor in informing approaches and attitudes towards plural legal systems. Instead much of the current debate, both in academia and in the communities of law and development practitioners, has run along quasi-ideological lines, with positions often rooted in beliefs and anecdotes but not in evidence.

Paper

World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development

More than 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by violent conflict.
The World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development examines the changing nature of violence in the 21st century, and underlines the negative impact of repeated cycles of violence on a country or region’s development prospects. Preventing violence and building peaceful states that respond to the aspirations of their citizens requires strong leadership and concerted national and international efforts. The Report is based on new research, case studies and extensive consultations with leaders and development practitioners throughout the world.

World Bank copyright Holder: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development (2011)

Paper

Accidental Partners? Listening to the Australian Defence and Police Experience of the security-development nexus in Conflict-Affected and Fragile State

This paper reports on a consultative dialogue between the World Bank and Australia’s whole-of-government spectrum of institutions, with a focus on development actors ‘hearing’ the security perspective. In this, we join a growing process of dialogue between ‘accidental partners’ – development and security actors, unfamiliar with each other but faced with the same challenge of being engaged in fragile and conflict-affected environments. It presents the results of this consultative dialogue: (1) describing models of engagement from Australia’s operational experience integrating security and development, extracted from the experience in Solomon Islands and Bougainville (2) raising issues about knowing each other and working together, and (3) identifying emerging themes at the junction of security and development, and offering practical ideas to take further.

Paper

Improving Public Financial Management in the Afghan Security Sector

Security is not only a central issue for Afghanistan’s reconstruction and development, it has critical implications for the country’s management of its public finances. This paper by Peter Middlebrook, Nicole Ball, William Byrd and Christopher Ward, reviews Afghanistan’s security sector from the perspective of public finance management (PFM) and development. The Afghan security sector must be integrated into all aspects of the country’s PFM system and subject to all budgetary and fiduciary processes.

Security impacts the gamut of development issues faced by Afghanistan, ranging from state building and capacity development to revenue collection, security delivery and encouraging private sector-led growth. Both the Afghanistan government and external partners highlight security as a key enabling factor for the country’s growth and development. There is a critical need for reliable security to allow the Afghan people to conduct their daily lives in relative safety.

The Afghan security sector accounted for 40% of the country’s national budget as well as external assistance during the years under review, and raises major public finance management issues. In view of these issues, the Government of Afghanistan requested that the World Bank (WB) include the security sector in its PFM Review. This paper is one of five volumes comprising the WB Review titled “Afghanistan: Managing Public Finances for Development”.

Follow this link.

Paper

Security Sector Expenditure Review Sourcebook - Concept Note

The objective is to strengthen policy and operational dialogue on security sector issues by providing national and international stakeholders with the information needed to engage in dialogue on security expenditure policy. The Sourcebook will help inform this dialogue by providing public finance practitioners with a framework for the analysis of financial management, financial oversight and expenditure policy issues in the security sector. The primary audience for the Sourcebook is the staff of international organizations working on public expenditure management and security sector issues and high level government officials. The Sourcebook is expected to reach a broader audience through the process of policy dialogue and training. The audience includes World Bank staff asked to assist in expenditure analysis related to the security sector and the staff of international organizations and development agencies directly involved in security sector reform. However, taking into account World Bank policy the Sourcebook will clearly define the role of World Bank staff in the expenditure review process.

The Sourcebook will be jointly developed by the World Bank, the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) within the United Nations Department of Peace Keeping Operations (DPKO) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), with each partner relying on their respective mandates, competencies and experience.

To view this publication, follow this link.

Paper

The Security Sector and Poverty Reduction Strategies

Provision of security is both a core function of the state and a necessary condition for the delivery of other essential services and investments for poverty reduction. Improving the effectiveness and accountability of security provision is therefore becoming an increasingly important element of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) in countries emerging from conflict.

