The Belgrade Centre for Security Policy (BCSP), a member of the PASOS network of think tanks, is an independent research centre dedicated to advancing security of citizens and society they live in on the basis of democratic principles and respect for human rights. In the midst of Centre's interest are all policies aimed at improvement of human, national, regional, European and global security.
Otvaranje konferencije „Rod i reforma sektora bezbednosti u Srbiji" (uvodne napomene direktorke Centra za civilno-vojne odnose Sonje Stojanović)
The latest episode of ICTJ Forum, a monthly podcast looking into recent news and events from around the world, features ICTJ President David Tolbert, Truth and Memory Program Director Eduardo Gonzalez, and Africa Program Director Suliman Baldo. They join host and Communications Director Refik Hodzic for an in-depth analysis of recent developments in Kenya, the former Yugoslavia, and Colombia.
Policy and Research Papers
CEAS analysis of developments in the process of continued regulation of the private security sector in Serbia, compiled in cooperation with the Association of Private Security at the Serbian Chamber of Commerce and other relevant actors, members of the Commission of Associations of the Serbian Chamber of Commerce (SCC) for Public-Private Partnership in the Serbian Security Sector, which CEAS is also a member of. The document focuses on two aspects: the process of training and licensing in the private security sector and the issue of incompatible activities of police officers in relation to providing private security services.
CEAS analysis of previous and existing frameworks of whistleblower protection in Serbia, in relation to respect of those human rights and civil rights, guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia that are related to freedom and security, right to an opinion and expression, right to privacy, protection of personal data and labor, complemented by clear recommendations for improving the situation in the field.
CEAS analysis compiled by the CEAS team, with exhaustive consultation with the Office of the Council for National Security and Protection of Classified Information (NSA), Office of the Ombudsman and Office of the Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and Personal Data Protection on the current state of affairs in the area of protection of classified information in Serbia, with specific recommendations for improvement thereof.
CEAS analysis aimed at opening a wider public debate on security vetting, examining good practice examples of regulation of this area in other countries, the normative framework and relevant examples from practice in Serbia, complemented with specific recommendations for improving the current situation in the field.
New and novel military structures have emerged across the region in the context of externally driven post-conflict defence reform. As the post-conflict narrative gives way to new domestic, regional and international challenges and opportunities, elements of the process remain unresolved.
This paper will argue that in order to establish a sustainable and efficient military platform three emerging and interrelated lacunae need to be addressed: knowledge deficits in civilian-military relations; ownership cleavages as a result of adherence to Euro-Atlantic integration; and legitimacy of military function beyond the post-conflict context.
The study analyzes the current situation in Serbia’s security sector; the mechanisms the European Union has in order to enable Serbia to implement sustainable reforms in the security sector, with specific focus on Chapter 31 and the political criteria; a map of needs and key focus-points for reform, along with specific conclusions and recommendations for all relevant actors.
The Policy Study was prepared based on comprehensive research, consultations and interviews with relevant stakeholders conducted in Belgrade and Brussels including representatives of relevant ministries and parliamentary committees in Serbia, representatives of the NATO Liaison Office in Belgrade, the OSCE Mission to Serbia, the European Commission DG Enlargement, the EEAS and NATO HQ.
The study is a result of a joint project of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies in Belgrade (CEAS) and the Democratization Policy Council headquartered in Berlin (DPC) titled “Security sector reform, ‘military neutrality’ and EU integration in Serbia: How the EU can best use its influence to advocate for sustainable reform”.
A free and impartial media should be one of the pillars of a stable society. Media organisations have direct communication with a considerable portion of the population and are in a powerful position to support peace and security-related efforts. In a country like Kosovo, with a violent past, the media needs to pay special attention when covering emotionally charged issues, as failure to do so threatens to heighten tensions.
This study, ‘Media reporting on peace, conflict and security issues: How objective and conflict-sensitive is media coverage and reporting on these issues?’, examines the existing legal framework governing media and the perceptions of citizens on whether media outlets are sensitive or partisan in their reporting. Amongst other things, these perceptions are key in shaping people’s opinions and perceptions of Kosovar institutions. Currently, there are two regulatory bodies for press and broadcast media, but nothing for online media.
