WESTERN ASIA

WESTERN ASIA

Outils

Outil 1 : Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité

Le premier Outil de la Boîte à Outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest aborde la volonté politique et de la dynamique endogène sur lesquels doit reposer tout processus de réforme du secteur de la sécurité (RSS).

En l’absence d’un engagement politique fort de la part des autorités nationales, le processus de RSS est condamné à l’échec, quelles que soient les ressources matérielles et l’expertise technique mobilisées. La RSS doit reposer sur une initiative nationale endogène, être conçue en réponse aux défis d’un contexte national foncièrement unique et être conduite de bout en cout par les acteurs nationaux qui en assument la pleine responsabilité. Pour que la RSS produise des résultats durables, il est également indispensable de garantir l’implication active d’une masse critique de citoyens – hommes et femmes – issus de toutes les couches de la société dans la définition et la mise en œuvre d’un programme de réforme reflétant une vision commune de la sécurité. À défaut de reposer sur une dynamique endogène large et un projet de société en matière de sécurité auquel toutes les parties prenantes nationales sont en mesure de s’identifier, la RSS est vouée à l’échec.

Reconnaissant les défis qui peuvent être associés à la mise en pratique de ces principes, l’Outil 1 offre des conseils pratiques en vue de renforcer le leadership et s’assurer que le processus soit véritablement national et définir une vision inclusive, nationale de la sécurité pour servir de base à la RSS. Il offre un aperçu des points d’entrée pour la RSS dans un cadre plus large de gouvernance nationale et dans le contexte ouest-africain. Il donne aussi des suggestions quant à l’institutionnalisation du leadership national et la coordination d’un processus RSS, y compris à travers la communication stratégique. 

L’Outil s’adresse principalement aux décideurs au niveau stratégique, aux responsables gouvernementaux impliqués dans la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité, ainsi qu’aux conseillers et professionnels de la RSS au niveau national. Il offre également aux membres du Parlement, aux autres institutions de contrôle, aux organisations de la société civile et aux partenaires au développement une vue d’ensemble des responsabilités incombant au pouvoir exécutif en matière de RSS, ainsi qu’un aperçu des éléments permettant de garantir tout au long du processus que celui-ci repose bien sur une dynamique nationale endogène et inclusive.

Pour plus d'information sur l'outil Leadership Politique et Dynamique Endogène des Processus de Réforme du Secteur de la Sécurité, veuillez suivre le lien vers le site de DCAF.

Veuillez cliquer sur les liens pour accéder aux autres documents de la Boîte à outils pour la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité en Afrique de l’Ouest: 

Outil 2 : La programmation de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 4 : Gestion efficace de l’appui extérieur à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité

Outil 6 : Le rôle de la société civile dans la réforme et la gouvernance du secteur de la sécurité

Cette publication existe également en English et en português

Tool

Vidéos

Security Sector Transformation in North Africa and the Middle East - Part 1

On May 10, 2012, the USIP Center of Innovation for Security Sector Governance held its third annual conference. For the second year running, the conference focused on the pressing question of security sector reform in North Africa and the Middle East.

Part I:

9:00 a.m. - 9:15 a.m.  Welcome and Opening Remarks

9:15 a.m. - 10:45 a.m.  Panel of Representatives from the Region

  • Magda Boutros, Director, Egyptian Initiative for Personal Rights, Egypt
  • Najla Elmangoush, former member of the National Transitional Council's Public Engagement Unit, Libya
  • Rana Jarhum, Human Rights Activist, Yemen
  • Dr. Murhaf Jouejati, Chairman of the National Consensus Movement and Member of the Syrian National Council, Syria
  • Dr. Radwan Masmoudi, President of the Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy, Tunisia
  • Hesham Sallam, Researcher, Egypt
video

Security Sector Transformation in North Africa and the Middle East - Part 2

On May 10, 2012, the USIP Center of Innovation for Security Sector Governance held its third annual conference. For the second year running, the conference focused on the pressing question of security sector reform in North Africa and the Middle East. 

Part II:

10:45 a.m. - 11:50 a.m.  Panel of Former U.S. Ambassadors to the Region

  • Ambassador Barbara Bodine, Former U.S. Ambassador to Yemen (1997-2001)
  • Ambassador Rust Deming, Former U.S. Ambassador to Tunisia (2000-2003)
  • Ambassador Deborah Jones, Former U.S. Ambassador to Kuwait (2008-2011)
  • Ambassador Thomas Riley, Former U.S. Ambassador to Morocco (2003-2009)

11:50 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.  Closing Remarks

video

Linking change-makers in the Middle East with democratic reformers of post-communist Europe

