Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (GCR2P)

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Policy and Research Papers

"If Not Now, When?": The Responsibility to Protect, the Fate of the Rohingya and the Future of Human Rights

In this occasional paper from the Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect, Dr. Simon Adams tests the resilience of the international community's commitment to defending human rights and upholding its Responsibility to Protect populations from genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity and war crimes. The paper highlights the failure to respond to patterns of discrimination that eventually led to a genocide in Myanmar (Burma) during 2017. But it also draws attention to other recent situations, such as in the Gambia, when the international community seized the moment to respond in a timely and decisive manner to an emerging threat of devastating conflict. In doing so, Adams emphasizes that even when bodies such as the UN Security Council appear paralyzed and inert, a mobilized international community can still act to prevent atrocities, protect vulnerable populations, and hold the perpetrators accountable.

To access the full paper, "If Not Now, When?": The Responsibility to Protect, the Fate of the Rohingya and the Future of Human Rights, kindly follow the link. 


Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Monitor

The Responsibility to Protect (R2P) is a global norm, unanimously adopted by heads of state and government at the 2005 UN World Summit, aimed at preventing and halting Genocide, War Crimes, Ethnic Cleansing and Crimes Against Humanity. R2P stipulates that: » Every State has the Responsibility to Protect its populations from the four mass atrocity crimes (Pillar I). » The wider international community has the responsibility to encourage and assist individual States in meeting that responsibility (Pillar II). » If a State is manifestly failing to protect its populations, the international community must be prepared to take appropriate collective action, in a timely and decisive manner and in accordance with the UN Charter (Pillar III).

R2P Monitor applies the Responsibility to Protect lens to the following situations of concern: CURRENT CRISIS: Mass atrocity crimes are occurring and urgent action is needed.

IMMINENT RISK The situation is reaching a critical threshold and the risk of mass atrocity crimes occurring in the immediate future is very high if effective preventive action is not taken.

SERIOUS CONCERN There is a significant risk of occurrence, or recurrence, of mass atrocity crimes within the foreseeable future if effective action is not taken.

To access the full report R2P Monitor, please follow the link provided.