The Folke Bernadotte Academy is a Swedish government agency dedicated to improving the quality and effectiveness of international conflict and crisis management, with a particular focus on peace operations. The Academy functions as a platform for cooperation between Swedish agencies and organizations and their international partners.
DCAF-ISSAT has been mandated by the EU to provide pre-deployment training in effective strategic advising for the new CSDP mission in Iraq. The half-day training will take place in Brussels on 29th November.
The session will be incorporated into the EU’s in-house training, and will be delivered in partnership with FINCENT and FBA.
The lesson Objectives include:•Understand the role of an SSR advisor•Indicate the key attributes of an effective advisor•Appreciate the various dilemmas related to being an advisor•Understand the political nature of an advisor’s role•Apply a gender and human rights lens to advising•Understand principles of Key Leader Engagement and strategic communication•Have insights into being an SSR advisor in Iraq
The Folke Bernadotte Academy in partnership with ISSAT hosted a course on Whole of Government Security System Reform (SSR) Training. The course aimed to develop capacity, knowledge and coherence in SSR, to participants from all over the Nordic-Baltic region, with each country (Denmark,Finland,Norway and Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) being designated an equal number of slots. Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the Seminar included participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Development Agencies).
The Swedish National Defence College, in cooperation with the Folke Bernadotte Academy, is hosting a course in Whole-of-Government on Security System Reform (SSR) the 10-12 of June 2008. The training course is carried out in partnership with the International Security System Advisory Team (ISSAT).
The course aim at developing capacity, knowledge and coherence on SSR. The training is aimed at a broad Nordic participation with each country (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) being designated 5 slots each. Furthermore the course aims at a broad Whole-of-Government participation and so countries are encouraged to send participants from different backgrounds (for ex. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Development Agencies).
The Folke Bernadotte Academy is hosting a course on Whole of Government Security System Reform (SSR) Training from the 9 – 12 December 2008. The training course will be carried out in partnership with the ISSAT.
The course aims to develop capacity, knowledge and coherence in SSR, to participants from all over the Nordic-Baltic region, with each country (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) being designated an equal number of slots.
Aimed at a broad, Whole of Government participation, the Seminar will include participants from different backgrounds (e.g. Justice, Defence, Foreign Affairs, Development Agencies)
The Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) would like to mandate ISSAT to conduct a knowledge mapping with regards to academic SSR analysis. The assignment would be conducted as a desk study and would include going through existing knowledge on SSR over the past five years as to see what the main trends and lessons learned are. Questions to be answered would be:
- What has worked/has not worked with regards to planning, implementing and evaluating SSR activities?
- What does the existing knowledge tell us about what changes are needed in the way we are working on SSR, in order to improve the outcome of SSR activities?
The mapping should also include the following:
- How should gender-responsive SSR be conducted?
- In what way can local ownership be ensured?
The objective is to provide FBA with an operationally relevant summary of what has currently been demonstrated to work in SSR programming, not restricted to the literature that is self-described as SSR-focused, and not limited to English language literature. The report intends to provide FBA with information that can be directly used to inform and shape Swedish (and partner nation) SSR programming by capturing and integrating the findings of the most current research studies.
Understand to Prevent (U2P) was one of ten lines of development in the Multinational Capability Development Campaign (which consists of mostly NATO and like-minded nations – see also the MCDC website). The U2P line of development sought to elaborate the role that militaries can adopt, in partnership with other governmental departments and civil society, in preventing violent conflict.
The first iteration of meetings (in the last two-year cycle) produced the capstone ‘doctrine’ embodied in the Understand to Prevent Foundation Studies book linked below. Subsequently, the meetings sought to operationalise the doctrine into a more tangible Handbook of tools and process. Most of the military representatives involved came from their national concepts and doctrine development centres, so there was plentiful scope for open and out-of-the box thinking.
- U2P Foundation Studies book – an informative and concise delve into the theory and evidence supporting of prevention of violent conflict;
- The Understand to Prevent concept (short paper).
In January 2016, the U2P Handbook is looked at interoperability with the NATO Comprehensive Operational Planning Directive (COPD), and with NATO CIMIC doctrine and processes.
Further opportunities to trial the Handbook are welcome.
For full access to the U2P Handbook Understand to Prevent: the military contribution to the prevention of violent conflict, updated in 2017, kindly follow the link.
