Etudes de cas
The ﬁrst peaceful transfer of power in Ghana from one elected government to another occurred in January 2001 when opposition leader John Kufuor became President. Part of the remaining challenge of democratic consolidation was full civilian, democratic control and further professionalisation of the security sector.
Through the good relationship developed by the UK defence attaché with senior ﬁgures in the Ghanaian Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Ghanaian armed forces, the UK Security Sector Development Advisory Team was invited by the Ghanaian MoD to advise them on how to develop a human resources management and development strategy for the civilian component of the MoD. It became clear that before such a strategy could be developed, there was a need for greater clarity on the roles and responsibilities of the civil wing in relation to its military counterparts. The process of helping Ghanaian partners think through what these roles and responsibilities might be provided an opportunity to draw upon the experiences of other African countries that had strengthened the governance and management structures of their own security systems. It also enabled broader participation among Ghanaian stakeholders in this debate, including the wider security system, parliamentarians,
academia and relevant civil society organisations.
Build networks through dialogue — Through the participation of a wide range of stakeholders in a series of workshops, greater understanding of SSR issues was developed, and a network of those interested in supporting progressive change was established. It was through this network that a locally designed and led course on security sector governance and management was developed. Delivered by an alliance of local institutions, the annual course is managed by a steering team jointly chaired by the Ofﬁce of the President and the Ofﬁce of the Head of the Civil Service.
Empower and strengthen local organisations — The series of workshops was organised by a local NGO called the African Security Dialogue and Research. ASDR built upon its extensive contacts and local knowledge to ensure a tailored approach that was effective in guiding the agenda forward within a complex political environment. Its engagement in this programme has helped them build trust, credibility and relationships with a range of individuals and organisations across government and beyond. This is reﬂected in the fact that the Parliamentary Defence and Security Committee later asked ASDR to provide a series of seminars and training for parliamentarians.
Flexibility — The willingness to adapt to a changing environment and to take opportunities as they arose was crucial to the successes that were achieved through this initiative. Although the initial objective of supporting a signiﬁ cant enhancement in the capacity of the civilian wing was not fully realised, real progress was made in areas that were not originally envisaged, such as catalysing a public dialogue on security issues that in turn help catalyse broader reforms.
Build on ongoing initiatives and link to wider processes — Directly linking the initiative to the ongoing cross-government civil service strengthening programme was important in placing change within the MoD in the wider context of public sector reform and in broadening participation in the process to include those from outside the security system.
The Security Sector Governance and Management Course which is delivered by ASDR, Ghana University and the Ghana Institute for Management and Public Administration is now well established and provides an important forum for building understanding and promoting discussion on a range of security and justice issues. Enjoying high-level support and proﬁle, the course is helping Ghanaians to lay the foundations for greater governance of their security system, and therefore in consolidating Ghana’s democratic transition.
*From the OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice
Esta publicação faz parte da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental. Visa apoiar a implementação do quadro de políticas para a reforma e governação do sector de segurança da Comunidade Económica dos Estados da África Ocidental (CEDEAO). Através de orientações e conselhos práticos, adaptados ao contexto da África Ocidental e baseados em experiências regionais, a Caixa de Ferramentas visa facilitar a elaboração de políticas, bem como a implementação e gestão de processos de reforma do sector de segurança (RSS) a nível nacional.
Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.
Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental:
Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): Le rôle du soutien régional et international aux processus nationaux de RSS (Atelier 6: 03-10-12)
Modérateur: Dr. Mark Downes, Directeur de l’Equipe internationale de conseil au secteur de la sécurité (ISSAT) au Centre pour le contrôle démocratique des forces armées – Genève (DCAF)
M. Joel Hellman, Directeur du Centre mondial sur les conflits, la sécurité et le développement de la Banque mondiale
M. Aeneas Chuma,Coordonnateur résident des Nations Unies et Représentant résident du PNUD au Kenya
Professeur Eboe Hutchful, Président du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN)
Dr. Serge Rumin, Directeur du Programme de Développement du Secteur de la Sécurité, Protocole d’entente entre le Burundi et les Pays-Bas
Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): L’approche et l’implication de la EAC et de la IGAD sur la RSS en Afrique de l’Est (Atelier 7: 03-10-12)
Modérateur: M. Gabriel Negatu, Directeur régional du Centre de ressources pour l'Afrique de l'Est, Banque africaine de développement (BAD))
Dr. Julius T. Rotich, Secrétaire Général Adjoint de la Communauté d’Afrique de l’Est (EAC) chargé de la Fédération Politique
M. David W. Njoka, Directeur des Affaires Politiques, Ministère pour la Communauté d'Afrique de l'Est, Kenya
Commandant Abebe Muluneh Beyene, Directeur du Programme du Secteur de la sécurité de l’IGAD (ISSP)
Dr. Medhane Tadesse Gebresilassie, Conseiller principal du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN) auprès de l’Union Africaine
Documents de recherche et de stratégie
Evaluating the Operational Effectiveness of West African Female Police Officers’ Participation in Peace Support Operations: The Case of Ghana and...
This paper examines the capacity of West African police services to enhance the recruitment, training and deployment of female police officers on PSOs. In particular, the study seeks to critically evaluate the current organizational structures of the Ghanaian and Nigerian Police services and their deployment of female police officers in peace support operations.
The study therefore, seeks to address two broad questions. First, how can West African states increase the number of female police officers on peace support operations? Secondly, how can these countries improve their respective training procedures of female police officers to become increasingly effective on peace support operations?
This paper prioritizes Ghana and Nigeria as empirical case studies because they contribute a relatively high number of female police officers both towards UN and AU operations within Africa and abroad. More importantly, both countries have begun increasing the number of female civilian police officers’ numbers after the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1325 on gender mainstreaming, which poignantly illustrates the impact of the resolution, and the desire of West African countries to empower women to become greater participants in the areas of peace and international security.