Sécurité africaine : l'entrée de la Chine

Ce podcast de l'European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) Paris s'intéresse à la politique de sécurité de la Chine en Afrique. Historiquement présente via des ventes d'armes et une implication dans les opérations de maintien de la paix, la perception qu'a la Chine de son rôle dans la sécurité globale évolue, et elle s'implique en conséquence différemment en Afrique. Le principe de non-ingérence est toujours central, mais d'une méfiance historique envers les opérations de maintien de la paix suivie d'une participation limitée aux rôles de soutien, la Chine passe depuis 2012 à un engagement plus important dans des rôles de combat.

Autour de ces questions, les intervenants, Abigaël Vasselier, Manuel Lafont Rapnouil, Mathieu Duchâtel et Tara Varma, discutent aussi du contact entre les populations locales et les effectifs chinois ainsi que des tensions qui, inévitablement, apparaissent sur le terrain pour les forces engagées dans le maintien de la paix. Passant de Juba au Mali pour des exemples sur les différents sujets, les intervenants discutent aussi du rapport entre les missions européennes et l'Armée populaire de libération chinoise.

Pour accéder au podcast de l'ECFR Paris Sécurité africaine : l'entrée de la Chine, veuillez suivre le lien.


Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Japon-Philippines: une nouvelle alliance stratégique en mer de Chine ?

Un avion patrouilleur de l'armée de l'air japonaise a survolé, mardi 23 juin, selon Reuters, jusqu'aux limites de Reed Bank, un plateau marin riche en ressources énergétiques, dont la Chine et les Philippines se disputent la possession, dans un secteur contesté de mer de Chine méridionale, foyer de tension entre la Chine et ses voisins d'Asie du Sud-Est.
Ce survol d'un avion de surveillance P3-C Orion s'inscrit dans le cadre d'exercices militaires conjoints menés par les Philippines et le Japon au grand dam du pouvoir chinois, qui avait condamné une "ingérence" du Japon dans le secteur. On le sait, la Chine revendique l'essentiel (environ 90 %) de la Mer de Chine méridionale et elle ne s'en cache pas. Elle effectue actuellement des travaux de remblais sur différents atolls des îles Spratleys afin d'y implanter des bases navales et aériennes.
Comment interpréter ces évolutions et que nous disent-elles de la relation Japon-Philippines d'une part et de la posture de défense japonaise d'autre part ?

Publié par l'Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques (IRIS), cet article s'intéresse à la coopération croissante en matière de sécurité entre Manille et Tokyo. 


Building constructive China-US cooperation on peace and security in Africa

Increasingly, external actors are involving themselves in Africa – engagement which is critical to African development, but which has potential either to increase security or further destabilise some of the continent’s already fragile countries. A cooperative rather than competitive approach between two key external actors, the US and China – based on common interests – would greatly enhance the conditions for peace and sustainable development in Africa, as well as providing each with direct benefits.

This briefing looks at obstacles to collaboration between China and the US, opportunities for cooperation, and provides recommendations to both on how the interests of African nations and these key actors can best be served, including:

  • Accept a broadened definition of security and focus on non-traditional security challenges and non-combat operations that offer opportunity without the connotation of military-military support or intervention
  • Prioritize African perspectives
  • Deepen mutual understanding and promotion of knowledge exchange in conflict-sensitive development and the management of conflict, crises, and risk in business sector involvement.

Find more information and download the full brief here.


Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific: China and the Emerging Order in the East and South China Seas

Dr. Kun-Chin Lin and Dr Andrès Villar Gertner argue in this Chatham House Research Paper argue that the maritime domain embodies unique risks that require different solutions from those deriving from a Westphalian notion of statehood and land-based projection of power. The United States and China in particular need to exercise statesmanship in the deteriorating context of the South China Sea. Four dimensions of tensions are evaluated: geostrategic balance, national identity politics, regional and domestic institutions, and international maritime law.

Instruments and institutions of collective commitment, voluntary compliance and dispute resolution – from bilateral agreements on fisheries management to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) – are available to support shared values on sustainable development of ocean resources and freedom of navigation. More generally, the authors argue that a breakthrough in maritime governance will depend on the representation of a broad constituency that encompasses trading sectors, fisheries, energy and transport industries, scientific communities, NGOs, think-tanks, environmental activists and local communities.

To access the research paper on Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific: China and the Emerging Order in the East and South China Seas, kindly follow the link.


The Silk Road Economic Belt: Considering security implications and EU–China cooperation prospects

The Silk Road Economic Belt (the ‘Belt’) component of the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by China in 2013 is an ambitious vision that has evoked enthusiasm among many stakeholders. Among other objectives, the Belt intends to promote infrastructural development and connectivity, and stimulate economic integration across the Eurasian continent. Europe is an integral part of China’s transcontinental vision, and the European Union (EU) has its own vested interests in the Belt—as the EU–China Connectivity Platform demonstrates. This one-year desk and field study examines the Belt from a security perspective. The report elaborates on whether the Belt is a platform for European Union (EU)–China cooperation on mitigating security threats throughout Eurasia, and provides policy recommendations to the EU on how to proceed. In the context of the report, ‘security’ is defined broadly in relation to intra- and interstate stability: it encompasses human security and developmental conditions.

For full access to the report, The Silk Road Economic Belt: Considering Security Implications and EU–China Cooperation Prospects, kindly follow the link. 


China, Russia and the Shifting Landscape of Arms Sales

This SIPRI commentary assesses the evolution of the Russian-Chinese arm trade relations since the 1970s. While China's demand of Russian weapon systems had been in decline over the past decade due to an increase in Chinese manufacturing, recent arms sales data indicates that this trend might currently be shifting.

For full access to China, Russia and the Shifting Landscape of Arms Sales, kindly follow the link. 


Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives

There have been considerable developments in security-policy thinking since the end of the Cold War, and a complex set of transnational threatsand challenges necessitates new security policies and strategies. Not only the attacks of 11 September 2001, but also the dark side of globalisation such as climate change, the global spread of dangerous technologies and international organised crime have changed the security perspective and policy procedures in recent years. Consequently, new
national-security strategies, white papers and security-policy documents have been drafted in order to take into account the changing security landscape.

On 6 April 2009, the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (GCSP) welcomed a group of leading security experts for a seminar entitled “Security Strategies Today : Trends and Perspectives”. The goal of the seminar was to provide a forum for experts from different European states, major international powers and regional and international organisations to take stock of current security polices in the European region and beyond. The participants had an opportunity to assess the direction of security-policy thinking by analysing a number of key security-policy documents such as national-security strategies, defence concepts and white papers, among others. Assumptions regarding future threats were considered, as were a variety of drafting processes and methodologies.

More than 30 participants attended the seminar, including representatives of the Defence Ministries of Finland, Germany and Sweden, as well as representatives of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). In addition to faculty members from the GCSP, regional and international experts from a range of academic and policy institutions participated, including speakers from PricewaterhouseCoopers, the International Affairs Institute (Rome), the Institute for International Strategic Studies (Beijing), the Royal Institute of International Relations (Brussels) and the Foundation for Strategic Studies (Paris).



Security Activities of External Actors in Africa

Security Activities of External Actors in Africa  is the first book to systematically map the security-related policies, strategies and activities of major external actors in Africa. It assesses the involvement of seven key external actors—China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, the European Union and the United Nations—in sub-Saharan Africa. It pays special attention to military presences, military interventions, contributions to peace operations, arms supplies, defence and security agreements, military training, and other forms of military and security assistance.

Mapping the diverse security-related activities of external actors in Africa is an important first step towards understanding Africa’s evolving security environment. This book takes that step.