This note aims to clarify the challenges for integrating security sector priorities into PRSs by drawing on existing and emerging knowledge and practice in conflict-affected countries. Introduced in the late 1990s, Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) are standard tools for developing countries to articulate medium-term macroeconomic and social policies for growth and poverty reduction. Countries take the lead in setting a development plan, while the World Bank and other donors align their assistance programs with those national strategies.
This note focuses specifically on the World Bank’s role in supporting governments during the preparation of PRSs and discusses entry points for engagement in the security sector drawing from experience in a mix of conflictaffected countries. It is intended to serve as a resource for World Bank country teams and their national counterparts when designing PRS processes in countries where improved security has emerged as a national priority.

To view this publication, follow this link.

Paper

Estimating Staffing Needs in the Justice Sector

Justice system agencies around the world continue to seek adequate methods to estimate staffing needs. Especially when caseload rise and budgets are limited, the pressure is on to justify adequate staffing with solid data. The simpler approaches of basing staffing needs on number of cases filed or population numbers have proven to be imprecise at best and seriously flawed at worst. The search for better estimation measures first led to weighted caseload studies, which weighed the complexity and other special needs of different case types. As these methods still did not provide an accurate assessment, efforts continue to be made to develop a more precise measure of not just caseload but workload, a measure that factors in the time spent on managing the case and on the increasing amount of non-case-related work, such as administration, training, outreach, travel, etc. This paper describes the leading approaches (including the analytical, Delphi, and weighted caseload methods) used throughout the world for determining workload among justice sector employees, presenting the benefits and limitations of each. The paper then focuses on what is currently viewed as the more optimum method of the weighted workload study, and offers a step-by-step outline of how this kind of study can be developed and implemented. Also considered are the dual challenges of forecasting future staffing needs and incorporating performance measures to promote quality decision making and cost-efficient court procedures and services. 

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

The Drug Treatment Court Concept: The Jamaican Drug Courts

The drug treatment court model (DTC) model was conceived out of the need to solve the numerous and intractable problems that drug-related cases create for court systems. A DTC is generally seen as a court that deals specifically with offenders who have committed offenses while under the influence of drugs and provides an alternative to incarceration. DTCs make use of a multidisciplinary team involving judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, probation officers, treatment providers, police officers, and educational and vocational experts. The criminal justice and health service systems join to provide drug-dependent offenders with the mechanisms to recover from drug addiction and lead a productive and crime-free life. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of DTCs. After providing an overview of the origins of the DTC, looking at its roots in the United States and Canada, the paper examines the foundation and present-day experiences of DTCs in Jamaica. It also refers to some efforts among various countries in the Western Hemisphere to monitor DTCs and evaluate their effectiveness. The paper concludes with a return to the achievements of DTCs in Jamaica and a brief look at the future of the DTC program worldwide.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

Developing Specialized Court Services: International Experiences and Lessons Learned

Court specialization is commonly considered to be an important reform initiative to advance the development of a successful judicial system. Court specialization is thought useful even to address broader development constraints, such as the need for more effective access to contract enforcement, improvements in the investment climate, or more adequate protection of the environment. Studies from the United States, Australia, and other countries have shown that specialization can be helpful in improving the processing of court cases that are more complex or require special expertise beyond the law, such as in bankruptcy, the environmental, or mental health issues, or cases that must be handled differently to better reflect the needs of a particular court user group, such as business cases or family matters.

These studies have also pointed to some drawbacks, however. For example, special attention to, and the allocation of additional resources for, handling business cases can lead to the perception that a court provides preferential services to the business community but not the average person. In some instances, special courts have been created when the caseload did not actually justify the additional investment, raising questions as to whether the resources could have been better spent on improving overall court operations. In other cases, it was noted that judges who work on only one type of case may develop a deep but narrow expertise that may limit their focus and lead to a restricted view of the law, which may in turn lead to a reduced ability to consider new legal and societal trends that are reflected in other areas of the law. Judges may also develop too close a relationship with a particular group of lawyers and interest groups that are involved in special case types, especially if those groups are relatively small and if judges serve in this special capacity exclusively and for an extended period.

