Ghana

Ghana

Etudes de cas

Supporting dialogue on SSR in Ghana

Context

The first peaceful transfer of power in Ghana from one elected government to another occurred in January 2001 when opposition leader John Kufuor became President. Part of the remaining challenge of democratic consolidation was full civilian, democratic control and further professionalisation of the security sector.

Entry point

Through the good relationship developed by the UK defence attaché with senior figures in the Ghanaian Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Ghanaian armed forces, the UK Security Sector Development Advisory Team was invited by the Ghanaian MoD to advise them on how to develop a human resources management and development strategy for the civilian component of the MoD. It became clear that before such a strategy could be developed, there was a need for greater clarity on the roles and responsibilities of the civil wing in relation to its military counterparts. The process of helping Ghanaian partners think through what these roles and responsibilities might be provided an opportunity to draw upon the experiences of other African countries that had strengthened the governance and management structures of their own security systems. It also enabled broader participation among Ghanaian stakeholders in this debate, including the wider security system, parliamentarians,
academia and relevant civil society organisations.

Lessons learned

Build networks through dialogue — Through the participation of a wide range of stakeholders in a series of workshops, greater understanding of SSR issues was developed, and a network of those interested in supporting progressive change was established. It was through this network that a locally designed and led course on security sector governance and management was developed. Delivered by an alliance of local institutions, the annual course is managed by a steering team jointly chaired by the Office of the President and the Office of the Head of the Civil Service.

Empower and strengthen local organisations — The series of workshops was organised by a local NGO called the African Security Dialogue and Research. ASDR built upon its extensive contacts and local knowledge to ensure a tailored approach that was effective in guiding the agenda forward within a complex political environment. Its engagement in this programme has helped them build trust, credibility and relationships with a range of individuals and organisations across government and beyond. This is reflected in the fact that the Parliamentary Defence and Security Committee later asked ASDR to provide a series of seminars and training for parliamentarians.

Flexibility — The willingness to adapt to a changing environment and to take opportunities as they arose was crucial to the successes that were achieved through this initiative. Although the initial objective of supporting a signifi cant enhancement in the capacity of the civilian wing was not fully realised, real progress was made in areas that were not originally envisaged, such as catalysing a public dialogue on security issues that in turn help catalyse broader reforms.

Build on ongoing initiatives and link to wider processes — Directly linking the initiative to the ongoing cross-government civil service strengthening programme was important in placing change within the MoD in the wider context of public sector reform and in broadening participation in the process to include those from outside the security system.

Impact

The Security Sector Governance and Management Course which is delivered by ASDR, Ghana University and the Ghana Institute for Management and Public Administration is now well established and provides an important forum for building understanding and promoting discussion on a range of security and justice issues. Enjoying high-level support and profile, the course is helping Ghanaians to lay the foundations for greater governance of their security system, and therefore in consolidating Ghana’s democratic transition.

*From the OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform: Supporting Security and Justice 

case study

Outils

Outil 1 : Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité

Le premier Outil de la Boîte à Outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest aborde la volonté politique et de la dynamique endogène sur lesquels doit reposer tout processus de réforme du secteur de la sécurité (RSS).

En l’absence d’un engagement politique fort de la part des autorités nationales, le processus de RSS est condamné à l’échec, quelles que soient les ressources matérielles et l’expertise technique mobilisées. La RSS doit reposer sur une initiative nationale endogène, être conçue en réponse aux défis d’un contexte national foncièrement unique et être conduite de bout en cout par les acteurs nationaux qui en assument la pleine responsabilité. Pour que la RSS produise des résultats durables, il est également indispensable de garantir l’implication active d’une masse critique de citoyens – hommes et femmes – issus de toutes les couches de la société dans la définition et la mise en œuvre d’un programme de réforme reflétant une vision commune de la sécurité. À défaut de reposer sur une dynamique endogène large et un projet de société en matière de sécurité auquel toutes les parties prenantes nationales sont en mesure de s’identifier, la RSS est vouée à l’échec.

Reconnaissant les défis qui peuvent être associés à la mise en pratique de ces principes, l’Outil 1 offre des conseils pratiques en vue de renforcer le leadership et s’assurer que le processus soit véritablement national et définir une vision inclusive, nationale de la sécurité pour servir de base à la RSS. Il offre un aperçu des points d’entrée pour la RSS dans un cadre plus large de gouvernance nationale et dans le contexte ouest-africain. Il donne aussi des suggestions quant à l’institutionnalisation du leadership national et la coordination d’un processus RSS, y compris à travers la communication stratégique. 

