Guinea Bissau

Guinea Bissau

Etudes de cas

Creating a National Dialogue to Prevent Future Conflict in Guinea-Bissau


Since the civil war of 1998-1999, Guinea-Bissau has experienced reoccurring cycles of violent conflict. The continued struggle for power between the military and political elite has been deeply divisive and has further polarised different agendas and interests, proving the necessity for a restructuring of the security sector with an innovative approach to peacebuilding.

At the request of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNOGBIS, now renamed UNIOGBIS), Interpeace partnered with local organisation Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa (INEP) in 2005 to investigate the situation in the country and evaluate the potential for creating a local initiative targeted to promote and collaborate for sustainable peace. As a result of this research, the programme Voz di Paz was created in 2007 with a mandate to assist in creating and broadening a dialogue about the key obstacles hindering peace in the country and supporting local, national and regional actors to participate in the prevention of future conflict. In 2010 it became its own independent local organisation.

Entry point

In light of the context, it was recognized by the community that ongoing projects and efforts at resolving the issues at hand were not effective. Two main reasons for this were identified: the root causes were not being tackled and a big divide between levels of society existed, which was not conducive to creating trust between them.

Therefore, the Voz di Paz initiative consulted the population and all concerned actors and found four basic principles that were key to break the cycles of failed projects targeting a reform of the security and defence sector:

  1. Provide access to information about SSR;
  2. improve the dialogue between the Security forces and the population;
  3. promote the wide-spread participation of the Security forces in shaping the final structure of the reform;
  4. provide feedback to the institutional actors of the reform.

This vision of inclusiveness and participation was used in both the ‘peace-mapping phase’ and the ‘formulation of peace visions and solution phase.’ By setting up Regional Spaces of Dialogue (RSD), where leaders in the communities acted as facilitators and created a space that encouraged debate about various issues, the program created a culture of dialogue to build bridges between all stakeholders, such as citizens, structured constituencies, organisations, and the military. These relieved many tensions throughout the country as the population began to work together to solve their issues. Together, the communities came up with four of the most important issues that needed to be addressed: ineffective state institutions and bad governance, poverty, poor administration of justice, and tribalism.

Lessons identified

Participatory Action Research – has proven to be effective in building mutual understanding and trust between various groups in society and the security sector and it allows all stakeholders to get a stronger grasp of the different needs of the population. It also empowers citizens since it makes them feel included and significant because it gives them agency in determining their own destiny, as well as a deeper understanding of the necessary actions and actors relevant for change. This adds to the sustainable aspect of the program because people are then motivated to continue with it even after the project is over.

Highest Ranking Officials – A challenge encountered was maintaining the extensive involvement of the highest ranks of the security sector, including generals, the police, political parties and the business sector. In the evaluation of the Voz di Paz/Interpeace programme it was concluded that it is imperative to foster a relationship with this network in order to have a consequential influence in conflict mediation in this sphere.

Inclusiveness and Status of Neutrality – Even though they are often difficult to maintain in certain aspects of the implementation process, the two were identified as key characteristics of the program that allowed it to be as successful as it has been.


The program has thrived in developing a nationwide debate about the causes of conflict and, simultaneously, using this strategy to promote dialogue as a non-violent tool for the negotiation of multiple stakeholders’ interests. In 2010, about 85% of the population was familiar with the program and the national debates, which is in part due to the clever use of the media, especially radio broadcasts, to disseminate the information.

Furthermore, one of the most successful aspects of Voz di Paz has been the set up of the regional permanent structures, the RSDs, since they have served as role models in the community for nonviolence and good governance through the collaboration based on trust between the people and the local state representatives. Through the use of a brochure, they have also managed to circulate information about SSR and explain how it can be used as an opportunity for change. Lastly, Voz di Paz has already had an effect on some of the political-military elite by inspiring the Commission of National Conference for Reconciliation to use a similar inclusive-approach for the National Conference.