ISSAT supported the Folke Bernadotte Academy with a mapping of the current and planned bilateral country support to justice and security sector reform in Ukraine. This included gathering short analysis of the main findings of any recent or current assessments. The project was conducted as a desk study.
Ukraine Security Sector Mapping and Mapping of International Support to Ukraine Security Sector Phase II
The Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) requested for ISSAT support in further developing and supplementing the existing mapping of bilateral support to the SSR process, which was completed in June 2015 by ISSAT (see mandate Ukraine Mapping mandate from 01 May 2015). In this regard, ISSAT was requested to expand the mapping to cover additional actors and institutions in the sector, namely multilateral organisations and international/national non-state actors involved in SSR.
In addition, a mapping and synthetization of other SSR assessments was to be concluded. This mapping included a list of ongoing and planned assessments made by the international community (and recently finalized ones) and a summary of the key findings in these assessments.
Finally, ISSAT was requested to support a comprehensive mapping of the Ukrainian security sector. This information will complement the mapping of international initiatives and serve as a basis for the consultations in Ukraine and the final needs assessment of SSR in Ukraine.
ISSAT was requested to support a comprehensive needs-analysis of SSR in Ukraine that is being developed by the Swedish Agencies involved in international support to Security Sector Reform: the FBA, the Swedish Police, the Swedish Prosecution Authority, the Swedish National Courts Administration, the Swedish Armed Forces, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), and the Swedish Prison and Probation Service. The joint analysis was carried out through the Swedish National Contact Group for Security Sector Reform (NCSSR) with shared responsibility in line with respective agencies area of expertise. The needs-analysis was carried out in 3 phases. First, a desk study was performed to map the Ukrainian security sector and all relevant international engagements. Second, consultations in Ukraine were organised to verify and if necessary correct assumptions. A final report was subsequently produced and presented to the Swedish government. This mandate request only covers support to the first phase of the needs-analysis – the desk review. The first phase was expected to be completed by the beginning of August 2015.
The mandate contributed and complemented ongoing assessments and mappings conducted by other ISSAT Governing Board Members. It is noted that parallel processes are also being undertaken by the European Union, Netherlands, and Norway. The process of developing this needs assessment promoted and facilitated more active collaboration, information sharing and improve complementarity of efforts between ISSAT members and the wider international community. In addition, ISSAT was able to draw on the expertise and country experience of DCAF to help complete the mapping and needs-analysis.
On behalf of the European Security and Defence College (ESDC) Security Sector Reform (SSR) Board, DCAF-ISSAT and the Folke Bernadotte Academy (Sweden) are conducting a Training Requirements Analysis (TRA) on Security Sector Reform. The SSR TRA process will identify existing SSR related training and gaps, as well as relevant target audiences, and will provide high-level learning outcomes aimed at improving the training activities currently offered to EU, Member States' and Mission personnel. The results will be linked to the work of other civilian CCTs and the EU Military Training Group and collectively, contribute to an EU Comprehensive Assessment Report on Training (CART).
According to the EUCTG Strategic Guidance on CSDP civilian training, the CCT's responsibilities are to:
- Conduct training requirements analyses (TRA), thus contributing to the CSDP Civilian Training Requirements Report; including issues as quality assurance related to training requirements,
- Recommend training activities that meet CSDP civilian training requirements to be included in the EU civilian part to the CSDP Training Programme.
The Folke Bernadotte Academy - Sweden organised a three-day course on “Course on Effective Advising Capacities for Strategic Security and Justice Sector Reform Advisors”, in Stockholm. The course was delivered by ISSAT’s experts.
This course focused on international experts delivering advising assistance to SSG/R processes in ‘peacebuilding’ contexts, countries which are emerging from cycles of violence and/or polarisation that are undergoing social, political and institutional transformations to consolidate peace. It provided guidance and tools to assist participants in analysing their own advising roles to better understand their contexts of operation, and apply key frameworks for capacity development, change and inclusive governance in their own work.
In accordance with the EUCTG Strategic Guidance on CSDP Civilian Training, the EAB SSR group has been mandated by Sweden to be a Civilian Coordinator for Training (CCT) lead for SSR. ISSAT supported by the FBA, has been requested to take on a ‘penholder’ role in coordinating the CCT SSR Training Requirements Analysis (TRA) to analyze SSR-related training needs and gaps for CSDP commitments.