This report outlines the international experiences and good practices related to establishing specialized courts and creating the associated judicial expertise. It specifically highlights the information that is needed to determine if specialization is required in particular areas, as well as the specialization model that may be most appropriate, the requirements of the different models, and the approaches to training and selecting judges for special assignments. The paper also outlines the next steps a jurisdiction might take to examine the potential need and demand for further specialized judicial services and to consider what would be needed to meet those which are justified.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

Caseflow Management: Key Principles and the Systems to Support Them

It has become increasingly clear that courts across the globe must do more to better organize and manage their caseload and that automation alone is not the answer. In response to this need, caseflow management has emerged to become the central method of promoting greater court responsibility and accountability for efficient case processing. For over thirty years court case management concepts have evolved, starting in the US, spreading to other industrialized common law countries initially. Yet, for many judicial systems, the concept, techniques, and supporting systems of caseflow management are still relatively new ideas that need to be more fully understood. This paper helps develop a basic understanding of caseflow management by defining the concept, outlining the various techniques used, presenting in general the different case management information systems that support those techniques, and outlining the core steps a judicial system can take to plan for, select, and implement case management software. The aim is to provide an introduction for assisting judiciaries in developing a caseflow management approach that works best in their own environment.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

"To Whom Do The People Take Their Issues?" The Contribution of Community-Based Paralegals to Access to Justice in South Africa

Paralegals provide a crucial link to justice services and legal redress in South Africa,
particularly for the rural poor. Although post-Apartheid constitutional reforms guaranteed a broad range of rights and benefits to all South Africans, including the right to legal assistance, accessing many of these benefits remains a challenge for those who live in remote areas and those who cannot afford legal representation. Community-based paralegals fill this gap by providing dispute resolution and legal support that is both geographically and financially accessible and informed by a deep understanding of the social issues and everyday challenges facing their clients. Despite the prevalence and importance of paralegals in the South African justice sector, their role remains largely underformalized and understudied. This report seeks to address this gap by providing a broad analysis of the current state of the paralegal sector. It begins with a historical overview of paralegal services in South Africa from the apartheid period to the present. The study then maps the current state of the paralegal sector, and provides detailed information on the structure and function of key organizations that provide paralegal services. Through an analysis of twelve case studies of paralegal-assisted cases, the report identifies facilitating and hindering determinants of CAO functions at both the institutional and organization level.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

Examining the Effectiveness of Legal Empowerment as a Pathway out of Poverty: A Case Study of BRAC

This piece examines the current status of justice and dispute-resolution mechanisms in Bangladesh, ranging from the formal justice system to the traditional shalish (a form of dispute resolution), and focuses on the costs and benefits of utilizing nongovernmental organization (NGO)-led legal services programs as an alternative form of justice delivery and dispute resolution for the poor, with a focus on women and girls. In particular, this paper takes a closer look at the Human Rights and Legal Aid Services (HRLS) program of BRAC, a leading NGO that works to empower the poorest and most vulnerable in Bangladesh and eleven other countries across the world. HRLS provides a combination of BRAC-led shalish, human rights community based education, community mobilization through a corps of community-based outreach workers (known as shebikas), and recourse to the courts via a network of panel lawyers if needed. This paper will examine the successes of this model in rural Bangladesh as well as the challenges it faces in making an impact on solving the justice problems of the poor and contributing to gender equity. Ultimately, it aims to present a case study that illustrates the strengths and challenges of a legal empowerment model that is quickly gaining traction around the world.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

The Justice Innovation Approach: How Justice Sector Leaders in Development Contexts Can Promote Innovation

This article explains that the challenge at the core of the justice innovation approach is not how to build a good prosecution service but rather how strategic justice leaders can contribute to the innovation process so that more justice is delivered. A justice sector leader in the initiation phase must endeavor to articulate a clear vision, break the rules, and foster competition, and then manage risk, reward innovation champions, and fund early development. Once an innovation is in place, its potential for replication and scaling-up should be exploited by creating incentives, staying aware of disruptive innovations, and considering long-term business models. Monitoring mechanisms should insure that new insights are implemented in improved versions immediately. A transitioning country such as Tunisia, where a new social contract is being put in place in the midst of a difficult economic and social context, presents a window of opportunity to adopt and adapt these innovations to a local setting.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

