Veterans / Ex-Combatants

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How to Guide - Monitoring and Evaluation for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programmes

The How to Guide provides guidance on how to plan and manage better the M&E of DDR programmes. The guide identifies simple, practical steps for DDR programme planners to integrate M&E into DDR programme design. In addition, it offers advice for DDR programme managers and M&E staff on how to set up and run a DDR M&E system.

To view this publication, please follow this link.



Promoting Justice and Security - OROLSI Promotional Film 2011

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations puts a special emphasis on promoting rule of law and security in post-conflict situations. This film describes how the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions inside of the Department works to support this work in UN missions around the world.


Introduction to SSR

This presentation gives a background on the theory behind the concept Security Sector Reform, as well as an overview of the international efforts within SSR today.

Folke Bernadotte Academy

DDR Lesson 2

Lesson Two explores the post-conflict environment in which disarmament, demobilization and reintegration usually takes place, which is often characterized by insecurity and lawlessness, poor or badly functioning economies, and a lack of social services and social cohesion. Integrated DDR programmes (IDDRS) should be designed to deal with the particular characteristics and contexts of the country or region in which they are to be implemented. However, DDR is just one of several post-conflict recovery strategies. As a process that helps to promote both security and development, a DDR programme should work together with other comprehensive peace-building strategies, including socioeconomic recovery programmes, security sector reform, and programmes to re-establish and strengthen the rule of law. DDR contributes to political stability by building confidence so that parties to a conflict can reject violence and transform their political and organizational structures to meet development objectives.


Revisiting Security Sector Reform in Liberia

As Liberians prepare for the October 2011 elections, the implications of lingering insecurity and mixed results from security sector reform initiatives weigh heavily on their minds. Have former combatants (particularly rebel groups and militias) been effectively demobilized and rehabilitated? Are Liberia?s new security forces (military and police) adequately prepared to address current and emerging threats?


Policy and Research Papers

Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria’s Pivotal Ambivalence

The past year has seen a ratcheting up and convergence of security concerns in the Sahel and Maghreb with the growing potency of al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, the influx of mercenaries and weaponry from Libya, the expanding influence of narcotics traffickers, and Boko Haram's widening lethality. Nonetheless, regional cooperation to address these transnational threats remains fragmented.  In Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria's Pivotal Ambivalence , the latest Africa Security Brief from the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Laurence Aïda Ammour examines the central role that Algeria plays in defining this cooperation and the complex domestic, regional, and international considerations that shape its decision-making... 

◆ Efforts to counter al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’s (AQIM) growing influence in both the Maghreb and the Sahel are fragmented because of the inability of neighbors to forge collaborative partnerships.

◆ Algeria faces inverse incentives to combat AQIM outside of Algiers as it gains much of its geostrategic leverage by maintaining overstated perceptions of a serious terrorism threat.

◆ The Algerian government’s limited legitimacy, primarily derived from its ability to deliver stability, constrains a more comprehensive regional strategy.

The full paper can be downloaded from


The Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Program: Reflections on the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants

To reflect on its activities and refine programming during its final two years, the Rwanda Demobilization and Reintegration Commission and Program (RDRC/RDRP) commissioned a series of specialized studies in 2005. These studies addressed questions related to the social and environmental impact of programming, as well as to the impact of program activities on particular
sub-groups of ex-combatants. The major findings, lessons learned and recommendations of three of these studies are summarized in this note.

To access the full text, click here.


Targeting MDRP Assistance: Ex-Combatants and Other War-Affected Populations.

This paper has been prepared by the MDRP Secretariat in response to a request from MDRP partners to prepare a position paper on beneficiary definition and targeting under MDRP-supported demobilization and reintegration programs and activities in the greater Great Lakes region. The paper seeks to (i) explore the issue of beneficiary targeting within the MDRP framework, (ii) clarify principles for targeting MDRP assistance, (iii) elaborate on the linkages between support to ex-combatants and other war-affected groups, and (iv) propose strategies to further improve targeting of MDRP assistance in the future.