Access the final report on Training Requirements Analysis for Civilian CSDP Missions by kindly following the link.
This training manual has been developed to provide an introduction to the policy framework on United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325) and its follow-up resolutions, the concept of gender and its practical application in the context of the European Union's Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) for both civilian and military personnel. After the training, the participants should be able to:
- Name the key components of the UN and EU policy framework on UNSCR 1325 and its follow-up resolutions on women, peace and security.
- Give examples that show why gender is an important perspective in the work/context of a CSDP mission.
- Apply a gender perspective through a simple gender analysis.
To support these learning objectives, the training manual is composed of six training units, each with a specific purpose.
For full access to the Training Manual: A Gender Perspective in CSDP, kindly follow the link.
The Assessment Framework provides guidance on options and specific tools based on suggested stages of the assessment process. These stages include:
• Background Analysis
• In- Country Assessment
• Report and Recommendations
Each stage of SSR assessment contains different potential approaches, issues and processes to consider. While it may not be possible to conduct a SSR assessment according to the suggested stages, it is possible to pick and choose sections and/or tools relevant to the SSR task at hand.
The ideas behind security sector reform (SSR) have been evolving since the early 1990s. The number of international missions and programmes with an SSR mandate has increased in the past ten years, as SSR has emerged at the heart of the development and security nexus.
SSR is undertaken in conflict and post-conflict settings but also in developing countries, post-authoritarian states and stable democracies. It is as an integral part of the statebuilding agenda, however, that SSR has gained most attention in recent years. This has led to a dramatic increase in the number of people working on SSR.
Despite the rich panoply of policy frameworks, handbooks and guidance notes, there is still a lack of guidance specifically focused on the role of the SSR adviser or the specifics of an SSR portfolio that often has political dimensions. This handbook by the Folke Bernadotte Academy is an attempt to provide such guidance. This would enhance the effectiveness and impact of the SSR adviser, and probably make the reform process more sustainable in the long run.
The handbook provides insights into the role of an SSR adviser—the challenges connected to the role, and the tools, methodologies and best practice that can be applied when advising in complex political environments and reform contexts.
For full access to the SSR Adviser's Handbook, kindly follow the link.
This presentation gives a background on the theory behind the concept Security Sector Reform, as well as an overview of the international efforts within SSR today.
Policy and Research Papers
UN Peace Keeping Operations and Rule of Law Assistance in Africa 1989-2010: Data, Patterns and Questions for the Future
This Report provides new systematic data on two decades of UN rule of law assistance in Africa, covering a total of 36 UN peace operations (peacekeeping, political missions and offices). Seven areas of rule of law assistance are examined, including: (1) judicial reform, (2) constitutional reform, (3) law reform, (4) rule of law in public administration reform, (5) legal awareness and access to justice reform, (6) law enforcement reform, and (7) reforms of detentions, and prisons. The attached document presents the executive summary of the report.
To read the research report, click here.
The Transition to a Just Order – Establishing Local Ownership after Conflict: A Practitioners’ Guide
This handbook and its sister publication, the policy report The Transition to a Just Order: Establishing Local Ownership after Conflict, A Practitioner’s Guide, are based on the findings of a two year long study conducted jointly by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) and the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), in partnership with the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA). The study offers a comprehensive analysis of the principle of local ownership, the key dilemmas involved in pursuing local ownership and the challenges and issues that arise when local ownership is being put into practice.
It takes a closer look at strategies and mechanisms for transition in four cases studies: Afghanistan, the Balkans (Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Kosovo), Timor-Leste and West Africa (Liberia and Sierra Leone).
The cases have been selected to illustrate the varying degrees of international involvement in post-conflict justice and security sector reform. Kosovo and Timor-Leste represent scenarios where the international community has taken the lead in taking responsibility for law and order, while West Africa and especially Afghanistan are illustrative of postconflict environments where primacy has rested with local authorities. The study is based on field visits by the authors to all the case study countries with
the exception of Timor-Leste and numerous interviews with local stakeholders, practitioners, policy makers and established academics working on justice and security sector issues. The study has also benefited greatly from discussions which took place in a workshop held in Stockholm in May 2006 as well as a rigorous peer review process. The handbook uses the findings in the case studies and examples from these peacebuilding processes to highlight some of the key challenges.