L’Outil s’adresse principalement aux décideurs au niveau stratégique, aux responsables gouvernementaux impliqués dans la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité, ainsi qu’aux conseillers et professionnels de la RSS au niveau national. Il offre également aux membres du Parlement, aux autres institutions de contrôle, aux organisations de la société civile et aux partenaires au développement une vue d’ensemble des responsabilités incombant au pouvoir exécutif en matière de RSS, ainsi qu’un aperçu des éléments permettant de garantir tout au long du processus que celui-ci repose bien sur une dynamique nationale endogène et inclusive.

Pour plus d'information sur l'outil Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien vers le site de DCAF.

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens pour accéder aux autres documents de la Boîte à outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest: 

Outil 2 : La programmation de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 4 : Gestion efficace de l’appui extérieur à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 6 : Le rôle de la société civile dans la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité

Cette publication existe également en English et en português

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Outil 2 : La programmation de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

La conduite d’un processus de RSS requiert bien souvent la traduction d’une vision politique nationale de la sécurité un programme opérationnel, qui articule les différentes actions à mettre en œuvre pour avancer vers les transformations sociétales souhaitées en termes de sécurité pour tous. De ce point de vue, la programmation de la RSS offre des outils permettant à la fois de déterminer la nature du changement recherché dans le fonctionnement du secteur de la sécurité et de planifier sa mise en œuvre de façon structurée et mesurable dans le temps. L’Outil 2 de la Boîte à Outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest aborde les étapes successives de la programmation de la RSS qui, de la conduite d’une évaluation préalable des besoins à la mise en place de mécanismes de coordination garantissant la cohérence d’ensemble des efforts nationaux de RSS, contribuent à la mise en place d’un programme de réforme adapté à un contexte national, à nul autre pareil.

L’Outil propose des orientations pratiques concernant la priorisation des actions de réforme et leur séquencement, la budgétisation du programme et la mobilisation des ressources nécessaires à sa mise en œuvre, la mise en place de mécanismes de gestion viables et performants, la coordination des acteurs nationaux et internationaux impliqués dans la mise en œuvre du programme et l’élaboration d’une stratégie de communication destinée à soutenir la transparence et renforcer l’assise nationale du programme.

Pour plus d'information sur l'Outil 2: la Programmation de la Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien vers le site de DCAF.

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens pour accéder aux autres documents de la Boîte à outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest: 

Outil 1 : Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité

Outil 4 : Gestion efficace de l’appui extérieur à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 6 : Le rôle de la société civile dans la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité

Cette publication existe également en English et en português.

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Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 1 « Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », fornece orientações práticas para as autoridades nacionais da África Ocidental sobre como abordar a RSS de uma forma que demonstre liderança e garanta uma apropriação nacional inclusiva. Ressalva a importância da vontade política na formulação de políticas relacionadas com o sector de segurança, a necessidade de envolver actores não-estatais não só na fase inicial, mas também durante todo o processo de reforma, e a necessidade de articular a RSS com outras políticas e reformas à escala nacional. A ferramenta também se debruça sobre o papel desempenhado pela CEDEAO, que apoia os estados-membros na construção de processos de reforma endógenos. Aborda igualmente os desafios práticos que as autoridades nacionais poderão vir a enfrentar na concepção e implementação de processos de RSS, propondo também soluções para enfrentá-los.

A ferramenta pretende ser um recurso para os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões estratégicas, funcionários governamentais, consultores nacionais e outros profissionais de RSS. Também disponibilizará aos membros do parlamento, a outras instituições de supervisão, às organizações da sociedade civil (OSC) e aos parceiros de desenvolvimento uma visão geral das responsabilidades que o poder executivo tem na RSS e sobre como garantir a apropriação nacional ao longo do processo.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.

