The European Union is a unique economic and political partnership between 27 European countries. It has delivered half a century of peace, stability, and prosperity, helped raise living standards, launched a single European currency, and is progressively building a single Europe-wide market in which people, goods, services, and capital move among Member States as freely as within one country.
On the 5th of July 2016, an "EU-wide Strategic Framework on SSR Support" was adopted to enhance the impact and sustainability of its efforts in supporting SSR processes. In order to ensure the implementation of this framework, the European Union Security Sector Governance Facility project was set up.The EU SSG Facility, funded by the Instrument contributing to Stability and Peace (IcSP), provides a unique service to all EU actors and instruments – political/diplomatic; external action instruments; crisis response; and CSDP civilian and military actors at all levels – in providing responsive, flexible and effective expertise for emerging needs in countries undergoing security sector reform and transformation.
The consortium responsible for implementing the Facility comprises the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF); the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA); and Justice Coopération Internationale (JCI).
The Facility is jointly steered by the European Commission Foreign Policy Instrument (FPI); the European External Action Service PRISM division (Prevention of conflicts, Rule of law/SSR, Integrated approach, Stabilization and Mediation); and the Facility’s Key Experts. This will
ensure that all requests for support missions are treated in a structured and transparent manner and that deployed expertise best matches the needs and expectations of the Facility’s beneficiaries, and meets the highest standards.
The Facility includes recognized experts with experience in the security, justice and governance sector, supported by a solid, experienced backstopping team drawn from the individual consortium members. The team includes:
- Thomas Vennen, Head
- Guillaume Lacaille, Principal Advisor
- Antoine Hanin, Methodological Advisor
- Victoria Walker, Backstopping Coordinator
- Krisztina Szalachy, Administrative Assistant.
To contact the team in Brussels, please use this address firstname.lastname@example.org or by postal address: 24 avenue des arts (boîte 8), 1000 Brussels.
The Delegation of the European Union and UNDP provided preliminary support to the CAR authorities in their holistic SSR process through the establishment of an eight person multi-disciplinary team. The team, which was due to disperse on 18 December, worked within the Permanent Technical Secretariat of the SSR Sectoral Committee and embedded within the relevant ministries.
The EU delegation in CAR requested the assistance of DCAF/ ISSAT to review the work of the multi-disciplinary team and to make recommendations on potential short-term bridging projects (first mission), as well as recommendations for additional support under the EU's Instrument for Stability (second mission).
The European Court of Auditors carried out a performance audit assessing the effectiveness of the European Union’s assistance to Kosovo in the field of the Rule of Law.
ISSAT has been requested to contribute to a panel of experts that will support the audit team through providing relevant inputs and suggestions to the methodology and areas of focus, as well as providing comments to the audit team findings and conclusions. ISSAT provided one advisor to the process to provide substantive and methodological inputs and comments.
The mission's main objective was to directly monitor the implementation of the Trust Funds intervention, as it is being executed by the national counterpart (The National Commission on DDR). It sought to ensure that the EU's contribution was being properly used and invested in DDR activities, guaranteeing proper impact, taking into consideration Human Rigts with strong focus on aid effectiveness.
The EU wanted to define if and how to support the military justice sector in the DRC. ISSAT had been asked to support the EU delegation with the definition of a strategy:
- Establishing an inventory of needs in the military justice sector on the basis of various freely available documents, and through interviews in the DRC. This inventory could help the EU to define if and how to support the military justice sector.
- On the basis of the inventory, to identify entry points for intervention, specifically concrete actions in which the EU delegation in the DRC could engage in the future.
More specifically, the goal was to get an overview of the state of play with respect to the following: legal frameworks, means, effectiveness, functioning (institutional independence), and access to justice and civ-mil relations. The target audience was the delegation of the European Commission (EC) in Kinshasa and other EC services.
Following a consultative process involving the European Commission Delegation to the DRC and DFID DRC, we identified a need to develop in detail practical options for enhancing international support on police reform in DRC - which is widely recognised as a key priority in promoting peace and stability in the country - with a particular focus in improving community security in the East in the short to medium term whilst also supporting long term efforts to promote institutional reform of the police sector in line with the priorities established within the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework.