To view this publication, follow this link.
This report presents the results of an independent review of the progress that the GFP initiative has made since January 2012, conducted at the request of the GFP managers, by a joint research team from the Netherlands Institute of International Relations (Clingendael), the Stimson Center and the Folke Bernadotte Academy.
Who works in the field of rule of law, and how can donor organizations better match the global needs in the field? A research project at the Australian National University supported by the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) seeks to establish an answer to this question. The publication of the report “Professionalizing Rule of Law: Issues and Directions” is part of the project.
The report draws upon 100 survey responses and follow-up interviews with rule of law practitioners, and a survey among participants at the FBA rule of law course. It describes how rule of law is included in almost all peace operations of today, and contains an analysis of the challenges within the field, and a discussion on how the rule of law field can be further strengthened and professionalized.
Report available here: Professionalizing Rule of Law: Issues and Directions
Across the Global South, cities are growing at an unprecedented pace. Many of these growing cities are located in fragile states or societies affected by or emerging from conflict. What are the features and dynamics of these fragile cities and what strategies have been successful in preventing violence and building peace in urban spaces?
- People are migrating into urban areas in unprecedented numbers in parts of the Global South, a growing share of the population is living in fragile cities characterized by instability, a lack of infrastructure and access to public services, violence and poverty as well as high disaster risk.
- Cities play an important role for peace and stability, and how to build safe, inclusive and resilient cities is becoming a growing concern for peacebuilders and experts in urban development. Addressing fragile cities requires a whole-of-society approach including formal and informal institutions, improving physical infrastructure and change of attitudes and behaviour.
- Major adjustments are needed to allow for more effective international city-level initiatives by multilateral institutions. Any international engagement should consider the effects on and the contributions of local institutions and populace, while strengthening its capacity of analysis, planning and financial assistance at urban level.
Please kindly follow the link to access the publication: Peacebuilding in Cities: Building Safe, Inclusive and Resilient Urban Spaces
There is a long-standing recognition that rule of law is an essential element in achieving sustainable peace and development. In recent years it has gained even more prominence in policy discourse and as a core ingredient of broad-based international commitments, with the Sustainable Development Goals and in particular Goal 16 as a clear indicator for where we are headed. Yet, what has been lacking in rule of law reform, or at least it has been only marginally represented, is a political approach to address the underlying causes of problems and obstacles to rule of law.
In response to this, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) joined forces to put the role of politics at front and centre and examine how it can be included in rule of law practice. As a result, this report published by the FBA is the outcome of intensive work and close interaction during a one-year partnership between UNDP and FBA, reflecting a shared commitment to more effectively meet the demands and confrontations of complex transformational rule of law change in fragile and conflict-ridden settings.
The report stresses the need to utilize political analysis to inform rule of law engagements in order to align political approaches with technical methodologies used by actors in the field of peacekeeping, peacebuilding and development.
For full access to the Responsive and Responsible: Politically Smart Rule of Law Reform in Conflict and Fragile States paper, kindly follow the link.
The integration of a gender perspective is widely recognised as one of the key principles of security sector reform (SSR). However, despite this, gender perspectives are often not strategically addressed or, worse yet, not considered at all during the practical implementation of SSR. The failure to ensure gender-responsive SSR prevents the reform process from contributing to an effective, accountable and sustainable security sector.
Building on the FBA’s approach to SSR, this brief aims to outline why the integration of a gender perspective is one of the key principles of the reform process. It also aims to raise some of the common misunderstandings related to gender and how they prevent gender-responsive SSR.
For full access to the Gender-Responsive SSR: What does it mean and what are the challenges for its implementation? brief, kindly follow the link.
This Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) Brief by Richard Sannerholm, Shane Quinn and Andrea Rabus examines why politics has only been marginally represented in rule of law reform. Drawing on a review of the literature and interviews with rule of law practitioners, the authors look at why politics matter in rule of law, before considering how working politically smart can be included in practice. The main message is that for agencies such as UNDP more responsive and responsible policies and actions are required in order to effectively meet the demands and challenges of complex transformational rule of law change in fragile and conflict-ridden settings.
To access the FBA Brief Responsive and Responsible: Making Politics Part of UNDP’s Rule of Law Agenda, kindly follow the link.
