Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

Etudes de cas

Zimbabwe -Formation des chefs traditionnels en matière de gouvernance

Contexte

Au Zimbabwe, les autorités traditionnelles sont les gardiens de la loi et des pratiques coutumières. Pour la majeure partie de la population, elles constituent une interface essentielle entre la communauté et l'État. L’importance sociale des chefs traditionnels est reconnue dans le droit étatique qui habilite ces derniers à prendre des décisions sur des questions relatives au domaine foncier, à la gestion des ressources naturelles et à la vie familiale en milieu rural. La nouvelle Constitution du Zimbabwe approuvée en 2013 renforce le pluralisme juridique dans ce pays.

Dans le climat de violence politique et de peur généralisée qui a marqué les échéances électorales de ces dernières années, les chefs traditionnels ont souvent été accusés de collaborer et de servir les intérêts de la ZANU-PF, parti au pouvoir depuis l’indépendance du Zimbabwe en 1980. La recrudescence des violences et des tensions au niveau communautaire a poussé la représentation locale de l’International Rescue Committe (IRC) à mettre sur pied un programme de formation reparti sur deux ans et sensé rappeler aux chefs traditionnels non seulement les responsabilités qui leur incombent en vertu de la loi, mais aussi les normes fondamentales de professionnalisme. Intitulé « Supporting Traditional Leaders and Local Structures to Mitigate Community-level Conflict in Zimbabwe » (Aider les chefs traditionnels et les institutions locales à prévenir les conflits communautaires au Zimbabwe),  ce projet a été réalisé pendant une durée de 24 mois allant de 2012 à 2014, avec l’appui financier de l’USAID  et la collaboration de la Fondation des Ressources Juridiques (LRF).

Point d'entrée

Les chefs traditionnels sont des agents stratégiques du changement au sein de leurs communautés.   En raison des accusations formulées contre ces derniers, le projet IRC/LRF visait à combler ce sérieux manque de connaissances par le biais d’une initiative axée sur le renforcement des capacités. Le projet ciblait l’ensemble des chefs situés à tous les niveaux du système des chefferies traditionnelles (chefs coutumiers, chefs de canton et chefs de villages) de Mutare et Mutasa, deux districts ruraux de la province du Manicaland. L’objectif principal était de « prévenir la violence et promouvoir des relations positives à l’échelle communautaire par un renforcement des capacités des chefs traditionnels, afin de permettre à ces derniers d’exercer efficacement leur rôle, de prendre des décisions éclairées et de résoudre les conflits de manière pacifique». 

Les activités comprenaient deux séances de formation de 3 jours avec des groupes de villages, séparées d’un intervalle d’environ trois mois. Cinq programmes ont été exécutés par l’IRC, deux étant destinés aux chefs de villages et les trois autres, aux chefs de communautés. Les séances s’étalaient sur les six modules suivants: Structure du gouvernement local au Zimbabwe; Leadership et communication; Résolution et gestion des conflits; Genre et leadership traditionnel; Assemblée de district et leadership local et Gestion des ressources naturelles. Les modules étaient dispensés sous forme de cours théoriques, de jeux de rôles et de travaux en groupes. 

Enseignements tirés

L’étude d’évaluation menée par l’USAID avait pour but de répondre à deux questions. La première essayait de savoir s’il existe un lien entre la formation et les progrès en matière de gouvernance, tandis que  la seconde essayait de déterminer si la cohésion sociale s’est renforcée ou relâchée au sein de la communauté. La problématique sous-jacente est d’évaluer l’efficacité des opérations visant à réglementer les institutions traditionnelles, comme tentent de le faire plusieurs gouvernements. 

Des résultats ont montré une différence concrète entre les villages dont seuls les chefs avaient suivi la formation et les villages où les autres chefs de communautés avaient également été impliqués.   Ainsi, dans cette dernière catégorie (villages où plus de leaders avaient été formés), la formation s’est révélée plus apte à changer la gouvernance traditionnelle, ceci de deux manières. D’une part, elle a créé un individu capable d’exercer un contrôle sur l’action du chef de village. D’autre part, elle a doté les chefs de village d’une capacité d’informer un plus grands nombre de personnes sur le cadre juridique régissant les fonctions d’un chef traditionnel.

