Alger, Le Caire, Rabat, Tunis : tensions politiques au sud de la Méditerranée

 Selon les ONG égyptiennes, 60 000 opposants et critiques du régime sont détenus dans les prisons égyptiennes. D’autres pays de la région sont le terrain de tensions politiques, notamment du fait de prochaines élections présidentielles comme c’est le cas en Algérie et en Tunisie. La politique d’austérité appliquée en Tunisie a également provoqué la colère de nombreux habitants qui multiplient les protestations, alors qu’au Maroc, les mobilisations pour dénoncer la cherté de la vie s’appliquent sous la forme de boycotts de grandes marques. 

France Culture s'interroge sur les tensions politiques au sud de la méditerranée en compagnie de Sophie Bessis, historienne, chercheuse associée à l’Iris. Elle est rejointe en deuxième partie d’émission par Marwan Ben Yahmed, directeur de la publication du magazine Jeune Afrique.

Afin d'écouter le podcast, Alger, Le Caire, Rabat, Tunis : tensions politiques au sud de la Méditerranée, veuillez suivre le lien.


Policy and Research Papers

Gender Justice & The Law: Assessment of laws affecting gender equality in the Arab States region

Conducted by UNDP, UN Women, UNFPA, and ESCWA, this study on Gender Justice & the Law in the Arab States Region provides a comprehensive assessment of laws and policies affecting gender equality and protection against gender-based violence in Arab countries. The report is composed of 18 country profiles, each of which maps a country’s key legislative developments and gaps regarding gender justice. This introduction provides an overall summary of these country chapters followed by a summary of each country examined.

To access the full report, Gender Justice & The Law, please follow the link provided. 


The Maghreb’s Fragile Edges

Nearly a decade after the Arab uprisings, tempers in the outlying regions of the Maghreb are on the boil. Scarred by a history of states’ neglect, with poverty rates often more than triple that of urban areas, these frontiers of discontent are being transformed into incubators of instability. Bitterness, rage, and frustration directed at governments perceived as riddled with abuses and corruption represent a combustible mix that was brewed decades ago, leading to the current hothouse of discord and tumult. Into the vacuum of credible state institutions and amid illicit cross-border flows of people and goods, including arms and drugs, militancy and jihadist recruitment are starting to take root, especially among restless youth. The center of gravity for this toxic cocktail is the Maghreb’s marginalized border areas—from Morocco’s restless northern Rif region to the farthest reaches of the troubled southern regions of Algeria and Tunisia. Governmental response has been parochial with an overemphasis on heavy-handed security approaches that often end up further polarizing communities and worsening youth disillusionment. At a time when governments are playing catch up against a continually shifting terror threat—and with the menace of returning Maghrebi fighters from Iraq, Syria, and Libya—the disconnect between the state and its marginalized regions threatens to pull these countries into a vicious cycle of violence and state repression. Breaking this spiral requires governments in the region to rethink their approach to their peripheral regions.

To have access to the full article, The Maghreb’s Fragile Edges, kindly follow the link.


Transitioning Toward Gender Justice: A Trend Analysis of 13 African cases

Gender justice sees equal power relations, privilege, dignity, and freedom for people of different genders as a necessary component for any “just” society and a prerequisite for development. Gender justice includes gender equality, meaning substantive freedom for all genders to have genuine choices about their lives. Mirroring a global pattern in peace and security practice and policy-making, transitional justice (TJ) practice has tended to reduce gender justice concerns to violence against women (VAW). This policy brief advocates for policy-makers to adopt a broader and more meaningful understanding of gender justice, and to incorporate it into their TJ policymaking. To demonstrate the need for a broader understanding of gender justice within TJ processes, this policy brief draws upon a study conducted by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) on the drivers and impacts of TJ in Africa. The study examined gender trends emerging from 13 African countries that had State-led TJ processes between 1990 and 2011, and their impacts up until 2016. Based on the academic literature and available data for the 13 cases, four key factors were used as basic indicators of gender justice: women’s political rights and representation; women’s economic equity; women’s participation in civil society; and State measures against sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

For full access to Transitioning Toward Gender Justice: A Trend Analysis of 13 African cases, kindly follow the link. 


Exportations d’armes au Maghreb : quelle conformité avec la Position commune ?