This brief from the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) summarizes the presentations and discussions from the eighth International Expert Forum (IEF) on environmental governance, climate change and peacebuilding. The brief revisits the links between environmental factors and issues pertaining to peace and conflict and discusses how environmental governance and climate change policies can contribute to peacebuilding. Furthermore, the author argues that there is a growing need to understand these linkages, and integrate a more holistic approach for organizations working in the field of peacebuilding and conflict prevention.
Read the full brief on Environmental Governance, Climate Change and Peacebuilding
In light of the new policy by the UN Department of Peacekeeping Operations on protection of civilians (POC), this brief looks at the latest operationalisation of POC in field missions by civilians, military and police. Over the past decade the UN Security Council has gradually moved POC to the centre of mandates of peacekeeping operations. The UN headquarters have developed strategic guidance that is now consolidated in the new policy on POC.
For full access to the paper Protection of Civilians – Implementation in UN Peace Operations, kindly follow the link.
This report argues that any attempt to reform state security institutions as a means of improving overall security must start with a thorough investigation of the current security context. However, during this process of security mapping, informal actors cannot be neglected. Often this very sector not only exists, but also effectively functions and continuously adapts to contextual realities. One must therefore consider the informal networks of security provision and the recognition of non-state security actors that ordinary citizens, in addition to formal security providers, must navigate on an everyday basis. In doing so it also becomes easier to identify the hidden links between these formal and informal networks that at various levels interact,
complement, or even compete with each other. The focus of this report is to explore and describe informal security organizations (mainly community watch and vigilante groups) in modern-day Liberia, a country that at the moment is undergoing security sector reform with major assistance from the international community.
Download the publication in PDF format from the Folke Bernadotte Academy website: Understanding Vigilantism - Informal Security Providers and Security Sector Reform in Liberia.
The rule of law is increasingly regarded as a precondition for sustainable peacebuilding and development, and has become a central element in international approaches to crisis management and conflict resolution. This guide explores the challenges of transferring responsibility for public order and the rule of law after conflict to local ownership. It does so by taking a closer look at the principle of local ownership—a participatory framework through which the needs and views of all stakeholders can be articulated and addressed—and how it can be implemented.
The report seeks to assist field personnel—from the police officer on the street to the head of mission—with the difficult task of implementing the principle of local ownership in justice and security sector reform during peacebuilding operations. It is intended to assist with the process of deciding how, where and when local ownership should be promoted, where it may not be an option, whether different circumstances call for different types of strategies for transition and what factors should be taken into consideration. It identifies potential stumbling blocks and encourages practitioners to ask critical questions that can guide the transitional process.
The report builds on the experiences of recent peace-building efforts, including those in Kosovo and East Timor, where the international community has taken the lead in bearing responsibility for law and order. It also builds on peace-building efforts in Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Liberia and Sierra Leone, where primacy has rested with local authorities.
In 2015, the Swedish National Contact Group for Security Sector Reform (NCSSR) conducted an SSR assessment of Ukraine on behalf of the Swedish government. Building on this experience, and on the report submitted to the Swedish government, the FBA has continued to work on mapping international support to SSR in Ukraine.
This publication by the Folke Bernadotte Academy is a contribution to information-sharing and coordination in favour of an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector in Ukraine.
For full access to the report on International Support to Security Sector Reform in Ukraine, kindly follow the link.
In 2015, the Swedish National Contact Group for Security Sector Reform (NCSSR) conducted an SSR assessment of Ukraine on behalf of the Swedish government. Building on this experience, and on the report submitted to the Swedish government, the FBA has continued to work on mapping international support to SSR in Ukraine. This publication is a contribution to information-sharing and coordination in favour of an effective, affordable, accountable and transparent security sector in Ukraine.
Find out more about this mapping here.
The Security Sector Reform Assessment Framework by the Folke Bernadotte Academcy is intended to facilitate information gathering and analysis in support of decision-making, programming, monitoring and evaluation. While primarily based on Swedish conditions, the framework may serve as an outline for assessments carried out by other governments, institutions and organizations. As such, the FBA sees the framework as a living document, to be continuously updated and developed, and therefore encourages feedback on the material to improve future editions.
For full access to the Security Sector Reform Assessment Framework, kindly follow the link.
