European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS)

The European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) is an agency of the European Union. It operates under the Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The EUISS is an autonomous agency with full intellectual freedom. As a think tank it researches security issues of relevance for the EU and provides a forum for debate. In its capacity as an EU agency, it also offers analyses and forecasting to the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

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Case Studies

Security Sector Reform in Afghanistan: the EU’s contribution

European Union Institute for Security Studies

Selected Resources 

Publication: Militarized versus Civilian Policing: Problems of Reforming the Afghan National Police, Peace Research Institute Frankfurt

Publication: Reforming Afghanistan's Police, International Crisis Group

The EU engages in aspects of Security Sector Reform (SSR) through EUPOL Afghanistan, the police mission launched in 2007, and through the European Commission’s contributions to justice reform in the country. Based on an analysis of past efforts at police reform by the EU and other European and international actors, this Occasional Paper identifies a set of internal and external coordination challenges that hamper mission success.

Internally, institutional constraints have meant that the coordination of EU instruments has been difficult to achieve. Member States, meanwhile, have until recently focused primarily on bilateral contributions to police and justice reform in the case of Germany and Italy, respectively, or on their military contributions to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). Externally, the resource gap and differing philosophies underlying police reform on the part of the US (the biggest contributor to police reform) and the EU have meant that coordination has been lacking, and existing coordination bodies unable to fulfil their tasks.

Limited resources deployed in pursuit of police reform exacerbate these difficulties as inadequate commitments of political, material and personnel resources all too often translate into a loss of political influence at the strategic level.

Case Study

Policy and Research Papers

Enabling partners to manage crises: From ‘train and equip’ to capacity-building

One important corollary of the Comprehensive Approach is the so-called ‘security-development nexus’, according to which security and development are two sides of the same coin. In any crisis situation, a decent level of security is a precondition to sustainable development, while development, in turn, allows for peace to endure.

Over the last two years, this nexus has led to fresh debates within the EU on how best to combine security activities – including CSDP operations – and the longer-term building of third states’ and international organisations’ capacity for crisis management. The African continent has been the primary focus of these discussions, mainly in the context of Mali and Somalia – where two EU training missions are deployed alongside a wide range of support activities – but also in the framework of EU support to the African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA).

In these different cases, the provision of military equipment has been given particular attention. Both the December 2013 European Council and the April 2014 EU-African Union (AU) summit stressed the importance of enhancing partner countries’ capabilities through the supply of equipment, either as a complement to CSDP operations or as a separate measure.

The High Representative and the Commission were then tasked to further work on the issue and, on 28 April 2015, released a Joint Communication on ‘Capacity-building in support of security and development – Enabling partners to prevent and manage crises’. The forthcoming European Council is expected to give further guidance on the way forward.

For the full report about Enabling partners to manage crises: From ‘train and equip’ to capacity-building, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Understanding African armies

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This report by the Institute for Security Studies, which focuses on key features of African armed forces, serves as an introductory guide to those interested not only in the military institutions themselves, but also the context in which European CSDP operations in Africa are deployed.

Capacity-building and training missions on the African continent are confronted with challenges which are often the result of regional, historical, economic and political processes – but also the outcome of divergences which exist between European and African security environments, among African forces themselves and with regard to threats faced. In presenting this analysis of African armies, this publication aims to foster increased understanding of the relevant issues, and enhance European effectiveness in this field.

For full access to the report on Understanding African armies, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Civilian crisis management: Towards a new paradigm

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This article by Thierry Tardy from the European Union Institute for Security Studies (ISS) explores the recent developments in the conceptual and practical boundaries of EU civilian crisis management (CCM), an issue that comprises security sector reform, good governance, support to the rule of law and to political processes.

The author argues that the current evolution of the security environment and of the EU's institutional setting has transformed CCM in at least two ways. First, CCM has become a broad-ranging activity that not only cuts across all forms of EU external action but also concerns the internal security agenda. Outside of the EU, CCM implies the combination of security-related activities and Commission-led programmes. Closer to the EU or even within it, security challenges such as organised crime, illegal migration or terrorism have made the traditional divide between internal and external security increasingly irrelevant and led to calls for greater interaction between different levels of EU action. Second, the range of EU bodies that now deal with CCM goes beyond the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) and European Commission entities to include the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) agencies.