Selected Resources

Consultancy on the Evaluation of the INTERPEACE Voz di Paz Programme in Guinea-Bissau (2009-2010), Annette Englert, 2011.

Projecto “Voz di Paz” lança livro intitulado “Autarquias na Guiné-Bissau a visão dos Cidadãos”,, 2015.

Roots of Conflicts in Guinea-Bissau: The voice of the people, Voz di Paz, 2010.

case study

UN Mediation and the Politics of Transition after Constitutional Crises


When a coup d'état or unconstitutional change of government happens, how does the UN respond? This is the question addressed in IPI's latest policy paper: UN Mediation and the Politics of Transition after Constitutional Crises by Charles T. Call.Examining the UN's experience in dealing with such political crises in Kenya, Mauritania, Guinea, Madagascar, and Kyrgyzstan between 2008 and 2011, this report identifies trends across the cases and draws lessons regarding the role of international mediation and the transitional political arrangements that emerged.

Selected Resources

Strengthening the UN's Mediation Support Unit, whose standby team of thematic experts have been successfully deployed in several cases;In order to ensure a principled, coherent, and effective response that prevents the escalation of violence and facilitates a country's return to constitutional order, Call recommends:

  • expanding and adequately resourcing UN regional offices, which have made singular contributions to mediation efforts;
  • appointing mediators with prior professional experience in other multilateral organizations, who can contribute to effective collaboration among international and regional organizations;
  • preparing the UN more systematically for addressing electoral disputes;
  • enhancing communication between the UN Department of Political Affairs and resident coordinators on the ground;
  • creating effective UN mechanisms to monitor transitional arrangements, including power sharing arrangements and other efforts for reconciliation, justice, and conflict-sensitive development.
  • Interestingly, Call argues that the UN should be cautious about adopting a blanket policy of denouncing all departures from constitutional order.
case study


Outil 1 : Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité

Le premier Outil de la Boîte à Outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest aborde la volonté politique et de la dynamique endogène sur lesquels doit reposer tout processus de réforme du secteur de la sécurité (RSS).

En l’absence d’un engagement politique fort de la part des autorités nationales, le processus de RSS est condamné à l’échec, quelles que soient les ressources matérielles et l’expertise technique mobilisées. La RSS doit reposer sur une initiative nationale endogène, être conçue en réponse aux défis d’un contexte national foncièrement unique et être conduite de bout en cout par les acteurs nationaux qui en assument la pleine responsabilité. Pour que la RSS produise des résultats durables, il est également indispensable de garantir l’implication active d’une masse critique de citoyens – hommes et femmes – issus de toutes les couches de la société dans la définition et la mise en œuvre d’un programme de réforme reflétant une vision commune de la sécurité. À défaut de reposer sur une dynamique endogène large et un projet de société en matière de sécurité auquel toutes les parties prenantes nationales sont en mesure de s’identifier, la RSS est vouée à l’échec.

Reconnaissant les défis qui peuvent être associés à la mise en pratique de ces principes, l’Outil 1 offre des conseils pratiques en vue de renforcer le leadership et s’assurer que le processus soit véritablement national et définir une vision inclusive, nationale de la sécurité pour servir de base à la RSS. Il offre un aperçu des points d’entrée pour la RSS dans un cadre plus large de gouvernance nationale et dans le contexte ouest-africain. Il donne aussi des suggestions quant à l’institutionnalisation du leadership national et la coordination d’un processus RSS, y compris à travers la communication stratégique. 

L’Outil s’adresse principalement aux décideurs au niveau stratégique, aux responsables gouvernementaux impliqués dans la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité, ainsi qu’aux conseillers et professionnels de la RSS au niveau national. Il offre également aux membres du Parlement, aux autres institutions de contrôle, aux organisations de la société civile et aux partenaires au développement une vue d’ensemble des responsabilités incombant au pouvoir exécutif en matière de RSS, ainsi qu’un aperçu des éléments permettant de garantir tout au long du processus que celui-ci repose bien sur une dynamique nationale endogène et inclusive.