This report by Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) contains unique empirical data from 76 UN peace operations between 1989 and 2017. The data paint a picture of the kinds of rule of law assistance that have actually been provided, and allow discussion on how important shifts in peacekeeping and rule of law policy reflect in practice.
There is widespread recognition that the rule of law is an essential foundation for development and human rights, as well as a necessary condition for establishing and sustaining peace after conflicts. Rule of law promotion has accordingly become a key objective of UN peace operations and considerable resources are being invested in a range of rule of law-related topics and activities.
It is also recognized, including by the UN itself, that UN rule of law promotion faces difficult conceptual, institutional and resource-related challenges. There is currently discussion within the UN on how to address these. This thought process, as well as its articulation into workable policies and tools, requires a holistic understanding of what has already been done and why. It is expected that this report will be able to contribute to this.
To access the full report UN Peace Operations and the Rule of Law 1989–2017, kindly follow the link.
Successful Security Sector Reform (SSR) must be guided by the understanding of people as rights-holders and the state, including core security actors, as duty-bearers in providing security as a service to the people. Human rights and security are closely linked. Human rights violations can be a cause of conflict, a result of conflict or an early warning of conflict.
This paper describes international human rights obligations, the concept of SSR, how human rights are relevant to successful SSR, what a human rights-based approach to SSR entails and provide practical examples of specific human rights.
To access the paper An introduction to Human Rights and Security Sector Reform, kindly follow the link.
This meeting brief, published by the Folke Bernadotte Academy, summarizes the presentations and discussions that took place during the seventh International Expert Forum (IEF) that aimed to assess the state of the art in knowledge and practice at the crossroads of governance and peacebuilding, and to unpack the state-society relationship in a way that could help to inform stronger policymaking in consolidating peace and building inclusive and ultimately more resilient societies.
At the moment, over one quarter of the world's population lives in states facing fragility and out of those states at least half are estimated to be affected by armed conflict. In settings such as these, a crisis may have detrimental effects on the legitimate functioning of government and it can easily jeopardize existing state-society relations. Supporting delicate peace agreements, institutional recovery and political processes in a fragile state constitutes a great challenge and poses several dilemmas. How can those challenges and dilemmas be met within the efforts of building sustainable peace? How can the relationship between citizens and the institutions affecting their lives be strengthened within current and future peacebuilding efforts?
For full access to the Governance, Peacebuilding and State-Society Relations brief, kindly follow the link.
This brief by the Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA) examines UN rule of law assistance when peacekeeping becomes peacebuilding. Previous experience of UN rule of law assistance shows a clear path dependency between peacekeeping operations and special political missions, meaning that there is little difference in the support provided between keeping and building peace. The difference is primarily found in the resources and political weight allocated to the two types of interventions.
The identified differences, and in particular the identified path dependency, point to a fundamental challenge in the UN system to adapt to changing country contexts and political circumstances that can seriously impede peacebuilding efforts.
Strengthening rule of law and restoring state functions will likely continue to remain as an immediate peacebuilding priority and a central component in peace operations. At the same time, FBA’s research reveals a number of issues that should be addressed in order to ensure a “right fit” for UN peace operations and rule of law assistance.
To access the full Keeping and Building Peace brief, kindly follow the link.
In West Africa, blood diamonds funded rebel groups, the so-called Islamic State made enormous profits from the Iraqi oil fields, and the Colombian FARC depended on drugs and gold. The impacts are far-reaching and chances are that the device you are using to read this blog contains conflict minerals from mines in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo controlled by armed groups.
To access the entire article Peacebuilding, Natural Resource Management and Gender – all Intertwined, kindly click on the link.
Since the mid-1990s eastern DRC has been plagued by a nearly unbroken series of interrelated conflicts. Over time, conflicts in eastern DRC have evolved from large-scale interstate wars to predominately local conflict. Ongoing approaches to Disarmament, Demobilisation, and Reintegration (DDR) in the region have not co-evolved to suit the current context of local conflict dynamics.
Today, combatants in eastern DRC leave and re-join armed groups in repeated cycles of insecurity, (re)mobilisation and violence. In order to transform these cycles, reintegration support must be delivered through a community-based approach focusing on supporting ex-combatants while simultaneously building communities’ absorptive capacity and overall resilience.
For full access to Community-Based Reintegration Support in Eastern DRC, kindly follow the link.