L’ Algérie et le Maroc comptent parmi les plus grands importateurs d’armes sur le continent africain. Étant donné leurs capacités de production limitées, ces pays représentent de nos jours un marché important pour l’industrie mondiale de l’armement. Cette note d’analyse propose d’étudier les dynamiques d’exportation d’armes des États membres de l’UE vers des pays du Maghreb, plus concrètement vers le Maroc, l’Algérie et la Tunisie entre 2012 et 2016. Cette analyse tentera d’identifier et de vérifier la cohérence entre l’application des critères d’évaluation « préexportation » établis dans la Position commune de l’UE et les intérêts stratégiques des pays membres.

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, Exportations d’armes au Maghreb : quelle conformité avec la Position commune ?, veuillez suivre le lien.


How Does the Media on Both sides of the Mediterranean Report on Migration?

A study by journalists, for journalists and policy-makers

Funded by the European Union Migration media coverage in 17 countries from 2015 to 2016

We have all seen the stark images depicted in the media of migrants and asylum seekers packed aboard vessels of questionable seaworthiness, risking life and limb to make the perilous journey across the Mediterranean in search of a safe haven and a better future. These images convey in sharp relief the human struggle in its most desperate moments. Over the course of the last three years, we have witnessed a range of different approaches to covering migration in traditional media on both sides of the Mediterranean.

This study aims to unpack some of these approaches in order to identify and better understand the prevailing media narratives on migration that exist in different national contexts. It looks at the strengths and shortcomings and provides some insight into the interplay between editorial lines, political narratives, journalistic approaches and public discourse on this sensitive and often polarising subject. 

For full access to the paper, How Does the Media on Both sides of the Mediterranean Report on Migration?, kindly follow the link. 


Mémoire interdite en Algérie

Cette article du Monde Diplomatique  discute plusieurs massacres de population qui ont endeuillé l’Algérie, déjà dévastée par les affrontements entre forces de l’ordre et groupes islamistes armés, au milieu de la « décennie noire » des années 1990. Selon l'auteur, les lois d’amnistie et la volonté des autorités d’étouffer le souvenir de ces épisodes sanglants empêchent aujourd’hui tout un peuple de panser ses plaies.

Pour accéder à Mémoire interdite en Algérie, veuillez suivre le lien.


L’Algérie et ses voisins

L’Algérie est en passe de devenir un intermédiaire indispensable de la stabilité en Afrique du Nord et au Sahel. Toutefois, le pays a besoin de meilleures stratégies à long terme pour faire face aux pressions financières, à un voisinage dans la tourmente, à des menaces jihadistes transfrontalières, aux tensions continues avec la France et le Maroc, et enfin avec une transition politique générationnelle non résolue qui paralyse les institutions.

Lien vers le document: L'Algérie et ses voisins 


Summary Report: Integrating Human Security into National Security Policies in North-West Africa

The first ever regional conference on “Integrating Human Security into National Security Policies in North-West Africa” was hosted in Rabat 23-24 November 2010 by the Centre for Human Rights and Democracy Studies (CEDHD) and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), with the support of Switzerland. The conference brought together a large number of high-ranking representatives from North-West Africa and the Sahel region (Algeria, Burkina Faso, Mali, Morocco, Mauritania and Senegal) as well as a number of international experts. This was the first event of its kind to consider the development and implementation of national security policy from the regional perspective of North-West Africa.


Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria’s Pivotal Ambivalence

The past year has seen a ratcheting up and convergence of security concerns in the Sahel and Maghreb with the growing potency of al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, the influx of mercenaries and weaponry from Libya, the expanding influence of narcotics traffickers, and Boko Haram's widening lethality. Nonetheless, regional cooperation to address these transnational threats remains fragmented.  In Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria's Pivotal Ambivalence , the latest Africa Security Brief from the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Laurence Aïda Ammour examines the central role that Algeria plays in defining this cooperation and the complex domestic, regional, and international considerations that shape its decision-making... 

◆ Efforts to counter al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’s (AQIM) growing influence in both the Maghreb and the Sahel are fragmented because of the inability of neighbors to forge collaborative partnerships.

◆ Algeria faces inverse incentives to combat AQIM outside of Algiers as it gains much of its geostrategic leverage by maintaining overstated perceptions of a serious terrorism threat.

◆ The Algerian government’s limited legitimacy, primarily derived from its ability to deliver stability, constrains a more comprehensive regional strategy.

The full paper can be downloaded from