The Fall and Rise of the Rule of Law and the Trope of Ownership

‘The rule of law’ draws extraordinarily diverse supporters. Theorists from the Marxist historian E.P. Thompson to the conservative economist Friedrich Hayek have embraced it; in September 2005 the entire membership of the United Nations committed themselves to it. Such widespread endorsement is possible only because of relative vagueness as to what the term might actually mean.
This poses particular problems in states where rule of any sort is uncertain. The facilitation or imposition of the rule of law in fragile or conflict-affected countries has been something of a growth area since the rediscovery of the rule of law — long discredited after the failed ‘law and development’ efforts of the 1960s and 1970s — in the post-Cold War era.
Yet the enthusiasm and resources devoted to programming in this area have not been matched by much success. Rule of law is invoked as a kind of mantra, but efforts to support or promote it tend to be technical quick-fixes or rhetorical abstractions. In part this is due to the absence of agreement on a definition.
The author’s presentation (from which these brief notes are drawn) will examine the fall and rise of the rule of law, some of the lingering definitional questions, and the use and abuse of the term ‘ownership’ in particular.

Paper

Somalia - Security and Justice Sector Public Expenditure Review

In late 2013, the Ministry of Finance (MoF) of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) requested that the World Bank and UNSOM jointly conduct a public expenditure review of the security and justice sectors (SJPER). An SJPER is a tool to assist policy and operational decision-making, analyze tradeoffs, and provide options on critical financially-related issues in defense, as well as criminal justice and policing. As a tool, rather than a one-off report, it should be used by the authorities and partners going forward in terms of testing the critical policy questions against the key dimensions studied here, including affordability, efficiency and effectiveness and accountability.

For full access to Somalia - Security and Justice Sector Public Expenditure Review, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Madagascar economic update

Even though a large majority of poor households are engaged in agriculture, per capita productivity and real levels of sectoral growth remain low in Madagascar. Approximately 80 percent of the population are engaged in agriculture, which provides the main source of income for households, albeit at subsistence levels. Cultivation practices are based on extensification strategies with implications for Madagascar’s fragile natural resource base, rather than improving the productivity of existing farms and land use. To ensure Madagascar’s growth prospects more inclusively benefit the entire population it will be crucial to improve the productivity of the agriculture sector. The first part of the this economic update has the World Bank’s assessment of recent economic developments and the outlook over the short to medium term in Madagascar. The second part of this update focuses on Agriculture and Rural Development. 

For full access to Madagascar economic update, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project

The objective of the Public Sector Strengthening Project for Guinea-Bissau is to assist the Government to re-establish basic systems for public financial management. There are three components to the project, the first component being performance, control and transparency of the public revenues. This component will support the Recipient is to progressively improve its technical capacity to handle revenue processes through adequate procedural and control systems to increase tax and customs revenue collection, as well as the efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of revenue administration. This component includes three sub-components: technical assistance to tax collection; technical assistance to customs administration; and treasury single account. Finally, the second component is the expenditure control, procurement, accounting and reporting. This component will support the recipient to strengthen controls needed for fiscal discipline and promote transparency and accountability in public expenditures. Finally, the third component is the public financial management reform coordination and project management. This component will support the recipient to implement a mechanism for a structured approach to public financial management reform and institutional capacity strengthening. 