To access the full text, click here.


Linkages between Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration of Ex-Combatants and Security Sector Reform

This position paper draws on the linkages between disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants
(DDR) and security sector reform (SSR). The paper describes objectives, strategies and challenges of implementation and concludes with a number of suggestions to partners to further develop the role of SSR in DDR processes.

To access the full text, click here.


Reintegrating Ex-Combatants in Post-Conflict Societies

This paper, commissioned by Sida to the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University, aims both to improve knowledge regarding reintegration and to identify the role of development co-operation in this process. By looking at certain factors in a society; physical security, economic security, political influence and social reintegration of ex-combatants, this study sets out to understand circumstances that are essential to reintegration, and what culprits to avoid. In particular, it recommends certain precautions, steps and strategies that donors and their partners need to take into consideration when promoting reintegration through development cooperation.


Libya: Dealing with the Militias and Advancing Security Sector Reform

This Centre for Security Governance publication provides a summary of its inaugural eSeminar event "Libya: Dealing with the Militias and Advancing Security Sector Reform". 

The purpose of this eSeminar, held on November 6, 2013, was to take stock of the volatile security situation in Libya and discuss the progress of SSR and disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) initiatives. The event brought together a panel of four experts — two from Libya and two from the United States — to dissect this multidimensional challenge and provide insight on the way forward.

To view video's of all presentations, the Q & A and discussion session of the eSeminar, please follow this link to our 'Videos' section or visit the Centre for Security Governance's Youtube channel.


The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities of SSR 2013

On 2-3 October 2012, DCAF-ISSAT organised a High Level Panel (HLP) on Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform (SSR) in East Africa , in partnership with the United Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON), the Governments of Burundi, Kenya, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Somalia and South Sudan, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the African Security Sector Network (ASSN). It was attended by over two hundred SSR policy makers and practitioners.

This report seeks to take those discussions further, including more of the points raised by participants during the HLP, and adding in lessons from experience gathered from individual missions and related trainings. Three case studies featured in the HLP (Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan) and as such provide many of the examples, although the report also draws from examples beyond East Africa. An introductory section on SSR in each of these countries is provided in section one and full case studies are included in the annex.

This report, which keeps to the same thematic areas as those covered in the HLP, offers information on contemporary thinking in security and justice reform, and provides some recommendations and examples of good practice to those interested in or engaged in SSR.

Some videos interviews of the participants at the event are listed in the Related Resources column on the right of this webpage. A full list of available videos from this event are available under the documents tab on the HLP's Events page. Podcasts of all the sessions are available there also.


Justice-Sensitive Security System Reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo

The focus of this paper is to offer recommendations for ways in which the EU may incorporate justice-sensitive reform initiatives within SSR programmes to address the legacy of impunity for human rights violations and the ongoing human rights violations committed by elements within the security forces. The primary focus is therefore on those sectors of the security system that are currently both abusive and engaged in reform processes – the FARDC and police (Police Nationale Congolaise, or PNC). It is beyond the scope of this paper to examine in detail the justice and penal systems, although the importance of these in addressing impunity, as well as in a holistic approach to SSR, is clear. The author interviewed stakeholders and observers from civil society, national authorities, and the international community in Kinshasa, Bunia, Goma and Brussels between November 2007 and June 2008. Follow this link to view the publication.


Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants

This practice note explains what economic development planners and practitioners can do to support the socioeconomic
reintegration of former combatants. It will assist you in your efforts to mobilise economic actors to play a constructive role in reintegration processes. The socioeconomic reintegration of former combatants is important and relevant for economic development planners and practitioners as successful reintegration will increase security and stability; both necessary pre-conditions for economic development, business expansion and the reduction of costs and risks of doing business. Simultaneously, economic recovery and business expansion are essential preconditions for successful socio-economic reintegration, as most ex-combatants will need to find employment in the private sector.

To access the full text, click here