Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace is a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States. Founded in 1910, its work is nonpartisan and dedicated to achieving practical results.

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Policy and Research Papers

Lessons not learned: Problems with Western Aid for Law Reform in Postcommunist Countries

Those who work in the legal reform business generally expected greater impact from this investment in new laws. Analysts, drafters, and project implementers often assumed that market forces would propel a greater level of implementation once the right laws were in place. Instead, a number of common problems repeatedly appear as counterparts in beneficiary countries have moved from legislation to implementation.

These problems have been independently identified by numerous legal reform professionals. They
can be summarized as follows:
• Lack of ownership: Laws are often translated or adopted wholesale from another system as “hasty transplants,” without the necessary careful, patient adaptation to the local legal and commercial culture and without substantial involvement by the stakeholders most directly affected, including the private sector and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), not simply government counterparts.
• Insufficient resources: Law reform projects are too short term and too lightly funded to create the needed mechanisms and processes that would permit sufficient absorption through broadbased discussion and sustained participation in the process of reform.
• Excessive segmentation: Overly narrow diagnoses and responses to legal shortcomings produce projects that ignore systemic problems and fail to add up to an integrated, effective whole.


Missed Opportunity: The Politics of Police Reform in Egypt and Tunisia

Published by the Carnegie Middle East Center, this paper engages with Egypt and Tunisia's "missed opportunity": four years after popular uprisings forced the countries' longtime leaders from power, police forces and security agencies genuinely accountable to democratically elected civilian authorities have not emerged. The author argues that, until governments reform their security sectors, rather than appease them, the culture of police impunity will deepen and democratic transition will remain impossible in Egypt and at risk in Tunisia.

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Governing Cyberspace: A Road Map for Transatlantic Leadership

Cybertechnologies are rapidly changing the international landscape, but leaders in government, business, and elsewhere are just beginning to understand the ramifications, both good and bad, of an interconnected digital world. Weak international governance of cyberspace stands in stark contrast to the accelerating pace of challenges. Carnegie Europe argues that to shape the regimes that govern cyberspace to the advantage of generations to come, the United States and the European Union should forge a joint policy vision.

For the full report on Governing Cyberspace: A Road Map for Transatlantic Leadership, kindly follow the link.


Crumbling States: Security Sector Reform in Libya and Yemen


This paper by Yezid Sayigh from the Carnegie Middle East Center explores the evolution of the security sectors in Libya and Yemen in the years following the popular uprisings of 2011. The author argues that, as struggles for control over the security sectors became central to transitional politics, the security institutions collapsed by 2014 instead of being reformed and upgraded to enhance the legitimacy of the interim governments.

The paper first looks at the similarities in the security sector dynamics in both cases and the challenges of security sector reform, before going on to an in-depth account of the security sector of Libya and then Yemen. Finally, political lessons from the countries' experiences as well as recommendations are presented and conclude the paper. 

To access the paper Crumbling States: Security Sector Reform in Libya and Yemen, kindly follow the link.


Dilemmas of Reform: Policing in Arab Transitions

This article by Yezid Sayigh from the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace analyses the dilemmas and challenges facing security sector reform in Arab states. Struggles over the security sector have been central to the politics of every Arab state that has undergone transition in the wake of armed conflict or political upheaval since the early 1990s. And wherever pre-transition elite coalitions have been neither forged anew nor replaced, security sectors no longer clearly serve a dominant political, social, and economic order. In these contexts, generic Western models of security sector reform cannot adequately resolve the dilemmas revealed by Arab states in transition and can do no more than alter these sectors superficially. Systemic change is needed, but the political and institutional brittleness of Arab states in transition presents a significant obstacle.

For full access to the paper Dilemmas of Reform: Policing in Arab Transitions, kindly follow the link.


Ukraine Reform Monitor: April 2017

In the past year, Ukraine’s reforms proceeded more slowly than previously against the background of consolidation of executive power under President Petro Poroshenko, resistance from oligarchs, and opposition in the parliament. The Carnegie Endowment relaunches the Ukraine Reform Monitor, which provides independent, fact-based, rigorous assessments of the scope and quality of reforms in Ukraine. 

For full access to Ukraine Reform Monitor: April 2017, kindly follow the link. 


Ukraine’s Toughest Fight: The Challenge of Military Reform

Ukraine is undertaking comprehensive reform of its armed forces, necessitated by conflict in the east of the country. The combat-hardened army now fighting in the Donbas region bears little resemblance to the one that suffered heavy losses when fighting with Russian-backed separatists first broke out in 2014. The country’s armed forces are larger and better equipped than ever before, numbering 200,000 active-service military personnel. Ukraine’s government has committed to major structural reforms to ensure that its armed forces meet NATO standards by 2020, a crucial step toward the country’s goal of NATO accession. 

To access the full article, Ukraine’s Toughest Fight: The Challenge of Military Reform, please follow the link. 


Toward a New EU Democracy Strategy

This working paper assesses the evolution of EU democracy support policies in recent years and proposes a number of improvements that a new policy framework might offer. The union has focused on improving microlevel tactics, but it most urgently needs a rethink at the macrolevel of its democracy strategies. Ironically, in the last ten years EU approaches to democracy have slowly become more sophisticated and sensitive at the implementation level yet have lost traction because they have failed to keep up with larger political and strategic changes within and beyond Europe. The paper proposes ten action points built around the need for the EU to be more proactive and flexible in supporting democracy and to link democracy support to the union’s changing approach to geopolitical challenges.

Te get full access to the paper Toward a New EU Democracy Strategy, please follow the link.$


Other Documents

Ukraine Reform Monitor: October 2015

This memo discusses the Ukraine Reform Monitor, which provides independent, rigorous assessments of the extent and quality of reforms in Ukraine. The Carnegie Endowment has assembled an independent team of Ukraine-based scholars to analyze reforms in four key areas; political and judicial reform, Economy policy, National security, and Decentralization. This second memo covers August and September 2015.

Article on the Ukraine Reform Monitor: October 2015

Other Document