A Hybrid Peace through Locally Owned and Externally Financed SSR-DDR in Rwanda

 This article aims to critically examine Rwanda’s SSR-DDR process through a theoretical framework outlining four different models of peace processes in order to identify what sort of peace that can emerge from Rwanda’s SSR-DDR approach. The author analyses how the Rwandan government has managed to keep the SSR-DDR process ‘locally’ owned while largely financed by external actors, despite strong criticism for its apparent lack of democratization. The ‘genocide credit’, the Rwandan government’s preference for national, rather than international solutions and its recent troop contribution to peacebuilding operations in the region are identified as main reasons for this development. The paper argues that the peace emanating from the SSR-DDR process may be considered as a hybrid form of stateformation and statebuilding, due to the local agency’s preference for security and stability while simultaneously enjoying financial and technocratic support for its ‘liberal’ peacebuilding actions in the region. 

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2012