In recent months the Pristina-Belgrade dialogue has been prioritised in the media, and though the reporting is generally perceived to be impartial, there is a potential for inciting conflict if there is ambiguity and a perceived lack of objective reporting, particularly the use of conflict-insensitive language. This report concludes with suggestions for how media outlets could work towards more conflict sensitive news coverage.
This report was the result of joint work and collaboration between 11 organisations, including members of the Forum for Security in Pristina and Conflict Prevention Forum in the north, and through community dialogue meetings and desk research facilitated by FIQ and AKTIV.
This paper is available in English, Albanian and Serbian on the Saferworld website.
The recent agreement between Kosovo and Serbia is a significant accomplishment for the European Union. Still, the agreement marks the beginning, rather than the end, of a long-term process of normalizing relations between Serbia and Kosovo. The maintenance of the EU’s “constructive ambiguity” approach to the question of Serbia’s recognition of Kosovo as an independent state is important for continued normalizing relations between the countries. The EU’s continuous and active involvement and interest in the region is of paramount importance for the full implementation of the agreement.
The study begins with the analysis of the existing legal solutions in the area of prohibition of discrimination.
It aims to critically review the chosen teaching material and begin the evolution of the military textbooks content in the context of the overall reform of the Serbian schooling system and teaching contents, as an important part of the efforts of the society to influence the current state of the society, regarding the level of discrimination. The study includes the analysis of the existing legal solutions, independent bodies’ reports, published professional studies on the subject of Security Sector Reform, discrimination and educational content in Serbia, the chosen teaching material content at the Military Academy, Military High School and of the training of professional members of Serbian Armed Forces, as well as additional interviews and discussions within focus groups. Concretely, qualitative content analysis covers the content of twelve textbooks and handbooks used in the Military Academy;three textbooks of key social subjects in the Military High School, two handbooks from humanitarian law that are being used in the basic training for soldiers and commanders, in addition to material from one of the training courses for the future members of multinational operations.The research sought to determine whether the selected textbooks and handbooks deal with issues of human rights and vulnerable groups; point out the context that mentions vulnerable groups (positive, negative, neutral, relativising); and provide a description of concrete good examples or parts of the text that could be considered in some way discriminatory against women, ethnic and national minorities, members of other religious communities or atheists, as well as the members of the LGBT population.
In 2011, Public Policy Research Center conducted a six-month project titled “Vulnerable Groups and Security Sector Reform: a Case Study of LGBT” on the relationship dynamics of LGBT people and the police / Ministry of Interior (MoI) and the Armed Forces of Serbia / Ministry of Defence (MoD). The research was based on the assumption that the security sector institutions relationship with and attitude toward members of LGBT population is one of the indicators of change in their culture i.e. a part of the process of the so-called “second generation” reforms. The research team sought to examine how non-heterosexual individuals perceive the ongoing process of reforms in the security sector institutions, especially in regard to possible improvements of their own security. The intent was also to contribute to the increase of interest in the “security community” for the issue of LGBT people’s relationship with the security sector. The ultimate goal of this project is to improve communication and cooperation between the two communities.
CEAS report analyzing in detail the state of the private security sector in Serbia - both the legal framework and the situation in practice - along an analysis of with good practice examples, a comprehensive analysis of the Draft Law on Private Security, expert opinions, and clear recommendations for the Serbian Government.
CEAS plan for improvement of the state of the security system in Serbia with special focus on protection of constitutionally guaranteed human rights: right to privacy and personal data protection.
The data used for this research, was collected from interviews, focus groups and questionnaires sent to security sector institutions in Serbia.
Initial methodological and empirical assumptions for further comprehensive in-depth research into the forms, trends and consequences manifested by corruption in the Serbian security sector have been formulated on the basis of this project’s results.
The findings obtained can also represent a good basis for more active participation by other civil society organisations, the media and citizens in the fight against corruption in the security sector.
The publication also in its first part discusses different theoretical approaches to corruption in aforesaid security institutions present in the most relevant literature on this issue.
- See more at: http://www.bezbednost.org/All-publications/5164/Corruption-in-the-Security-Sector-in-Serbia.shtml#sthash.NjZywDP1.dpuf
A comprehensive analysis and final report of a cross-sector, expert working group composed of CEAS team members, representatives of the Commission for Public-Private Partnership in the security sector of Serbia, Association of Private Security of the Serbian Chamber of Commerce, legal experts, representatives of the academic community and other expert consultants from international organizations dealing with the security sector, on the Draft Law on Private Security which the Government of Serbia adopted on April 30, 2013.