Pour plus d'information sur l'outil Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien vers le site de DCAF.

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens pour accéder aux autres documents de la Boîte à outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest: 

Outil 2 : La programmation de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 4 : Gestion efficace de l’appui extérieur à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 6 : Le rôle de la société civile dans la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité

Cette publication existe également en English et en português


Outil 2 : La programmation de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

La conduite d’un processus de RSS requiert bien souvent la traduction d’une vision politique nationale de la sécurité un programme opérationnel, qui articule les différentes actions à mettre en œuvre pour avancer vers les transformations sociétales souhaitées en termes de sécurité pour tous. De ce point de vue, la programmation de la RSS offre des outils permettant à la fois de déterminer la nature du changement recherché dans le fonctionnement du secteur de la sécurité et de planifier sa mise en œuvre de façon structurée et mesurable dans le temps. L’Outil 2 de la Boîte à Outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest aborde les étapes successives de la programmation de la RSS qui, de la conduite d’une évaluation préalable des besoins à la mise en place de mécanismes de coordination garantissant la cohérence d’ensemble des efforts nationaux de RSS, contribuent à la mise en place d’un programme de réforme adapté à un contexte national, à nul autre pareil.

L’Outil propose des orientations pratiques concernant la priorisation des actions de réforme et leur séquencement, la budgétisation du programme et la mobilisation des ressources nécessaires à sa mise en œuvre, la mise en place de mécanismes de gestion viables et performants, la coordination des acteurs nationaux et internationaux impliqués dans la mise en œuvre du programme et l’élaboration d’une stratégie de communication destinée à soutenir la transparence et renforcer l’assise nationale du programme.

Pour plus d'information sur l'Outil 2: la Programmation de la Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien vers le site de DCAF.

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens pour accéder aux autres documents de la Boîte à outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest: 

Outil 1 : Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité

Outil 4 : Gestion efficace de l’appui extérieur à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 6 : Le rôle de la société civile dans la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité

Cette publication existe également en English et en português.


Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta ferramenta 1 « Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança », parte da « Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental », fornece orientações práticas para as autoridades nacionais da África Ocidental sobre como abordar a RSS de uma forma que demonstre liderança e garanta uma apropriação nacional inclusiva. Ressalva a importância da vontade política na formulação de políticas relacionadas com o sector de segurança, a necessidade de envolver actores não-estatais não só na fase inicial, mas também durante todo o processo de reforma, e a necessidade de articular a RSS com outras políticas e reformas à escala nacional. A ferramenta também se debruça sobre o papel desempenhado pela CEDEAO, que apoia os estados-membros na construção de processos de reforma endógenos. Aborda igualmente os desafios práticos que as autoridades nacionais poderão vir a enfrentar na concepção e implementação de processos de RSS, propondo também soluções para enfrentá-los.

A ferramenta pretende ser um recurso para os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões estratégicas, funcionários governamentais, consultores nacionais e outros profissionais de RSS. Também disponibilizará aos membros do parlamento, a outras instituições de supervisão, às organizações da sociedade civil (OSC) e aos parceiros de desenvolvimento uma visão geral das responsabilidades que o poder executivo tem na RSS e sobre como garantir a apropriação nacional ao longo do processo.

Para maiores informações sobre a Ferramenta 1 : Liderança Política e Apropriação Nacional dos Processos da Reforma do Sector de Segurança, siga o link para o website do DCAF.

Por favor, siga o link para ter acesso às outros documentos da Caixa de Ferramentas para a Reforma e Governação do Sector de Segurança na África Ocidental: 

Ferramenta 2 : Programação da Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 4 : Gestão Eficaz do Apoio Externo à Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Ferramenta 6 : Envolvimento da Sociedade Civil na Governação e Reforma do Sector de Segurança

Esta é a versão em Português da publicação. It is also available in English et disponible en français.


Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Guinea-Bissau: In Need of a State

This background report explains the challenges facing Guinea-Bissau. It is the first in a series of reports which will focus on the national and international policies
needed to take the country out of its incessant cycle of political crises and become a point of stability in the region.


Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Guinea-Bissau

After many years of political instability and three failed attempts of DDR, there is a renewed effort in Guinea-Bissau to get DDR and SSR right. With a national strategy and action plan on SSR in place, Guinea-Bissau has attracted a lot of attention from the international community. Many donors, the European Union (EU) among others, are sending experts to assist in the SSR process in Guinea-Bissau. While there are favourable circumstances for SSR in Guinea-Bissau such as a willingness and
commitment displayed by the national authorities, a number of difficulties and challenges were highlighted during the briefing. The Army, which is by far the most powerful actor in Guinea-Bissau, has to be brought into the reform process. In addition, the large numbers of donors and experts have to be absorbed, organized and most off all coordinated.


Gouvernance et réforme du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l'Ouest : du concept à la réalité

A la lumière de l’évolution rapide de la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest, la présente étude analyse les documents régionaux de la CEDEAO relatifs à la RSS, en insistant sur les difficultés de mettre en œuvre les normes adoptées. Elle évalue ensuite le soutien concret apporté par la CEDEAO aux processus de RSS dans la région, à la fois en tant que partenaire et en tant qu’acteur de premier plan. Elle décrit les obstacles que la CEDEAO aura à surmonter et les opportunités qu’elle devra saisir si elle veut promouvoir la RSS. Enfin, elle formule des recommandations à l’intention des acteurs principaux soutenant la RSS sur la façon dont un Cadre régional pour la gouvernance et la réforme du secteur de la sécurité pourrait faire office de plate-forme d’appui à la RSS et d’instrument de prévention des conflits et de développement durable.


Reforma e Governação do Setor de Segurança na África ocidental: Dos Conceitos à Realidade

À luz da rápida mutação e evolução da situação de segurança na África Ocidental, este artigo analisa as políticas da CEDEAO relativas à SSR e destaca os desafios de implementação das normas estabelecidas.  Avalia ainda o apoio concreto prestado pela CEDEAO aos processos de SSR na região, tanto do seu envolvimento como parceiro, ou como ator principal; enumera os desafios a superar e as oportunidades a aproveitar pela CEDEAO, no que concerne ao seu apoio à SSR; e apresenta recomendações aos principais interessados sobre a forma como um Quadro Regional para a Reforma e Governação do Setor da Segurança poderá servir de plataforma de apoio à SSR, e de ferramenta para a prevenção de conflitos e desenvolvimento sustentável.


Mettre en œuvre l’architecture de paix et de sécurité : l’Afrique de l’Ouest

Ce rapport de l’International Crisis Group (ICG),  le troisième et dernier d’une série qui analyse la dimension régionale de l’insécurité en Afrique et les solutions collectives et individuelles qui y sont appor­tées, présente le dispositif institutionnel actuel de la Communauté économique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (Cedeao) dans le domaine de la paix et de la sécurité. Il analyse ses réponses et ses insuffisances à travers trois études de cas : la Guinée-Bissau, le Mali et le Burkina Faso. Il s’inscrit dans la réflexion col­lective engagée face à l’évolution de la nature des conflits et à l’accroissement des menaces transnationales. Les organisations régionales ont un rôle crucial à jouer pour apporter des solutions à ces nouveaux phénomènes. Ce rapport envisage les réformes institu­tion­nelles souhaitables pour améliorer l’action collective de la Cedeao face à l’immense défi de la paix et de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest.

Veuillez cliquer sur le lien pour accéder au rapport de l’ICG Mettre en œuvre l’architecture de paix et de sécurité (III) : l’Afrique de l’Ouest.

Ce rapport est aussi disponible en anglais.


