Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Poster Boys No More

Gender analysis of actual SSR processes is sorely lacking in the SSR literature. In ‘Poster Boys No More: Gender and Security Sector Reform in Timor-Leste’ Henri Myrttinen breaks new ground in examining the gender dimensions of the DDR and SSR processes in Timor-Leste, with a focus on the establishment of the police and armed forces. The paper explores issues such as: how men’s roles relate to gang violence and relationships of patronage that undermine the security services, how women have been incorporated into the new security services and how the security services are addressing gender-based violence. It shows how a gender perspective can add to our understanding of many of the social processes at work in Timor-Leste and help to find solutions to some of the main security issues in the country, making recommendations for Timor-Leste’s ongoing SSR processes.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. Background to the DDR/SSR Process

3. Gender Roles in Timor-Leste 
3.1 Women and girls
3.2 Men and boys

4. Violence, Insecurity and Gender 
4.1 Masculinities and the legitimacy of violence 
4.2 Patrons and clients 
4.3 Gender-based violence

5. FALINTIL-Forças de Defesa de Timor-Leste (F-FDTL) 
5.1 Structure 
5.2 Recruitment and training 
5.3 Internal tensions and external problems

6. Policía Nacional de Timor-Leste (PNTL) 
6.1 Structure 
6.2 Recruitment and training 
6.3 GBV and the Vulnerable Persons Units 
6.4 Internal and external problems of the PNTL

7. The 2006 Crisis 
7.1 Overview of events 
7.2 Aftermath of the crisis

8. Overview of Post-2006 SSR Developments 
8.1 The F-FDTL 
8.2 The PNTL 
8.3 The SSR process

9. Analysis and Policy Recommendations

Appendix 1. Timeline of key events from 1974-2009

Appendix 2. Overview of UN Missions in Timor-Leste 1999-2009


An Increased Spotlight: Australia in Timor-Leste

With the departure of United Nations peacekeepers, Australia becomes the largest international presence in Timor-Leste. It does so at not necessarily an easy time: despite the stark development challenges that remain, the government in Dili is tired of outside advice. Australia’s past actions over oil and gas in the Timor Sea still cast a shadow over the present. Although Australian aid in Timor-Leste is wide and varied, drawing broad conclusions about its effectiveness and impact is difficult owing to the relative absence of independent evaluations of these programs. Decisions made by each country’s leaders can impact detectably upon the bilateral relationship and complicate the work of Australian government personnel in Dili.


Playing Pool at the Hard Rock Café

Based on his observations and social encounters in Oecusse, the author presents an ethnographic snapshot of UN involvement and the impact of this on the security reform in Timor-Leste. From language problems and lack of interaction between national and international civil servants to income disparities between them, this vivid first hand account complements the existing formal literature on reform in the country. 


Autres documents

Research questions to develop CSO capacity in SSR

These are a set of questions which were used to help build CSO capacity to understand Timorese laws applicable to the security sector. 

Other Document

UNDPKO SSR Newsletter No. 15, July-September 2012

The SSR Newsletter provides an update on recent activities of the SSR Unit, gives an overview of upcoming initiatives and shares relevant information and announcements with the greater SSR community.
 In this issue:

  • The Fifth Inter- Agency Senior SSR Practitioners Workshop
  • SSR Chiefs and Advisers Discuss Common Challenges 
  • Spotlight on a Mission: SSR in Côte d’Ivoire 
  • Developing Guidance on Public Expenditure Reviews 
  • Opening of an Emergency Response Centre in Timor-Leste 
  • A Video on Defence Sector Reform 
  • Support Visit to Libya 
  • Coming Soon... 
  • About the SSR Newsletter 
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