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Podcasts

Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): Le rôle du soutien régional et international aux processus nationaux de RSS (Atelier 6: 03-10-12)

Modérateur: Dr. Mark Downes, Directeur de l’Equipe internationale de conseil au secteur de la sécurité (ISSAT) au Centre pour le contrôle démocratique des forces armées – Genève (DCAF)

Intervenants:
M. Joel Hellman, Directeur du Centre mondial sur les conflits, la sécurité et le développement de la Banque mondiale
M. Aeneas Chuma,Coordonnateur résident des Nations Unies et Représentant résident du PNUD au Kenya
Professeur Eboe Hutchful, Président du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN)
Dr. Serge Rumin, Directeur du Programme de Développement du Secteur de la Sécurité, Protocole d’entente entre le Burundi et les Pays-Bas

Podcast

Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): L’approche et l’implication de la EAC et de la IGAD sur la RSS en Afrique de l’Est (Atelier 7: 03-10-12)

Modérateur: M. Gabriel Negatu, Directeur régional du Centre de ressources pour l'Afrique de l'Est, Banque africaine de développement (BAD))

Intervenants:
Dr. Julius T. Rotich, Secrétaire Général Adjoint de la Communauté d’Afrique de l’Est (EAC) chargé de la Fédération Politique
M. David W. Njoka, Directeur des Affaires Politiques, Ministère pour la Communauté d'Afrique de l'Est, Kenya
Commandant Abebe Muluneh Beyene, Directeur du Programme du Secteur de la sécurité de l’IGAD (ISSP)
Dr. Medhane Tadesse Gebresilassie, Conseiller principal du Réseau Africain du Secteur de la Sécurité (ASSN) auprès de l’Union Africaine

Podcast

Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Evaluating the Operational Effectiveness of West African Female Police Officers’ Participation in Peace Support Operations: The Case of Ghana and...

This paper examines the capacity of West African police services to enhance the recruitment, training and deployment of female police officers on PSOs. In particular, the study seeks to critically evaluate the current organizational structures of the Ghanaian and Nigerian Police services and their deployment of female police officers in peace support operations.

The study therefore, seeks to address two broad questions. First, how can West African states increase the number of female police officers on peace support operations? Secondly, how can these countries improve their respective training procedures of female police officers to become increasingly effective on peace support operations?

This paper prioritizes Ghana and Nigeria as empirical case studies because they contribute a relatively high number of female police officers both towards UN and AU operations within Africa and abroad. More importantly, both countries have begun increasing the number of female civilian police officers’ numbers after the adoption of Security Council Resolution 1325 on gender mainstreaming, which poignantly illustrates the impact of the resolution, and the desire of West African countries to empower women to become greater participants in the areas of peace and international security.

Paper

Beneath the Apparent State of Affairs: Stability in Ghana and Benin

The Potential for Radicalization and Political Violence in West Africa

Crises in the Sahel (from Mali to southern Tunisia and Libya) and the regionalization of Boko Haram’s activities as far as the Lake Chad basin (Niger, Cameroon and Chad) are some of today’s worrying signals related to West African stability. 

The question of a potential broadening of this ‘arc of crisis’ to stable countries in the region, including Benin and Ghana, motivated research in the field conducted by the Clingendael Institute. In Accra and Tamale in Ghana, and in Cotonou and Porto-Novo in Benin, the research team looked into religious, historic, political and societal dynamics that may constitute elements of future (in)stability. New religious “ideologies” (Christian evangelism and/or Sunni revivalism), mixed with economic frustrations, have deeply impacted the traditional balance and make long‑term stability a challenge for most of the countries in the region, from Mali to the Horn of Africa. In this report Clingendael explores the specific ways the Ghanaian and Beninese actors are dealing with politics, identity and societal stress. They also identify the influence of external actors, from both the region and beyond, and potential spill over of nearby conflicts. 

Clingendael comes to the conclusion that several issues, like border porosity, absence of a regional strategic approach to counter terrorism, youth frustration towards the elder’s political and economic monopoly, rural and urban disparities and rampant illiteracy are some of the regional aggravating factors that are conducive to the spread of extremist ideology and dividing behaviours.

They argue that their report can be considered as an early warning, but what is urgently needed is early action. For the full report on Beneath the Apparent State of Affairs: Stability in Ghana and Benin, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Ghana: Gender-related Human Resources Policies in Armed Forces

This overview of gender-related human resources policies in Ghana’s armed forces seeks to contribute to the very fragmented and incomplete literature on human resources policies in armed forces. It is not intended to be a comprehensive analysis, but a reference for other armed forces’ in considering ways in which they can promote the retention, recruitment, promotion and full participation of women in armed forces. It is accompanied by an overview of human resources policies in the armed forces of Albania and the Netherlands.

For full access to Gender-related Human Resources Policies in Armed Forces, kindly follow the link.

