The United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) was established by Security Council resolution 2100 of 25 April 2013 to support political processes in that country and carry out a number of security-related tasks.
The Mission was asked to support the transitional authorities of Mali in the stabilization of the country and implementation of the transitional roadmap, focusing on major population centres and lines of communication, protecting civilians, human rights monitoring, the creation of conditions for the provision of humanitarian assistance and the return of displaced persons, the extension of State authority and the preparation of free, inclusive and peaceful elections.
By unanimously adopting resolution 2164 of 25 June 2014, the Security Council amended the mandate of the Mission and decided that it should focus on duties, such as ensuring security, stabilization and protection of civilians; supporting national political dialogue and reconciliation; and assisting the reestablishment of State authority, the rebuilding of the security sector, and the promotion and protection of human rights in that country.
MUNISMA’s mandate was further amended by Security Council resolution 2227 of 29 June 2015 as follows:
To support, monitor and supervise the implementation of the ceasefire arrangements and confidence-building measures by the Government of Mali, the Plateforme and Coordination armed groups, to devise and support, as needed, local mechanisms with a view to consolidate these arrangements and measures, as well as to report to the Security Council on any violations of the ceasefire, consistent with the provisions of the Agreement, especially its Part III and Annex 2;
(b) Support to the implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali
(i) To support the implementation of the political and institutional reforms provided for by the Agreement, especially in its Part II;
(ii) To support the implementation of the defence and security measures of the Agreement, notably to support, monitor and supervise the ceasefire, to support the cantonment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups, as well as the progressive redeployment of the Malian Defence and Security Forces especially in the North of Mali, taking into account the security conditions, and to coordinate international efforts, in close collaboration with other bilateral partners, donors and international organisations, including the European Union, engaged in these fields, to rebuild the Malian security sector, within the framework set out by the Agreement, especially its Part III and Annex 2;
(iii) To support the implementation of the reconciliation and justice measures of the Agreement, especially in its Part V, notably the establishment of an international commission of inquiry, in consultation with the parties;
(iv) To support, within its resources and areas of deployment, the conduct of inclusive, free, fair and transparent local elections, including through the provision of appropriate logistical and technical assistance and effective security arrangements, consistent with the provisions of the Agreement;
(c) Good offices and reconciliation
To exercise good offices, confidence-building and facilitation at the national and local levels, in order to support dialogue with and among all stakeholders towards reconciliation and social cohesion and to encourage and support the full implementation of the Agreement by the Government of Mali, the Plateforme and Coordination armed groups, including by promoting the participation of civil society, including women’s organizations, as well as youth organizations;
(d) Protection of civilians and stabilization
(i) To protect, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities, civilians under imminent threat of physical violence;
(ii) In support of the Malian authorities, to stabilize the key population centres and other areas where civilians are at risk, notably in the North of Mali, including through long-range patrols, and, in this context, to deter threats and take active steps to prevent the return of armed elements to those areas;
(iii) To provide specific protection for women and children affected by armed conflict, including through Child Protection Advisors and Women Protection Advisors, and address the needs of victims of sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict;
(iv) To assist the Malian authorities with the removal and destruction of mines and other explosive devices and weapons and ammunition management;
(e) Promotion and protection of human rights
(i) To assist the Malian authorities in their efforts to promote and protect human rights, including to support, as feasible and appropriate, the efforts of the Malian authorities, without prejudice to their responsibilities, to bring to justice those responsible for serious abuses or violations of human rights or violations of international humanitarian law, in particular war crimes and crimes against humanity in Mali, taking into account the referral by the transitional authorities of Mali of the situation in their country since January 2012 to the International Criminal Court;
(ii) To monitor, help investigate and report to the Security Council and publicly, as appropriate, on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights, including violations and abuses against children and sexual violence in armed conflict committed throughout Mali and to contribute to efforts to prevent such violations and abuses;
(f) Humanitarian assistance and projects for stabilization
(i) In support of the Malian authorities, to contribute to the creation of a secure environment for the safe, civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, in accordance with humanitarian principles, and the voluntary, safe and dignified return or local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors;
(ii) In support of the Malian authorities, to contribute to the creation of a secure environment for projects aimed at stabilizing the North of Mali, including quick impact projects;
(g) Protection, safety and security of United Nations personnel
To protect the United Nations personnel, notably uniformed personnel, installations and equipment and ensure the safety, security and freedom of movement of United Nations and associated personnel;
(h) Support for cultural preservation
To assist the Malian authorities, as necessary and feasible, in protecting from attack the cultural and historical sites in Mali, in collaboration with UNESCO.
