Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Civil-Military Working Paper 1-2013 | Police–military interaction in international peace and stability operations

In this document, the focus is on the interaction between the civilian police forces and the militaries of countries with Anglo–Peelian traditions of civilian policing, with a strong consent-based tradition and a tradition of professional volunteer military forces; examples are Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom. The document identifies the appropriate divisions of responsibility for the various forces, taking into account the hostility of the environment, in order to show areas where coordination, cooperation or collaboration might be beneficial and to point to ways in which such interaction might be profitably pursued.

Read more about the research project and download the report here.


The Thin Blue Line and The Impact of Terrorism on the Transformation of Law Enforcement

Originally published as a dissertation, this research by Valarie Findlay explores both the notion of terrorism and counterterrorism policies throughout history, asking whether the events of 9/11 were responsible for the transformation of law enforcement and a watershed of legislation in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada. The author uses qualitative and quantitative data, as well as the examination of key factors that set the foundational context and measurement criteria, such as relevant aspects in the history of law enforcement, the organisational structure of law enforcement, the incidence of militarisation, the powers of law enforcement and specific legislative responses to terrorist incidents, societal conflict and societal change.

Read the article online.


“Diaspora as Partners”: The Canadian Model of Countering Violent Extremism

The first step in an effective countering violent extremism (CVE) strategy is to develop a detailed and nuanced understanding of the relevant communities. Building on a research project completed for Public Safety Canada—which examined the impact of overseas conflicts on Syrian, Afghan, Somali, and Tamil communities in Canada— this paper identifies key insights about the country’s diaspora communities. Serious attempts to address violent extremism begin by accepting the reality that future attacks are as likely to come from within societies as abroad. Diaspora communities can be a country’s greatest asset in combating violent extremism. Strengthening the social capital of these communities is the most promising and cost-effective means to counter the threat of radicalization. This requires a serious commitment to research, dialogue, and law enforcement strategies that promote engagement instead of confrontation. 

To access “Diaspora as Partners”: The Canadian Model of Countering Violent Extremism, kindly follow the link. 


Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces

DCAF's newest addition to its SSR series has just been published, co-authored by Albrecht Schnabel and Marc Krupanski and titled "Mapping Evolving Internal Roles of the Armed Forces." It is widely assumed, at least from a Western perspective, that the armed forces provide national defence against external threats. In reality, within many consolidated Western democracies the armed forces are assuming an increasingly wide range of internal roles and tasks. These can include domestic security roles and the provision of humanitarian assistance in situations of natural or humanitarian catastrophe, often under the command and control of different civilian agencies. This SSR Paper seeks to make sense of this complex reality. Different internal roles of armed forces are analysed, drawing on the cases of Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. Through carefully examining evolving internal roles and identifying patterns and lessons from these experiences, this SSR Paper provides an important contribution to understanding the evolving nature of contemporary armed forces.


National Security Decision-Making Structures and Security Sector Reform

This report was prepared for the UK’s Security Sector Development Advisory Team in June 2005. Its aim is to act as a basis for discussion and to provide an opportunity to learn from the successes and failures of intelligence and security legislation in various countries. Drawing on the body of academic work in this field and the knowledge of RAND staff, this report: provides a definition of intelligence; describes in detail how intelligence is produced; examines the role of intelligence in security sector reform; highlights the importance of control and accountability in intelligence structures; examines how six countries have developed and implemented intelligence legislation and associated reforms; and, finally, draws out a number of key lessons to be considered in any future security sector reform activity encompassing intelligence structures. The report outlines the choices that need to be made when designing or implementing legislative oversight on intelligence and security services. The report will be of interest to policy makers in countries seeking to reform their security sectors and to practitioners in the international aid community seeking to support security sector reform.

View National Security Decision-Making Structures and Security Sector Reform


Defence White Papers in the Americas

In preparation for the October 2000 Defense Ministerial of the Americas (DMA) in Manaus Brazil and at the request of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS) studied the global trend toward the creation of Defense White Papers. The study aimed to understand the nature of these documents in order to prepare the U.S. delegation to discuss the tendency in Latin America and the Caribbean during the DMA. The INSS study team found no agreement about what constitutes a 'white paper' other than each is a consensus statement on a topic. The team examined 15 defense documents worldwide and interviewed participants in the development process and independent analysts. The results suggest that the formative, often difficult, process through which governments must move to solidify their approach to national security defense policy, and the structure to implement it and build consensus for it is the essential part of a 'white paper,' providing a constructive experience that benefits the country. Governments tended not to want a template for this process, although at the working level there is some interest in the experience of other states. Defense White Papers become highly stylized nationalistic documents that reflect a state's unique domestic circumstances and international geopolitical situation. The attached chart provides an overview comparison of the Defense White Paper processes of Canada, the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and South Africa. Past efforts by U.S. agencies to design templates have failed.