For full access to Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Guinea-Bissau - Public Expenditure Review Update : Enhancing Growth and Fiscal Adjustment Through Civil Service Reform

Guinea-Bissau's large public sector wage bill poses a major threat to the country's macroeconomic stability: it hampers growth, limits the government's ability to service the domestic and external debt, and crowds out private investments. For this reason, the government decided in early 2006 to retrench more than 2,800 civil servants in a first phase, and about 1,600 military later. The objectives of this public expenditure review (PER) update are to: (i) review progress in macroeconomic and fiscal management since the previous PER; (ii) analyze the issue of compensation benefits in the context of the ongoing civil service reform; and (ii) update the debt sustainability analysis for Guinea-Bissau. Besides this introduction, the report includes three main chapters on macroeconomic management, improving the fiscal situation, and debt sustainability. The report also gives a final conclusion and discusses the way forward.

For full access to Guinea-Bissau - Public Expenditure Review Update : Enhancing Growth and Fiscal Adjustment Through Civil Service Reform, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project

The objective of the Public Sector Strengthening Project for Guinea-Bissau is to assist the Government to re-establish basic systems for public financial management. There are three components to the project, the first component being performance, control and transparency of the public revenues. This component will support the Recipient is to progressively improve its technical capacity to handle revenue processes through adequate procedural and control systems to increase tax and customs revenue collection, as well as the efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of revenue administration. This component includes three sub-components: technical assistance to tax collection; technical assistance to customs administration; and treasury single account. Finally, the second component is the expenditure control, procurement, accounting and reporting. This component will support the recipient to strengthen controls needed for fiscal discipline and promote transparency and accountability in public expenditures. Finally, the third component is the public financial management reform coordination and project management. This component will support the recipient to implement a mechanism for a structured approach to public financial management reform and institutional capacity strengthening.

For full access to Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Pathways for Peace : Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict

Pathways for Peace is a joint United Nations–World Bank Group study that originates from the conviction that the international community’s attention must urgently be refocused on prevention. A scaled-up system for preventive action would save between US$5 billion and $70 billion per year, which could be reinvested in reducing poverty and improving the wellbeing of populations.

The study aims to improve the way in which domestic development processes interact with security, diplomacy, mediation, and other efforts to prevent conflicts from becoming violent. It stresses the importance of grievances related to exclusion—from access to power, natural resources, security and justice, for example—that are at the root of many violent conflicts today.

For full access to Pathways for Peace : Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Shifting to Prevention: UN-World Bank Study on Prevention of Violent Conflicts

This paper summarizes the findings of the UN-World Bank Study on Prevention of Violent Conflicts (WB-UNDPPBSO-DPA-DPKO) regarding prevention.

For full access to, Shifting to Prevention: UN-World Bank Study on Prevention of Violent Conflicts, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 : From World Development Indicators

The Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 is a visual guide to the trends, challenges and measurement issues related to each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The Atlas features maps and data visualizations, primarily drawn from World Development Indicators (WDI) - the World Bank’s compilation of internationally comparable statistics about global development and the quality of people’s lives. Given the breadth and scope of the SDGs, the editors have been selective, emphasizing issues considered important by experts in the World Bank’s Global Practices and Cross Cutting Solution Areas. Nevertheless, The Atlas aims to reflect the breadth of the Goals themselves and presents national and regional trends and snapshots of progress towards the UN’s seventeen Sustainable Development Goals related to: poverty, hunger, health, education, gender, water, energy, jobs, infrastructure, inequalities, cities, consumption, climate, oceans, the environment, peace, institutions, and partnerships.

For full access to Atlas of Sustainable Development Goals 2018 : From World Development Indicators, please follow the link. 

Paper

Women, Business and the Law 2018

No economy can grow to its full potential unless both women and men participate fully. As half the world’s population, women have an equal role in driving economic growth. Women, Business and the Law 2018 is the fifth edition in a series of biennial reports measuring the legal obstacles to women who engage in economic activity around the world. 

The analysis draws on newly-collected data across seven indicators: accessing institutions, using property, getting a job, providing incentives to work, going to court, building credit, and protecting women from violence. The study expands coverage to 189 economies around the world. The data show the challenge many women face in the quest for economic opportunity. One hundred and four economies still prevent women from working in certain jobs, simply because they are women. In 59 economies there are no laws on sexual harassment in the workplace. And in 18 economies, husbands can legally prevent their wives from working.