Étude cartographique des institutions de médiation pour les forces armées dans les États francophones d’Afrique sub-saharienne

cartographique ombudsman

L’ étude cartographique des institutions de médiation pour les forces armées dans les pays francophones d’Afrique sub-saharienne est un projet initié sous l’égide de l’Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) en collaboration avec le Centre pour le contrôle démocratique des forces armées – Genève (DCAF) dans le cadre du programme de l’OIF « Apporter un appui au maintien et à la consolidation de la paix ».

Cette étude s’inscrit dans la continuité de recherches approfondies sous l'égide de l'OIF et du DCAF sur « Les institutions de médiation pour les forces armées dans les pays francophones d’Afrique subsaharienne : Burkina Faso, Burundi et Sénégal ». Elle a pour objectifs de développer une analyse complète des activités et du rôle des institutions de médiation pour les forces armées, de permettre l’identification des facteurs qui facilitent ou, au contraire, entravent la mise en place et le fonctionnement de ces institutions, ainsi que d'initier un débat et encourager le recours aux institutions de médiation. 

L'étude porte sur un ensemble d'Etats d'Afrique subsaharienne: une partie sont dotés d'un ombudsman ayant vocation à traiter les cas concernant les forces armées (Burkina Faso, Camoroun, Niger, Sénégal et Togo), d'autres ont seulement une institution de médiation à vocation générale (Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Guinée, Madagascar et Mali) et enfin d'autres en sont dépourvus (Les Comores et la République Démocratique du Congo). La recherche souligne certaines caractéristiques communes aux institutions de médiation à compétence générale, et indique les défis auxquelles elles sont confrontées, notamment le manque de visibilité ou le niveau de ressources dont elles bénéficient.

Pour accéder à l'Étude cartographique des institutions de médiation pour les forces armées dans les États francophones d’Afrique sub-saharienne, veuillez suivre le lien.


Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest – Avril à juin 2017

Ce monitoring trimestriel, publié par le GRIP depuis 2011, a pour but de suivre la situation sécuritaire en Afrique de l’Ouest avec un accent plus particulier sur le Burkina Faso, la Côte d’Ivoire, la Guinée, le Mali, le Niger et le Sénégal. Il se penche sur les questions de sécurité interne au sens large, les tensions régionales, la criminalité et les trafics transfrontaliers. 

Pour accéder à l'étude Monitoring de la stabilité régionale dans le bassin sahélien et en Afrique de l’Ouest – Avril à juin 2017, veuillez suivre le lien. 


Resolving the Protracted Political Crises in Guinea-Bissau

Protracted political instability in Guinea-Bissau continues to impede the effective functioning of state institutions and undermine socio-economic development and prospects for investments. Guinea-Bissau has remained in a political dilemma over the past few decades, with recurring crises and little possibility for resolution. A number of structural factors contribute to the country’s political instability, underdevelopment and state fragility. These factors include poverty, illiteracy, lack of access to justice, ineffective social cohesion, corruption, illicit trade, gender-based violence, land disputes and weak state institutions. Addressing these factors requires committed action by national actors and sustained support from the international community.

For more details on Resolving the Protracted Political Crises in Guinea-Bissau, kindly follow the link.


Guinea-Bissau - Public Expenditure Review Update : Enhancing Growth and Fiscal Adjustment Through Civil Service Reform

Guinea-Bissau's large public sector wage bill poses a major threat to the country's macroeconomic stability: it hampers growth, limits the government's ability to service the domestic and external debt, and crowds out private investments. For this reason, the government decided in early 2006 to retrench more than 2,800 civil servants in a first phase, and about 1,600 military later. The objectives of this public expenditure review (PER) update are to: (i) review progress in macroeconomic and fiscal management since the previous PER; (ii) analyze the issue of compensation benefits in the context of the ongoing civil service reform; and (ii) update the debt sustainability analysis for Guinea-Bissau. Besides this introduction, the report includes three main chapters on macroeconomic management, improving the fiscal situation, and debt sustainability. The report also gives a final conclusion and discusses the way forward.