Representatives of PASOS and the Belgrade Centre for Security Policy (BCSP) held a four-day training seminar in Egypt May 10-13 for Egyptian NGOs. The sessions were part of a program to link reformers in Central and Eastern Europe with Middle East organizations working on democratic reform. The training focused on security-sector reform and capacity-building for think tanks. The training was led by Sonja Stojanović, Filip Ejdus, and Marija Marović of BCSP. They drew on Serbia's transformation experience, encouraged the 15 participants to debate the issues facing post-revolutionary Egypt, and led interactive workshops. The seminar was part of the PASOS project "Linking change-makers in the Middle East & North Africa with democratic reformers of post-communist (Central and Eastern) Europe."

video

Documents de recherche et de stratégie

Security Sector Transformation in the Arab Awakening

  • The Arab Awakening opened the door to democratic political change in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Security sector reform (SSR) is an integral component of the nascent democratic process in the region. While SSR is a long-term process, it should be a key part of institution building in the new democracies. Democracy requires security institutions that  are open, professional, and responsive to public needs.
  • The transitions to democracy are varied in nature and scope. SSR will differ by country and must be tailored to the political realities and specific circumstances of each state. The international community can foster successful SSR processes by calibrating its assistance according to the reform efforts in each country. A general or “one-size-fits-all” approach to SSR will not be successful.
  • A sense of political powerlessness, an unresponsive bureaucracy, a general lack of opportunity, economic stagnation (including high unemployment), and repressive security forces all contributed to the Arab Awakening. As a result of the upheaval, democratic forces in several of the MENA countries are pushing for transparency and accountability in the security services.
  • SSR must be undertaken in a holistic manner, couched within the framework of overall democratic reform and linked to other broad policies such as justice sector reform, evolution of the political process, and economic development. SSR will only be achieved if it is integrated and pursued in unison with these larger processes of democratic change. 
  • The international community, especially the United States and the European Union, need to foster democratic developments and, in particular, to support and coordinate SSR.

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Paper

Livres

Statebuilding and Police Reform

This book explores how and why police reform became an international phenomenon in the era of statebuilding that followed the end of the Cold War. Police reform has become an indispensible element in the spread of liberal democracy. Policing is distinguished by its ability to combine reasonable and forcible methods to preserve and spread liberal values. The book examines the reason police reform was introduced as a method of building consensus in Latin America and the Balkans and documents the development of its use in Africa, the Middle East and the Caucasus region. It illustrates how police power binds the liberal value of freedom to the security needs of post-conflict regions and discusses its force as a strategy to bring law and order to a global security domain. Drawing on a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject, the book delves deeply into policing as a method to bring coherence to global security. It traces the presence of coherent police strategies in contemporary international relations through studies of the United Nations, the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. By contrasting police reform with security sector reform, the book explores how liberal peace is imagined by the international NGO sector, state aid agencies and international organizations. This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding, post-conflict reconstruction, critical security studies, development studies and IR in general.

Book

Reform And Reconstruction of the Security Sector

Security sector reform (SSR) is widely recognized as key to conflict prevention, peace-building, sustainable development, and democratization. SSR has gained most practical relevance in the context of post-conflict reconstruction of so-called "failed states'" and states emerging from violent internal or inter-state conflict. As this volume shows, almost all states need to reform their security sectors to a greater or lesser extent, according to the specific security, political and socio-economic contexts, as well as in response to the new security challenges resulting from globalization and post-9/11 developments. Alan Bryden is a researcher at the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces. Heiner Hnggi is assistant director of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Book

The European Union and Security Sector Reform

The EU has emerged as a key worldwide player in security sector reform in the last few years, reflecting its twin role as the world’s largest source of development assistance and, ever increasingly, a major partner in international peacekeeping and police operations. In this comprehensive new study (February 2008), published in association with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), the authors: 
• explain the origins of SSR as a concept and the EU’s embrace of it, culminating in the adoption of an overall EU framework for SSR in 2006 • show how SSR relates to the EU’s development, enlargement, justice and home affairs and other key policy concerns • look at the multiplicity of resources, financial and human, the EU brings to bear to support SSR around the globe • discuss the tensions between the Commission’s and Council’s concepts and engagement in SSR and the efforts being made to coordinate action • show how the EU works in partnership with other international players such as the OECD and NATO • provide a series of detailed case studies of EU support for SSR in action – in the Balkans, former Soviet Union, Congo, the Middle East and North Africa and Indonesia 

Book

Understanding Military Justice

The bilingual toolkit contains a number of booklets in English and Arabic that provide norms and standards, guidebooks as well as practical examples of model laws in various areas of security sector legislation.
The following series have been published or are being processed:

• Police legislation
• Intelligence legislation
• Military Justice legislation
• Status of Forces Agreements

Additional series will be added as the needs arise. The existing series can easily be expanded through the addition of new booklets, based on demandfrom the Arab region. The toolkit seeks to assist lawmakers in the Arab region in responding to citizens’ expectations. Arab citizens demand professional service from police and security forces, which should be effective, efficient and responsive to their needs. They want police and security organisations and their members to abide by the law and human right norms and to be accountable for their performance and conduct. The toolkit thus promotes international standards in security sector legislation, such as democratic oversight, good governance and transparency. 

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Book