L’Institut Malien de Recherche Action pour la Paix (IMRAP) est une association malienne créée en réponse à la crise de 2012 et face au besoin de recréer le tissu social. Leur objectif est de contribuer au renouvellement d’un vouloir vivre ensemble harmonieux et à l’enracinement du dialogue inclusif comme mécanisme permettant de faire face ensemble aux défis à la paix et de construire une paix durable et rétablir la confiance entre les maliens demande un engagement à long terme.
On 15 April 2014 the European Council established, under the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), a civilian mission to support the internal security forces of Mali.
EUCAP Sahel Mali is a further contribution to the important support provided by the EU stability, institutional reforms and the full restoration of the authority of the Malian state in the entire country.
The mission assists the Malian government to guarantee the constitutional and democratic order, to put in place the conditions for sustainable peace and maintain its authority over the entire territory. The mission provides strategic advice and training for the three national security forces of Mali that are the police, the gendarmerie and the National Guard, while ensuring coordination with international partners.
In support of Mali’s active efforts to restore State authority, and in close coordination with other international partners, particularly MINUSMA, EUCAP Sahel Mali is providing assistance and advice to the national police, the national gendarmerie and the national guard in the implementation of the security reform set out by the new government, with a view to:
– Improving their operational efficiency
– Re-establishing their respective hierarchical chains
– Reinforcing the role of judicial and administrative authorities with regard to the management and supervision of their missions
– Facilitating their redeployment to the north of the country
The restoration of lasting peace in Mali is essential for the long term stability of the Sahel region, and in a broader sense for both Africa and Europe. At the request of the Malian Government, and on the basis of UN resolutions, in particular UN Security Council Resolution 2085, the Member States of the European Union agreed to establish a mission to train the Malian Armed Forces, under the framework of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The mandate for the EU-Training Mission in Mali was established in February 2013, extended for 24 months in May 2014, and it will be renewed and extended for another 24 months starting in May 2016. Currently 27 1 countries are participating in the mission. The mission is currently led by Brigadier General Werner Albl (Germany).
Mandate and Objectives
The European Union will support the Malian Government to restore security and stability in the country. The EU Training Mission’s mandate covers the following tasks:
- Support and advice to the Malian Armed Forces in the framework of their structural reform, - Enabling of the Malian Security Forces to grant the sovereignty, security and stability in their country by their own means. The two pillars of EUTM Mali which are derived from these tasks are:
- Advisory Task Force: Advice to the Malian Defence Ministry.
- Training Task Force: Training of the Malian Armed Forces. EUTM Mali is not an ‘executive mission’, that is to say, the deployed servicemen and women do not participate in combat activities and do not accompany the Malian units in their operations.
The aim of the mission is to support the rebuilding of the Malian armed forces and to meet their operational needs by:
- providing expertise and advice, in particular with regards to operational and organic command, logistic support, human resources, operational preparation and intelligence;
- training combat units at Koulikoro training camp.
The military training of the Malian units contains modules on the international humanitarian law and human rights, as well as on the protection of the civilian populations. The headquarters of the mission is located in Bamako and the training is carried out in Koulikoro (60 km north-east of Bamako). The mission's third mandate is for 24 months. Approximately 200 instructors are deployed in Koulikoro training camp, as well as supporting staff and force protection making a total of approximately 578 persons. The joint costs of the operation are €33.4 million for a mandate of 24 months.