Comme souligné par l’étude d’évaluation, les chefs des villages où la formation a été plus étendue ont mis l’accent sur un certain nombre de choses, notamment le fait que le chef de la communauté les avait aidés à « se rappeler » de la loi, agissant ainsi comme un contrepoids à leurs pouvoirs. Aussi, ce dernier avait mené une sensibilisation efficace sur le cadre légal, notamment auprès des groupes -les jeunes par exemple- sur lesquels le chef de village n’exerce qu’une influence limitée. Dans le même temps, les insuffisances de ces activités ont été documentées. Celles-ci portaient sur les mesures comportementales indiquant que les chefs traditionnels ne s’étaient pas montrés davantage consultatifs ou fermement attachés à la gouvernance consultative. Ces derniers « seraient devenus plus habiles à s’entourer de personnes favorables à leurs idées en invitant aux réunions des membres de leurs familles et des personnes dociles ». 

L’étude a relevé deux éléments. D’abord, l’efficacité des efforts de réglementation dépend de la manière dont ils sont conçus. Des séances de formation destinées aux chefs de village et dispensées par les chefs de villages eux-mêmes sont susceptibles d’avoir un faible impact. Mais lorsque d’autres chefs de communauté y sont impliqués, elles produisent un impact considérable,  car la « pression horizontale » exercée au lendemain de la formation par ces acteurs et d’autres citoyens est nécessaire pour opérer un changement dans la gouvernance traditionnelle. En d’autres termes, les activités de renforcement des capacités des chefs traditionnels devraient également prévoir des mécanismes permettant d’améliorer leur responsabilité. Ensuite, certaines modifications dans les procédures peuvent accroitre les conflits entre les différents groupes et réduire la confiance entre les membres de la communauté. En clair, un choix pourrait s’imposer entre la nécessité d’encourager la consultation et celle de maintenir la cohésion sociale.

L’étude menée met également en garde contre la faible prise en compte des considérations liées à l’étude d’impact dans les projets portant sur le renforcement des capacités.  La transparence de la gouvernance implique également une meilleure connaissance des tensions sociales et des divergences d’opinion existant entre les citoyens.  Afin de ne pas provoquer ou aggraver des conflits, il est nécessaire de procéder à un examen sérieux des relations de pouvoir existant au sein de la communauté, et des possibles changements ou défis apportés par le renforcement des capacités.    Même si les institutions traditionnelles peuvent se montrer plus respectueuses des notions de bonne gouvernance, de transparence et de consultation, les changements inhérents aux politiques de gouvernance traditionnelle se solderont toujours par des gagnants et des perdants au sein de la communauté.  

Ressources

case study

Vidéos

Freedom Nyamubaya (1960-2015) : ZPSP and Security Sector Transformation in Zimbabwe

In 2010, Freedom Nyamubaya joined with several other prominent Zimbabwean figures from across the political spectrum to establish the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Trust (ZPST), whose aim is to contribute, through the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Programme (ZPSP), to the effective and sustainable modernisation and transformation of the security sector in Zimbabwe. Freedom passed away last Sunday at her farm in Chinhoyi. In this interview with ISSAT, conducted during a mandate in Harare, she reflects on the challenges to SST. Freedom, a former fighter and frontline commander in the Zimbabwean liberation struggle, was also a well-known author. She brings her personal background into her analysis of crucial issues of legitimacy, sustainability and ownership in SST. The interview was recorded during a recent field mission by ISSAT in Zimbabwe as part of a mandate to document the ZPSP experience through the views of a broad range of stakeholders. As such, this short video by ISSAT is also a tribute to her legacy.

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Programme de paix et de sécurité au Zimbabwe (ZPSP)

Cette vidéo, sous-titrée en français, est une collecte de voix parlant du programme de paix et de sécurité au Zimbabwe (ZPSP), une fondation indépendante et légale établie au Zimbabwe. La fondation aide à contribuer, à travers la provision d’assistance technique impartiale et professionnelle, à la modernisation efficace et durable, ainsi qu'à la transformation du secteur de la sécurité dans le but d’améliorer la gouvernance démocratique, la sécurité et la souveraineté nationale du peuple zimbabwéen.

Cette vidéo fait aussi partie d’une étude de cas approfondie d’ISSAT (en anglais) sur le programme de paix et de sécurité au Zimbabwe (ZPSP).

Pour afficher les sous-titres en français, cliquez sur 'CC' en bas à droite de la vidéo.

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Customary Justice in Zimbabwe

In this interview, Fortune Charumbira, the President Zimbabwe Chief’s Council, introduces the concept of customary justice within the context of Zimbabwe. He highlights the responsibility of the traditional leader to ensure the well-being of the whole community including the food security and the protection and maintenance of the environment. He identifies the players involved in the process of traditional justice and he stresses on the role of the traditional leaders to insure peace and harmony. He explains the role of the customary courts in solving the disputes along with the local formal judicial bodies which were set before the independence under the colonial government. He argues that traditional system of justice is mainly based on negotiation, reconciliation and mediation. He insists on the role of the formal police  and the traditional leaders in the local peace and security process. However, he points that the customary justice presents certain limitations and clashes of paradigm.