To access the article on Civilian crisis management:  Towards a new paradigm, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Prospects for EU-India Security Cooperation

What common security challenges face the European Union and India, and how can the two regions cooperate to find common solutions? The Observer Research Foundation, the EU Institute for Security Studies, and Chatham House – The Royal Institute of International Affairs, undertook a project to discuss and provide potential policy proposals for India-EU collaboration on three areas of common concern: West Asia (the Middle East), Maritime Security, and Radicalisation/counter-terrorism. This report explores these areas and contains recommendations for the next steps required to reinvigorate the security component of the EU-India Strategic Partnership.

For full access to the report Prospects for EU-India Security Cooperation, kindly follow the link.  

Paper

Can Peace Become Affordable? Lessons from Security Sector Expenditure Reviews in West Africa

West Africa and the Sahel continue to be plagued by fragility, conflict and violence. Faced with challenges ranging from the spread of Boko Haram to persisting food insecurity, forced displacement, and youth unemployment, the region needs help. In response, the international community has marshalled significant resources to support governments in fostering the essential preconditions for peace – inclusive security and sustainable development. Such tasks can devour the funds of even the most ambitious aid programmes, while the reality of budgetary constraints calls for a constant search for efficiency.

The European Union’s engagement in Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a case in point. Transforming security and justice systems in fragile states is one of the top priorities of the EU’s external action. According to its 2016 SSR framework, the EU will help partner countries put the military under civilian oversight and provide effective, legitimate and accountable security and justice services to their citizens. EU programmes will apply a comprehensive approach aimed at: (i) formulating integrated security and justice policies and setting up national coordination mechanisms; (ii) providing training and non-lethal equipment to defence and security forces; and (iii) building internal accountability mechanisms and systems for human resources planning, budgeting, and financial management.

In 2017, €2.5 billion in Official Development Assistance (ODA) managed by the European Commission was allocated to governance and civil society, including SSR. There are ongoing or planned rule-of-law, security and justice programmes in more than 40 countries worldwide. In West Africa, EU institutions have channeled over €100 million to finance the nascent 5,000-strong G5 Sahel Joint Force, while assistance for stabilisation in the region has reached €400 million.

The EU has also launched three Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions. In Mali and Niger, capacity-building missions (EUCAP) provide technical assistance, training and equipment for internal security forces to fight against terrorism, organised crime and irregular migration. The EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM) has been helping the government to restructure eight army battalions.6 France has deployed 4,000 soldiers for Operation Barkhane in Mali, Niger, and Chad, an endeavour that costs about €600 million per year. Meanwhile, development funding to improve security outcomes by tackling the root causes of conflict has also risen. The EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa allocated almost €1 billion to Lake Chad and the Sahel, with projects in Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal supporting youth employment, private sector development, social protection, health and education.

Given the scale of the investment, the following questions arise: what is the value for money of each additional euro spent on strengthening West Africa’s armies and police? How can SSR assistance lead to effective and sustainable reforms, and ultimately contribute to reduce fragility, conflict and violence?

This Brief seeks to answer these questions by analysing the introduction and implementation of the security sector public expenditure review (PER), a public sector governance instrument that assesses the economy, effectiveness and efficiency of governments’ security and defence allocations, including SSR programmes. Developed by the World Bank in partnership with the United Nations, this data-driven assessment tool can facilitate a policy dialogue between civilian administrators, soldiers, and diplomats on the affordability of armies and police, and can therefore maximise the impact of security assistance programmes. Following an overview of security expenditures in West Africa, the Brief outlines the genesis of security sector PERs and highlights lessons learned from implementation in Liberia, Mali and Niger. The conclusion then offers recommendations on how PERs can be applied by the EU to ensure affordability and national ownership of defence and security assistance programmes.

For full access to the policy brief, Can Peace Become Affordable? Lessons from Security Sector Expenditure Reviews in West Africa, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Other Documents

Improving SSR missions

This presentation by Dr Damien Helly was delivered at the European Security and Defence College basic course on SSR on 3 April 2012. It highlights 11 areas where SSR missions can benefit from improvement.

The course was hosted by the National Defense Institute of Portugal, and the Higher Institute for National Defence Studies of France.

Other Document