Political control and strategic direction
Under the responsibility of the Council and of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, the Political and Security Committee (PSC) will exercise the political control and strategic direction of the European Union military mission. The PSC, at regular intervals, receives opinions and reports from the chairman of the EU Military Committee (EUMC) regarding the conduct of the military mission, and reports to the Council.
The EU Military Committee monitors the proper execution of the EU military mission conducted under the responsibility of the Mission Commander. The chairman of the Military Committee is the primary contact point for the Commander of the EU Mission knowing that the Mission Commander is responsible only towards the Nations.
The EU's comprehensive approach
The EU is implementing a comprehensive approach to the crisis in the Sahel region. In March 2011, the Council welcomed the presentation of an EU Strategy for Security and Development in the region. That strategy is based notably on the fact that development and security are closely linked and can be mutually reinforcing, but also on the fact that the solution to the complex crisis afflicting the Sahel demands a regional response. The EU has allocated over €1.569 billion to Mali, Mauritania and Niger under the 10th European Development Fund (2007-2013). In its strategy for the Sahel, the EU has not just mobilized additional financial resources for projects relating to development and security. In July2012, with a budget of €167 million, it also launched a civilian mission under the CSDP, named "EUCAP Sahel Niger", to contribute to combating crime and terrorism in Niger and the region. Liaison officers for that mission are currently posted in Nouakchott (Mauritania) and Bamako (Mali). The EU is the largest contributor to Mali's development. At the donors' conference in Brussels on 15 May 2013 for Mali, the international community made commitments worth €3.2 billion (including €523 million from the European Commission). The EU is determined to maintain its commitment to Mali, to help the Malian authorities consolidate peace and security and more generally to find lasting solutions to the crisis in the Sahel region, in close coordination with other regional and international stakeholders.
Internal security and public order is maintained by a multitude of forces including the gendarmerie, National Guard and most notably, the National Police. Below is a brief description of some of the sub-sectors of internal security and RoL.
- The National Police falls under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Security and Civil Protection (MoI). It is estimated to employ over 6,000 individuals, 700 of whom are women. The National Police’s mandate focuses primarily on the protection of people and property; the ability to identify and record criminal offenses, gather evidence, find and arrest perpetrators; as well as the capacity to seek and gather intelligence to inform government decision-making.
- The Judicial Police, an integral part of the National Police, is tasked specifically with reporting violations of criminal law, gathering evidence, tracking down suspects and supporting investigating authorities once a case is opened. While the judicial police are directed by the public prosecutor in support of specific cases, they fall hierarchically under the MoI. The judicial police can be thought of either as a status for certain officials, 8 with an associated bundle of rights and duties, or as an organisation in itself.
- The National Gendarmerie is entrusted with maintaining internal security and order. It shares a number of security related responsibilities with the National Police and the National Guard, including maintaining public order, collecting intelligence and protecting private property. However, because of its military status, it is entrusted with territorial defence operations, particularly during times of crisis. For this reason, the National Gendarmerie falls under of the authority of the MoI as well as the Ministry of Armed Forces and Former Combatants (MoAF). As of 2015, it is estimated that the gendarmerie counts 4,000 individuals, 100 of whom are women.
- The National Guard is a military-type force responsible for providing security to political and administrative institutions, as well as contributing to the maintenance of public order and the territorial defence of Mali. The National Guard falls under the MoAF for administrative affairs and the MoI for deployment. The National Guard does not carry out criminal investigations, instead only participating in policing functions such as the maintenance of law and order, and the patrol of sensitive areas. It is additionally considered one of the most widespread of all the security forces. As of 2015, it is estimated that the National Guard contains 3,000 individuals, 100 of whom are women.