For full access to Guinea-Bissau - Public Expenditure Review Update : Enhancing Growth and Fiscal Adjustment Through Civil Service Reform, kindly follow the link. 


Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau: An Opportunity Not to Be Missed

A legitimate civilian government, economic improvement and an army that has lost credibility are an opportunity for Guinea-Bissau. Regional and international partners meeting in Brussels on 25 March should commit to finance security sector reform to help the small state move beyond its history of military coups.

For full access to Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau: An Opportunity Not to Be Missed, kindly follow the link. 


Transparency International Deference Corruption Index in Guinea-Bissau

The Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index (GI) assesses the existence, effectiveness and enforcement of institutional and informal controls to manage the risk of corruption in defence and security institutions

For full access to Transparency International Deference Corruption Index in Guinea-Bissau, kindly follow the link. 


Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project

The objective of the Public Sector Strengthening Project for Guinea-Bissau is to assist the Government to re-establish basic systems for public financial management. There are three components to the project, the first component being performance, control and transparency of the public revenues. This component will support the Recipient is to progressively improve its technical capacity to handle revenue processes through adequate procedural and control systems to increase tax and customs revenue collection, as well as the efficiency, effectiveness and transparency of revenue administration. This component includes three sub-components: technical assistance to tax collection; technical assistance to customs administration; and treasury single account. Finally, the second component is the expenditure control, procurement, accounting and reporting. This component will support the recipient to strengthen controls needed for fiscal discipline and promote transparency and accountability in public expenditures. Finally, the third component is the public financial management reform coordination and project management. This component will support the recipient to implement a mechanism for a structured approach to public financial management reform and institutional capacity strengthening.

For full access to Guinea-Bissau - Public Sector Strengthening Project, kindly follow the link. 


Beyond Social Pressure and Institutional Barriers: The Role of Women in Decision-Making in Guinea-Bissau

This report developed by Voz di Paz - Initiative for Peacebuilding and Interpeace wants to show the true picture of women involved in decision-making in Guinea-Bissau. It aims to contribute to a better understanding of women’s situation in this domain, and to document the issue in all its complexity and comprehensiveness, complementing previous analyses.

The participative and inclusive approach of this research offers new perspectives based on an intense series of interactions with a diverse set of key actors, including participants who either create, reproduce, fight against or suffer as a result of the limited participation of women in decision-making. The interviews provided the population of Guinea-Bissau with a unique opportunity to speak out, engage with each other, analyse and look for tentative solutions about this topic that concerns all Bissau-Guineans. It aims to function as a mirror reflecting various aspects of the actual situation, with their limitations and possibilities.

To access the full paper Beyond Social Pressure and Institutional Barriers: The Role of Women in Decision-Making in Guinea-Bissau, please follow the link provided.


Which institutional reforms for Guinea-Bissau?

The institutional reforms put forth in the October 2016 Conakry Agreement have a long history in Guinea-Bissau. They are unavoidable and will have to be implemented sooner or later. In order to facilitate discussions on these reforms among political actors and in civil society, the Institute for Security Studies, at the request of the United Nations Integrated Peacebuilding Office in Guinea-Bissau (UNIOGBIS), has developed a series of policy briefs on constitutional reform, as well as on reforms to political party legislation, electoral laws, the justice sector, and the defence sector and security. This note discusses the main recommendations.

To have full access to the publication Which institutional reforms for Guinea-Bissau?, kindly follow the link.


Can Peace Become Affordable? Lessons from Security Sector Expenditure Reviews in West Africa

West Africa and the Sahel continue to be plagued by fragility, conflict and violence. Faced with challenges ranging from the spread of Boko Haram to persisting food insecurity, forced displacement, and youth unemployment, the region needs help. In response, the international community has marshalled significant resources to support governments in fostering the essential preconditions for peace – inclusive security and sustainable development. Such tasks can devour the funds of even the most ambitious aid programmes, while the reality of budgetary constraints calls for a constant search for efficiency.