What actions can be taken to increase economic opportunity for women? How can governments improve labor market participation by their female citizens? Hard data helps answer these questions. By informing politicians about the legal obstacles to women’s economic opportunities, Women, Business and the Law makes a contribution towards promoting gender equality. The study celebrates the progress that has been made while emphasizing the work that remains to ensure equality of opportunity. 

For full access to the report, Women, Business and the Law 2018, please follow the link. 

Paper

Customary Justice and Legal Pluralism in Post-Conflict and Fragile Societies

While there has been a growing interest in customary justice systems among rule of law practitioners, it has remained very much at the margins of justice reform strategies. This session will challenge us to view customary justice and other forms of legal pluralism not as a side issue, but as a fundamental part of the justice landscapes in which we work. It will take a critical stance in reviewing the current range of overall policy approaches to legal pluralism and the preconceptions and assumptions that underlie those approaches. It will seek to identify and critically review how different approaches (rights-based, developmental, expanding access to justice, peace-building, state-building etc.,) tend to “frame the problem” when it comes to engagement with legal pluralism and will reflect specifically on how these approaches affect a range of key post conflict objectives. Finally it will consider the building blocks needed to define strategic objectives for engagement with legal pluralism.

Paper

Other Documents

Politically Smart and Locally Led Justice Programming: Learning From Other Sectors

This briefing draws on a workshop held by the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and the Law and Development Partnership (LDP) in September 2014 which brought together representatives from donor, practitioner and researcher communities. The purpose was to share and learn from like-minded organisations and to consider the implications for the justice sector, where these ways of working are still relatively incipient. We first set out here what politically smart, locally led programming entails. From this, we distil a number of operational principles emerging from programmes applying these approaches across a range of sectors. We then turn specifically to justice programming: what is unique about working in the justice sector and why politically smart, locally led efforts are critical to achieving success. Finally, we provide a set of recommendations for funders and implementers undertaking justice programming that can help deliver more politically smart, locally led ways of working. 

Full access to the briefing: Politically Smart and Locally Led Justice Programming: Learning From Other Sectors

Other Document

How Can Fragile and Conflict-Affected States Improve Their Legitimacy With Their People?

Fragility, conflict, and violence affect development outcomes for more than two billion people. This poses a particular challenge to development organizations, governments, and NGOs alike.

On December 5, 2016, the World Bank and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy convened a day-long conference to discuss some of these challenges, share the latest research, and exchange knowledge and experience from the field.

To access the entire conference report How Can Fragile and Conflict-Affected States Improve Their Legitimacy With Their People?, kindly click on the link.

Other Document

World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law

Why are carefully designed, sensible policies too often not adopted or implemented? When they are, why do they often fail to generate development outcomes such as security, growth, and equity? And why do some bad policies endure? This World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law addresses these fundamental questions, which are at the heart of development.

To access the entire report World Development Report 2017: Governance and the Law, kindly click on the link.

Other Document

Initiatives in Justice Reform 1992-2012

Initiatives in justice reform are a compendium of World Bank-financed activities in justice reform that has been published by the World Bank in seven editions since 2000. This eighth volume of initiatives in justice reform presents brief summaries of World Bank justice reform projects, grants, and research by region and by country, in alphabetical order. In their totality, these descriptions highlight the breadth of the Bank's work in this critical field of development. The importance of a sound justice sector to development is illustrated in cross country data sets such as the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) indicators and the World Bank Institute's (WBI) governance indicators, which demonstrate a correlation between deficiencies in the rule of law and negative economic and social development. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) annual publication doing business also provides a quantitative measure for comparing business regulations in 10 indicator sets across 183 economies. Four general themes emerge as common elements in World Bank justice reform assistance: 1) court management and performance, 2) access to justice, 3) legal information and education, and 4) justice in development.

To access the entire article Initiatives in justice reform 1992-2012, kindly click on the link. 

Other Document