In its Conclusions, the Foreign Affairs Council of 18 May 2015 has invited the High Representative and the Commission to develop by mid-2016 an EU-wide strategic framework for SSR, to substitute the two existing policy concepts (one for the Commission and one for the Council).
In the framework of the programme "building AU capacities in SSR", a joint AU-UN-EU technical assessment mission (JAR) on SSR in Guinea Bissau will take place on 2-12 March.The EU delegation to Guinea Bissau will represent the EU. The purpose of this mandate is to technically and exclusively support the EU participation to the JAR and, after the end of this mission, conduct an EU workshop to help EU to understand the general principles of SSR and identify ways forward for EU support to SSR in Guinea Bissau.
The five-day training will bring together approximately 25 participants from the Dutch government and its partners, NGOs, as well as EU staff from Headquerters and the field. Some representatives from beneficiary countries and/ or multilateral organisations will also attend. The course includes several modules covering topics such as the concept and policy framework of SSR, governance, police and justice reform, defence reform, as well effective advising. Special focus will be paid to the introduction of practical examples through case studies. Interactive co-learning methodologies and simulation exercises that encourage participants to share their own experiences will be used throughout the course.
The five-day training will bring together approximately 25 participants from the Dutch government, NGOs, Dutch partners, as well as EU staff from Headquarters and the field. The course includes several modules covering topics such as the concept and the contexts of SSR, governance, police and justice reform, defence reform as well as coordination. Special focus will be paid to the introduction of practical examples through case studies. Interactive co-learning methodologies and simulation exercises that encourage participants to share their own experiences will be used throughout the course.
Building on the mechanism of the informal dialogue on Defence Sector Reform (DSR) established between the three organizations, the workshop aims to provide a platform for exchange among experts and practitioners from the UN, EU and NATO. The workshop also presents an opportunity to expand the dialogue to other actors in the area of DSR, in particular the African Union and the Economics Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
The workshop provides an opportunity to the appointed DSR focal points and relevant experts from partner organizations to identify practical challenges and possible approaches to enhance cooperation throughout the planning, implementation and monitoring of DSR support. This is intended to place the focus of the discussion on issues arising in practical cooperation, to ensure a more effective and efficient delivery of DSR in the field.
Cette mission, qui s'est déroulée du 27 novembre au 16 décembre 2017, avait pour finalité un travail de récolte et d’analyse d’information de la part des sept experts de l’équipe. Plus de 220 personnes ont été consultées via des entretiens individuels, collectifs et focus groupe, plus d’une centaine de documents récoltés, et desobservations in situ à Niamey et à Dosso ont été réalisées. Les experts ont couvert l’ensemble des institutions régaliennes, des ministères aux forces de sécurité et de défense, de l’ensemble des acteurs de la justice ainsi que des instituions étatique et non-étatiques jouant un rôle de gouvernance. Le rapport pays final intégrera également les résultats des enquêtes de perception menées dans les huit régions du Niger. Ces enquêtes se concentrent sur la perception des populations par rapport aux problématiques de sécurité et de justice ainsi que celle des forces de sécurité et des acteurs de la justice eux-mêmes.
Dans le cadre du projet EU Sahel,DCAf-ISSAT a déployé une équipe de quatre experts à Ouagadougou pour prendre contact avec des représentants de ministères, de délégations multilatérales et bilatérales et de la société civile, en particulier avec la délégation de l'UE au Burkina Faso et le projet PARSIB (Projet d’appui au renforcement de la sécurité intérieure au Burkina Faso).
In the framework of the Sahel SSR assessment process, DCAF-ISSAT will deploy a team of experts for a one week exploratory mission to liaise with representatives from relevant ministries, foreign bilateral and multilateral delegations, civil society, as well as the EU delegation and other international partners.
The Zimbabwe Peace and Security Programme (ZPSP) was designed and implemented on behalf of the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Trust (ZPST), a legally constituted and Zimbabwean owned and driven organisation registered as a Trust in Zimbabwe. It aimed to contribute, through impartial and professional technical assistance, to the effective and sustainable modernisation and transformation of the security sector in Zimbabwe. The fragile political environment in Zimbabwe led the ZPSP to engage in a dialogue with a wide variety of SSR stakeholders, in order to build their knowledge and information on SSR, demystify the notion of SSR as regime change (as it has been patent in the internal political discourse), and foster consensus on the way forward in terms of security reforms’ thinking in the country. Its ability to engage such broad range of stakeholders, as well as the thus far political sustainability of the programme in an SSR-adverse environment, deserve to be understood.