The European Union’s engagement in Security Sector Reform (SSR) is a case in point. Transforming security and justice systems in fragile states is one of the top priorities of the EU’s external action. According to its 2016 SSR framework, the EU will help partner countries put the military under civilian oversight and provide effective, legitimate and accountable security and justice services to their citizens. EU programmes will apply a comprehensive approach aimed at: (i) formulating integrated security and justice policies and setting up national coordination mechanisms; (ii) providing training and non-lethal equipment to defence and security forces; and (iii) building internal accountability mechanisms and systems for human resources planning, budgeting, and financial management.

In 2017, €2.5 billion in Official Development Assistance (ODA) managed by the European Commission was allocated to governance and civil society, including SSR. There are ongoing or planned rule-of-law, security and justice programmes in more than 40 countries worldwide. In West Africa, EU institutions have channeled over €100 million to finance the nascent 5,000-strong G5 Sahel Joint Force, while assistance for stabilisation in the region has reached €400 million.

The EU has also launched three Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) missions. In Mali and Niger, capacity-building missions (EUCAP) provide technical assistance, training and equipment for internal security forces to fight against terrorism, organised crime and irregular migration. The EU Training Mission in Mali (EUTM) has been helping the government to restructure eight army battalions.6 France has deployed 4,000 soldiers for Operation Barkhane in Mali, Niger, and Chad, an endeavour that costs about €600 million per year. Meanwhile, development funding to improve security outcomes by tackling the root causes of conflict has also risen. The EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa allocated almost €1 billion to Lake Chad and the Sahel, with projects in Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Senegal supporting youth employment, private sector development, social protection, health and education.

Given the scale of the investment, the following questions arise: what is the value for money of each additional euro spent on strengthening West Africa’s armies and police? How can SSR assistance lead to effective and sustainable reforms, and ultimately contribute to reduce fragility, conflict and violence?

This Brief seeks to answer these questions by analysing the introduction and implementation of the security sector public expenditure review (PER), a public sector governance instrument that assesses the economy, effectiveness and efficiency of governments’ security and defence allocations, including SSR programmes. Developed by the World Bank in partnership with the United Nations, this data-driven assessment tool can facilitate a policy dialogue between civilian administrators, soldiers, and diplomats on the affordability of armies and police, and can therefore maximise the impact of security assistance programmes. Following an overview of security expenditures in West Africa, the Brief outlines the genesis of security sector PERs and highlights lessons learned from implementation in Liberia, Mali and Niger. The conclusion then offers recommendations on how PERs can be applied by the EU to ensure affordability and national ownership of defence and security assistance programmes.

For full access to the policy brief, Can Peace Become Affordable? Lessons from Security Sector Expenditure Reviews in West Africa, kindly follow the link. 


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Guinea-Bissau - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 


Insécurité Maritime dans le Golfe de Guinée : Vers une Stratégie Régionale Intégrée ?

L’insécurité maritime se confirme comme l’une des menaces persistantes à la stabilité des États riverains du golfe de Guinée. En dépit d’une prise de conscience croissante et de la volonté politique d’y faire face, l’augmentation rapide des actes de piraterie a pris de court plusieurs pays de la région. L’absence d’un dispositif commun, relativement complet, de surveillance et de lutte contre la piraterie, limite encore la portée des initiatives prises par certains États, et qui ne couvrent pas l’ensemble de la région du golfe de Guinée. Une stratégie à long terme passe par la mutualisation des moyens, et par la coopération entre les trois organisations régionales, la CEEAC, la CEDEAO et la Commission du golfe de Guinée, ainsi que par l’implication d’autres acteurs du secteur maritime concernés par la lutte contre la piraterie dans la région.

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