The aim of this report was to analyze the recommendations and best practices contained in certain documents of foreign countries, international organizations and associations, including the EU and NATO, whose legislative framework and best practices, but also some challenges in the private security sector are available at the DCAF website developed in cooperation with SIE Cheo-Kang Center for International Security Studies and Diplomacy at the University of Denver called " Private Security Monitor“, organizations such as the Confederation of European Security Services – CoESS, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe – OSCE, the Geneva Centre for the democratic control of armed Forces - DCAF and ASIS International, including initiatives such as Montreux Document and the International Code of Conduct for the private security sector; analyze the aforementioned, Draft Law on Private Security, paying particular attention to the inclusion of recommendations of independent bodies, such as the opinion that the Commissioner for Information of Public importance and Personal Data Protection gave on the draft law; and form recommendations for potential amendments to the Law, once it is adopted.
The text analyzes the results of public opinion survey by the Eurobarometer i.e. the extent of the polarization in the EU. It explains how and why results have changed in the past couple of years and how the trust in EU institutions has alternated. It singles out the most important social cleavages in the EU and how they change over time, as well as how political institutions are invested with legitimacy by the citizens. Finally, it delineates trends toward strengthening of extreme right-wing parties as one of the possible responses to the crisis and how the EU slowly abandons the Copenhagen criteria for accession, primarily by making political decisions on the basis of which a country makes advances on its path toward the EU.
A review of Serbia's process of EU integrations written by CEAS expert, and former Adviser at the Political Criteria, justice, freedom and security Sector of the Office for European Integration; Head of the Group for European Integration and Regional Initiative in the Directorate for International Military Cooperation of the Sector for Defense Policy of the Ministry of Defense; and Senior Adviser and Head of the Group for European Integration in the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister for European integration, Sanja Mešanović.
Foreword by CEAS Director Jelena Milić to the fourth issue of the CEAS quarterly The New Century .
Paper on the current situation in the private security sector in Serbia, existing challenges and the need for adopting a law regulating this field. The paper was written for the fourth issue of the online quarterly of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies (CEAS) The New Century.
Foreword by CEAS Director Jelena Milić to the third issue of the CEAS quarterly The New Century .
Foreword by CEAS Director Jelena Milić to the second issue of the CEAS quarterly The New Century, on the first hundred days of the new Serbian Government
The Elephant in the Room: Incomplete Security Sector Reform in Serbia and its Consequences for Serbian Domestic and Foreign Policies
The paper is written as a contribution for the book ‘Unfinished Business: The Western Balkans and the International Community’ edited by Vedran Džihić and Daniel Hamilton and published by the Center for Transatlantic Relations, of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at the Johns Hopkins University in Washington.
This paper follows the development of the concept of sovereignty, analyzing its evolution and influence, but also the influence of other factors and norms as well, such as the understanding of security, responsibility and human rights in relation to sovereignty and their mutual relationship in the international system of the New Century, recognizing that without understanding of the role that human rights played in constructing the way in which sovereignty is understood in the New Century, the key moments in evolution of this concept cannot be explained either.
Main Challenges of Reform of the Security Sector in Serbia: The role of the EU Common Security and Defense Policy and NATO in the reform of the secu...
This paper won first place at the competition organized by CEAS among senior undergraduate, master and doctoral students of social sciences as well as young experts interested in reform of the security sector in Serbia on the topic “Main Challenges of Reform of the Security Sector in Serbia ”.
CEAS Analysis of the Security and Political Threats to Sustainable Agreement with Kosovo Coming from Serbia and the Western International Community
Analysis of results of a poll conducted among National Assembly deputies, state officials and civil society activists about the state of affairs in the security sector in Serbia and further reform steps that need to be taken and CEAS recommendations for continued reform of the security sector in Serbia, formulated on the basis of the poll and other research-analytical activities in this area.
The report, co-drafted by the Belgrade Centre for Security Policy (formerly known as the Centre for Civil-Military Relations) and the Belgrade Fund for Political Excellence with the support of DCAF, presents the findings of the needs assessment on gender and SSR in Serbia.
• Generates a detailed baseline for the current state of gender mainstreaming in security sector institutions at the central, provincial and municipal level;
• Identifies local needs, gaps and shortcomings of current SSR processes, and prioritizes needs which should be addressed by national authorities and civil society, with the support of the international donor community, including DCAF’s gender and SSR project.
