Bernard Headley

Policy and Research Papers

Deportation, Circular Migration and Organized Crime: Jamaica Case Study

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This report by the Canadian Department of Public Safety's Research Division, the Security Governance Group, reviews the impact of forced deportations, criminal and otherwise, on public security and organised crime in Canada and Jamaica, with a focus on transnational connections between deportees, organised crime and Canada. Within Canada, non-criminal deportations should be considered in the context of their impact on Jamaican-Canadian families and communities, where deportation has become a sensitive and political issue. In Jamaica, criminal deportations from Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom have had a profound impact on public security. Caribbean security officials are adamant that criminal deportees are at least partly responsible for rising crime rates throughout the region. Even non-criminal deportees, who lack opportunities for successful reintegration, contribute to street-level crime. Recent law enforcement operations in Canada have revealed long-standing connections between organised crime groups in both countries. While deportation is not thought to have played a role in the genesis of these criminal linkages, it may be responsible for strengthening contemporary connections. The report concludes by discussing possible mitigation strategies in Canada and Jamaica to minimise the unwanted impacts of deportation on public security.

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