Elusive Pursuits: Lessons From Canada’s Interventions Abroad

With the election of a new federal government, Canadian foreign policy is set enter a new phase of planning and priorities. The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) has released a new book titled Elusive Pursuits: Lessons From Canada’s Interventions Abroad that offers guidance on where Canada’s military intervention and foreign aid might be most effective.

Co-edited by CIGI’s Director of Global Security & Politics Program Fen Osler Hampson and Stephen Saideman, Paterson Chair in International Affairs at Carleton University, Elusive Pursuits brings together leading scholars and practitioners who examine Canada’s role in foreign military and security missions, and its tendency to intervene under the auspices of international institutions. Topics covered in Elusive Pursuits include: Canada in the Arab World; interventions in Afghanistan, Haiti, Libya and Somalia; foreign aid effectiveness; the gender and demographics of intervention; and Syria and the Responsibility to Protect.

Further details about Elusive Pursuits: Lessons From Canada’s Interventions Abroad here.


Teaching Gender in the Military

The Teaching Gender in the Military Handbook documents the knowledge outcomes of a series of four workshops organised by the Security Sector Reform and Education Development Working Groups of the Partnership for Peace Consortium of Defense Academies and Security Studies Institutes (PfPC). The handbook aims to (a) strengthen the ability of faculty to integrate gender in professional military education and (b) improve the capacity of gender experts to deliver educational content. In other words, it aims to cover both ‘what to teach’ and ‘how to teach’ when it comes to gender and the military. The Handbook was created in response to a call to integrate gender in military education and training articulated in the UN Security Council Resolutions on Women, Peace and Security; the NATO frameworks to implement these resolutions; and national policies and initiatives in the NATO-PfP area.

The handbook’s 19 authors comprise both military and civilian subject matter experts in gender and military education from 13 NATO and PfP Member Nations.  It has ten peer-reviewed chapters divided into two sections:


Section I: What to Teach

“Why and How Gender is Vital to Military Operations” Lena P. Kvarving, Norway & Rachel Grimes, United Kingdom

“The Political and Legal Framework for Gender Education and Training” Sally Longworth, Sweden/UK, Nevena Miteva, Bulgaria & Ankica Tomić, Bosnia and Herzegovina

“Gender Education and Training in the Military” Yvette Foliant, Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations & Martina Lindberg, Sweden

4“How to Integrate Gender into Military Curricula” Aiko Holvikivi, DCAF, with Kristin Valasek

Section II: How to Teach

5 “Adult Learning Principles and Transformative Learning in Teaching Gender” Kathaleen Reid-Martinez, Oral Roberts University; Iryna Lysychkina, Ukraine & Andreas Hildenbrand, George C. Marshall Center

6 “Gender Dynamics in the Classroom” Callum Watson, DCAF

7 “Lesson Planning: Backwards Design and Active Learning in Teaching Gender” Iryna Lysychkina, Ukraine; Andreas Hildenbrand, George C. Marshall Center & Virpi Levomaa, Nordic Centre for Gender in Military Operations

8 “Evaluation as a Tool for Improvement” Elizabeth Lape, United States

9 “Leveraging Technologies to Support Teaching Gender” Tanja Geiss & Gigi Roman, NATO School Oberammergau

10 “Faculty Development: Mentoring and Coaching” Nathalie Levesque, Canada & Maka Petriashvili, Georgia



An assessment of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration training: The case of the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre

Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) of combatants is a vital process in the international community's approaches to seting the ground work for the recovery of post-conflict states. This thesis explores a sample of DDR programmes and evaluates a core training programme. The first chapter examines the DDR process and provides an overview of the critical components. Chapter Two prov ides a review of current U.N. IDDRS standards, with emphasis on placing the DDR process within the conflict cycle and identifying gaps. Chapter Three explores how Canadian military, police and civilian peacekeepers are trained to contribute to a national DDR strategy, with a detailed assessment of the Pearson Peacekeeping Centre's DDR course. Chapter Four elaborates where training could be altered to make the delivery of DDR more effective in providing the secure environment for the sustainable reintegration of excombatants. Chapter Five concludes with a summary of basic principles and observations surrounding the training of DDR practitioners.