Paper

Transitioning Toward Gender Justice: A Trend Analysis of 13 African cases

Gender justice sees equal power relations, privilege, dignity, and freedom for people of different genders as a necessary component for any “just” society and a prerequisite for development. Gender justice includes gender equality, meaning substantive freedom for all genders to have genuine choices about their lives. Mirroring a global pattern in peace and security practice and policy-making, transitional justice (TJ) practice has tended to reduce gender justice concerns to violence against women (VAW). This policy brief advocates for policy-makers to adopt a broader and more meaningful understanding of gender justice, and to incorporate it into their TJ policymaking. To demonstrate the need for a broader understanding of gender justice within TJ processes, this policy brief draws upon a study conducted by the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) on the drivers and impacts of TJ in Africa. The study examined gender trends emerging from 13 African countries that had State-led TJ processes between 1990 and 2011, and their impacts up until 2016. Based on the academic literature and available data for the 13 cases, four key factors were used as basic indicators of gender justice: women’s political rights and representation; women’s economic equity; women’s participation in civil society; and State measures against sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV).

For full access to Transitioning Toward Gender Justice: A Trend Analysis of 13 African cases, kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Elections and Stability in West Africa

This meeting note summarizes the discussions at a conference organized by the United Nations Office for West Africa (UNOWA) in Praia, Cape Verde on May 18-20, 2011. The conference addressed the need for a sustained effort to strengthen electoral processes in West Africa as a means to consolidate peace and democracy in the region. 

Many West African countries face numerous challenges in organizing free, fair, and peaceful elections, and the conference discussed the existing regional and national frameworks that support democracy and electoral processes in the subregion. Best practices and lessons learned from recent electoral processes in Cape Verde, Ghana, and Niger were shared, with a view to informing the organization of upcoming elections in neighboring countries. The role and modalities of electoral assistance were also discussed, supported by concrete cases of UNDP’s electoral initiatives in Niger and Guinea. 
The conference further underlined the importance of collaborative initiatives in strengthening democratic processes and preventing conflict. Finally, key standards, processes, and actors that can help to build democracy and stability were discussed: human rights and gender-equality norms, electoral litigation, and the role of security forces and the media during electoral processes all present opportunities to reduce election-related violence and improve election outcomes in West Africa.
The note also reprints the full text of the “Praia Declaration on Elections and Stability in West Africa,” which was adopted at the close of the conference.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

Insécurité Maritime dans le Golfe de Guinée : Vers une Stratégie Régionale Intégrée ?

L’insécurité maritime se confirme comme l’une des menaces persistantes à la stabilité des États riverains du golfe de Guinée. En dépit d’une prise de conscience croissante et de la volonté politique d’y faire face, l’augmentation rapide des actes de piraterie a pris de court plusieurs pays de la région. L’absence d’un dispositif commun, relativement complet, de surveillance et de lutte contre la piraterie, limite encore la portée des initiatives prises par certains États, et qui ne couvrent pas l’ensemble de la région du golfe de Guinée. Une stratégie à long terme passe par la mutualisation des moyens, et par la coopération entre les trois organisations régionales, la CEEAC, la CEDEAO et la Commission du golfe de Guinée, ainsi que par l’implication d’autres acteurs du secteur maritime concernés par la lutte contre la piraterie dans la région.

Veuillez suivre ce lien sur l'Insécurité Maritime dans le Golfe de Guinée :  Vers une Stratégie Régionale Intégrée afin de lire la publication.

Paper

Livres

Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa

In this comprehensive study, 12 experts describe and analyse the military budgetary processes and degree of oversight and control in eight African countries-Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa-spanning the continent's sub-regions. Each country study addresses a wide range of questions, such as the roles of the finance and defence ministries, budget offices, audit departments and external actors in the military budgetary processes; the extent ofcompliance with standard public expenditure management procedures; and how well official military expenditure figures reflect the true economic resources devoted to military activities in these countries. The framework for the country studies is provided by a detailed model for good practice in budgeting for the military sector. The individual studies are tied together by a synthesis chapter, which provides a comparative analysis of the studies, classifies the eight countries according to theiradherence to the principles of public expenditure management and explains why individual countries find themselves with a certain classification. The book draws on the results of the country studies and their analysis by making concrete recommendations to the governments of African countries and the international community. While the military sector in many African states is believed to be favoured in terms of resource allocation and degree of political autonomy, it is not subject to the samerules and procedures as other sectors. Because of the unique role of the armed forces as the guarantor of national security, and their demand for a high degree of confidentiality in certain activities, the military sector receives a significant proportion of state resources and is not subject to public scrutiny. The book argues that while the military sector requires some confidentiality it should be subject to the same standard procedures and rules followed by other state sectors.

View the book here.

Book