The needs assessment is built on desk research, interviews, and a series of local stakeholder consultations conducted in Novi Sad, Kragujevac, Novi Pazar, Bujanovac and Belgrade in the course of March and April 2010. It forms the building block of DCAFs dedicated and long term gender and SSR project in Serbia.
This case study seeks to provide basic information and policy analysis on the deployment of international judges and prosecutors in Kosovo, a program that was established under the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in 1999. It is part of a series that aims to provide information and analysis on policy and practical issues facing hybrid courts. In Kosovo, hybrid courts were established when international capacity was injected into the domestic legal system. The lessons that can be drawn from this experience are divided into the following areas:
• A brief history of the conflict in Kosovo
• Background to the establishment of the international judges and prosecutors (IJP) program
• A description of the IJP program
• Prosecutorial strategy and case selection
• Legal framework
• Court administration and witness protection
• Cost and efficiency
• Relationship with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and other transitional justice mechanisms
• Outreach, public perceptions, and ownership
• Exit strategy and legacy
The purpose of this case study is to provide basic information, some of which is still not widely available, on these areas to guide policymakers and stakeholders in establishing and implementing similar mechanisms. Similar case studies have been developed on Sierra Leone and Timor-Leste.
Security Sector Governance in the Western Balkans: Self-Assessment Studies on Defence, Intelligence, Police and Border Management Reform
In order to institutionalise democratically-based security sectors and achieve Euro-Atlantic integration, Western Balkan countries need to change their value systems substantially. This book, published by the Austrian Ministry of Defence and the Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) in cooperation with the Partnership for Peace Consortium, is an assessment of the status of security sector reform (SSR) in the Western Balkans. Despite legislative progress, all security institutions in the region need to be more transparent and accountable, and improve their policy formulation and implementation capacities.
The actions of the police both reflect and affect societal changes and the legitimacy that society vests in state authority. What principles and practices of good policing have emerged through processes of reform, trans-national exchanges and the creation of international regimes? This introductory chapter by the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF) summarises some of the lessons learned on police reform and examines what has been achieved in police reform in transitional societies.
The idea that policing matters to democracy has slowly but firmly taken hold among politicians, scholars, policy-makers and the police themselves. Providing security is one of the basic demands that society makes of the state. This includes the demand by citizens and communities that their lives are protected by the social control apparatuses of the state. The police occupy a crucial political role in any society by virtue of the symbolic value of their work. This has an impact on the political and social discourse. The police are part of the system of governance. They matter in processes of state creation, the reproduction of peaceful social relations, the peaceful resolution of conflicts and the creation of social identities and bonds that underpin political life.
Conversely, ineffective, arbitrary or repressive social control undermines the legitimacy of existing state-society relations, complicates efforts to promote development, and severely limits the (re)building of democratic forms of governance and order. In short, the police matter beyond their merely functional work.
Reforms take time and patience. Nothing will work out quite as planned and expected. Adjustments have to be made in the course of reforms.
- There will be resistance to reforms. This has to be undermined in such a way that those resisting will be seen by others as unreasonable and illegitimate in their objections and as protecting their own interests rather than looking out for the common good of society and the state.
- Even enthusiastically received reforms will suffer a decline in energies and active support as time goes on. Reforms should be supported by occasional campaigns to stir up enthusiasm.
- The pace of reforms must fit local conditions so as not to 'overwhelm' either the police or the public.
- Police organisations seek to shape reforms towards their interests and are much more likely to adopt reforms that do not challenge the existing internal distribution of power and authority within the organisation.
- Reforms must be built into managerial practice in the long term. A system should be developed to teach new leaders as they rise through the ranks.
The goals of democratic police reform (or creation of a democratic policing system) are:
- sustained legitimacy;
- skilled professionalism; and
- effective accountability.
This volume analyses the role of civil society in the reform and oversight of the security sector in post-communist countries as a key aspect of the transition towards democracy.
It is widely accepted that civil society actors have an important contribution to make in the governance of the security sector. However, until now, that specific role has not been examined closely or in a comparative manner. This book constitutes a first attempt to examine and compare experiences across Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe.
The first part of the volume presents the reader with the theoretical and conceptual background against which the potential role of civil society in security sector governance can be understood and assessed.