The innovative dimension of the process led the EU and the Government of Switzerland to request ISSAT to undertake a review to document the trajectory of the ZPSP, with a view to identifying lessons and mapping potential good practice, which is still greatly absent from the growing academic and policy production on SSR experiences in Africa. The results of that review can be seen in http://issat.dcaf.ch/Learn/SSR-in-Practice/Case-Studies/Zimbabwe-Peace-and-Security-Programme
Following from that, the purpose of this mandate was to present the findings of the report to the international community in Harare, as a means of facilitating discussion and garnering support for the SST process going forward, and to help facilitate coordination amongst the international community. In addition the mandators also requested that ISSAT provideed some advice and support to ZPSP in planning the design of the next phase of their programme.
DCAF‐ISSAT a déployé une équipe composée de 5 conseillers RSS et d'une conseillère méthodologie pour afin de réaliser des entretiens avec des représentants des organisations bilatérales et multilatérales, de la société civile, ainsi que de la délégation de l'Union Européenne au Tchad, dans le cadre d'une mission de trois semaines à N'Djamena.
At the end October 2017, ISSAT lead a scoping mission to Niger in order to allow the methodology team to establish contacts with the representatives of the European Union, the Niger authorities and main technical and financial partners as well as civil society actors. These meetings were essential in order to prepare the main mission of the justice, governance, defence and internal security teams, held in December 2017 over a period of three months.
Policy and Research Papers
Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy - Providing Security in a Changing World
The European Council adopted the European Security Strategy (ESS) in December 2003. For the first time, it established principles and set clear objectives for advancing the EU's security interests based on our core values.
This report does not replace the ESS, but reinforces it. It examines how the European Union has fared in practice, and what is to be done to improve implementation.
To view this publication, follow this link.
The European security strategy was drawn up under the authority of the EU's High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, Javier Solana, and adopted by the Brussels European Council of 12 and 13 December 2003. It identifies the global challenges and key threats to the security of the Union and clarifies its strategic objectives in dealing with them, such as building security in the EU's neighbourhood and promoting an international order based on effective multilateralism. It also assesses the policy implications that these objectives have for Europe.
To view the publication, follow this link.
Rethinking Timorese Identity as a Peacebuilding Strategy: The Lorosa’e – Loromonu Conflict from a Traditional Perspective
Since 2006 East Timor has been faced with a crisis of internal conflict. A deepening regional and social division has become tangible for the first time since independence. This conflict or division was defined by animosities, distrust and eventually street fights between people considered to be either of Lorosa’e (Eastern) or Loromonu (Western) region and background. Violence erupted out of widespread perceptions that discrimination against such regional groupings permeated state institutions, particularly in the security sector. From here unrest spread and led to the large-scale displacement of parts of the population that is still ongoing. The most significant damage caused by this crisis was to the internal relationships that had until then bound the country together. This article is an attempt to analyse the impact of the government-sponsored dialogue and peace-making initiatives by international actors present in East Timor on the root causes underlying the eruption of violence.
To access the entire conference report Rethinking Timorese Identity as a Peacebuilding Strategy: The Lorosa’e – Loromonu Conflict from a Traditional Perspective , kindly click on the link.
Joint communication on elements for an EU-wide strategic framework to support security sector reform
This joint communication by the European Commission and the High Representative Federica Mogherini outlines proposed measures to enhance the European Union's effectiveness in supporting stability, security, and development in third countries.
The document first presents the rationale for an EU-wide Security Sector Reform (SSR) support framework, before developing its different elements. The objectives of the strategic framework are presented, namely ensuring security for individuals and the state as well as the legitimacy, good governance, integrity, and sustainability of the security sector. The key elements and principles to achieving these objectives are then detailed, notably enabling broad national ownership, systematic political and policy dialogue, or balancing long-term systemic change with immediate security needs, among others. The joint communication then details areas of engagement for EU support before touching upon the monitoring and evaluation of the policy recommendations.
To access the Joint communication on elements for an EU-wide strategic framework to support security sector reform, kindly follow the link.