The remainder of the book is comprised of nine country studies of civil society engagement with the security sector. Reviewing developments over the past 15 years of regime transformation in the region, the book provides rich empirical detail and analysis that cast light on the different experiences, challenges, and successes of civil society actors and the media when engaging with the security policy domain. The resulting insights contribute to our understanding of security sector reform and the exercise of democratic oversight of the security sector.
Democracy is unlikely to develop or to endure unless military and other security forces are controlled by democratic institutions and necessary safeguards, checks and balances are in place. The result of a 2-year research project managed under the auspices of the European Group on Armed Forces and Society (ERGOMAS) and the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), this comparative study examines how contemporary European states, both mature Western democracies and emerging democracies of post-communist Europe, manage the issue of how best to control the very institution that has been established for their protection and wields the monopoly of legitimate force. This volume contains 28 case studies from 14 countries: the Czech Republic, Germany, Georgia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro, Switzerland, and the Ukraine. The studies cover a variety of situation from corruption to military incompetence, disobediencetowards civilian superiors, lack of expertise among civilians, to unauthorized strikes and accidents. They focus on the relationship between political, civilian and military actors while identifying problems and dangers that can emerge in those relations to the detriment of effective and legitimate democratic control. This book will be of much interest to students of Civil-Military Relations, military sociology, IR and strategic studies.
This volume analyses the role of civil society in the reform and oversight of the security sector in post- communist countries as a key aspect of the transition towards democracy. It is widely accepted that civil society actors have an important contribution to make in the governance of the security sector. However, that specific role has not been subject to much close or comparative examination. This book constitutes an attempt to examine and compare experiences of civil society participation in security oversight across Central and Eastern Europe. The first part of the volume presents the reader with the theoretical and conceptual background against which the potential role of civil society in security sector governance can be understood and assessed. The remainder of the book is comprised of nine country studies of civil society engagement with the security sector. Reviewing developments over the past 15 years of regime transformation in the region, the book draws upon a rich variety of cases that cast light on the different experiences, challenges, and successes of civil society actors and the media in democratization, security sector reform, and the exercise of democratic oversight of the security sector. Marina Caparini is senior fellow at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. Philipp H. Fluri is deputy director of DCAF and executive director of DCAF Brussels (Belgium). Ferenc Molnar is a military sociologist and deputy director of the Centre for Strategic and Defence Studies, National Defence University, Budapest (Hungary).
Implementing Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Post-Communist Europe: Lessons learned for improving Reform Practices
In the aftermath of the Cold War, the traditional concept of defense and security no longer represents an adequate response to the new security challenges and threats that the international community faces. Since the war in Bosnia in 1991, the Euro-Atlantic community became aware of the necessity to reform its security sector so as to tackle such problems as global terrorism, organized crime, intra-state ethnic and religious conflicts, as well as the abuse of human rights. The growing demand for respect of democracy and human rights suggest that this reform should not focus solely on strict security institutions, but it should also include political and civilian institutions. The SSR agenda provides for a holistic and concrete response to all security related problems, but, as past experience demonstrates, many difficulties arise in the implementation stage; attempts to operationalise SSR proved to be problematic in certain contexts as are the post-Communist Central and Eastern European countries. This paper describes specific problems that arose during the implementation stage of the SSR agenda in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Bulgaria, Russia, Kosovo, and Serbia, and suggests different recommendation policies in order to successfully engage in a holistic, cohesive, and strategic amelioration of the security sector.
This book is about the relationship between societies and theirsecurity forces at times of great political and societal change. It uses the experiences of Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro to examine the control, management and reform of armed forces, police and intelligence agencies in the aftermath of conflict and authoritarianism. The book assesses the theory and practice of security sector reform programmes in the context of Europe and the Western Balkans, the relationship between security sector reform and normative international policy more generally, and the broader dynamics ofpost-conflict and post-authoritarian transformation. In so doing it addresses two underlying questions. First, how and in what ways does reform in the security sector interrelate with processes of domestic political and societal transformation, particularly democratisation. Second, how andin what ways do these processes relate and respond to internationally-drivenefforts to promote a particular type of security sector reform as acomponent of wider peacebuilding and democracy promotion strategies.
The seventh issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The sixth issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The fifth issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The fourth issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The third issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The second issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.
The first issue of the electronic quarterly magazine of the Center for Euro-Atlantic Studies.