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Overcoming Violence : Exploring Masculinities, Violence, and Peacebuilding

In a response to women's voices in the field, the Women Peacemakers Program initiated a pilot Training of Trainers (ToT) cycle for 19 male peace activists from 17 different countries in 2009 / 2010, entitled "Overcoming Violence: Exploring Masculinities, Violence, and Peacebuilding".
Upon returning home from that first training block, each of the male participants was linked to a female support person ("ally") from his own region and/or country who supported him in the development and implementation of his follow-up plan.
The ToT focused on the theory and practice of active nonviolence; facilitation and group dynamics; participatory teaching methods; conceptualizing gender and diversity; leadership; women's rights; important international instruments such as United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR) 1325, 1820, 1888 and 1889; an introduction to and analysis of masculinities; and lobbying and advocacy.

For access to the full video, Overcoming Violence : Exploring Masculinities, Violence, and Peacebuilding, kindly follow the link. 

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Solving the Crisis in Zimbabwe: A Conversation with Tendai Biti

Zimbabwe’s current inflation rate of 97.4 percent has raised worries that the country is on the precipice of repeating the economic crisis of 2008. Former Finance Minister Tendai Biti argues that the current crisis is fundamentally political, not economic, and driven by a lack of government legitimacy. 

To watch the full video Solving the Crisis in Zimbabwe: A Conversation with Tendai Biti, kindly follow the link. 

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Documents de recherche et de stratégie

The Security Sector in Southern Africa

The Security Sector Governance (SSG) Programme of the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) conducted baseline studies of the security sector in six Southern African countries, namely Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, as well as the Southern African Development Community’s Organ on Politics, Defence and Security (SADC Organ). The results of this research are reflected in this monograph.

Paper

Zimbabwe: Political and Security Challenges to the Transition

This briefing focuses on political party and security issues, as well as South Africa’s mediation. Subsequent reporting will analyse other topics vital to the transition, including
constitutional and legal reform, justice and reconciliation, sanctions policies and security sector reform.

Paper

SADC 2014 - 2015: Are South Africa and Zimbabwe shaping the organisation?

This policy brief discusses the chairing of the Southern African development Community (SADC) and its key institutions by South Africa and Zimbabwe, for the duration of their tenure from 2014 to 2015. It highlights the constraints and opportunities of their agenda-setting functions, considers change or continuity in the SADC institution and makes some recommendations on how both countries can shape SADC’s policy responsibilities.

It is argued that the relationships between domestic context, foreign policy organisational structure, leadership and political agency will determine Zimbabwe and South Africa’s performance in SADC in the coming year.

Read the Policy Brief

Paper

Zimbabwe: Stranded in Stasis

According to the International Crisis Group, Zimbabwe is floundering, with little sign of meaningful reform and sustainable, broad-based recovery. Governance deficits, political violence, corruption, electoral reform, human rights and rule-of-law violations are deep challenges that must be faced. Therefore, international actors should seek common ground and action that addresses these sensitive political challenges and also promote an inclusive, sustainable economic recovery. Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries – South Africa, in particular – have specific interest in ensuring Zimbabwe recovers its position as a lynchpin of stability and an engine for regional development. To do so, they, the U.S., UK, China, the European Union (EU), African Development Bank (AfDB), World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) should develop an engagement framework that has clear governance, rule-of-law, financial, and economic objectives and enables monitoring and assessment.

Access the full report on Zimbabwe: Stranded in Stasis by following the link. 

Paper

Les transitions démocratiques tourmentées des mouvements de libération africains

La récente crise politique au Zimbabwe offre une perspective sur les défis que rencontrent de nombreux pays africains en opérant la transition des structures politiques de leur mouvement de libération fondateur vers d’authentiques démocraties participatives.

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, Les transitions démocratiques tourmentées des mouvements de libération africains, veuillez suivre le lien.

Paper

Zimbabwe: An Opportunity for Reform?

The new presidential administration in Zimbabwe offers an opportunity for much-needed democratic and economic reform after years of stagnation. There are four key areas on which the EU and its member states should focus its support: the security sector, elections, the economy and national reconciliation.

For full access to the article on Zimbabwe: An Opportunity for Reform?, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Contextualising the SDGs to Leave No One Behind in Health: A Case Study from Zimbabwe

Achieving Agenda 2030 will necessitate adapting the Sustainable Development Goals to the national and community level. Furthermore, given the goals’ commitment to ‘leave no one behind’, the involvement of the communities farthest from achieving the goals is paramount. Contextualising the goals – that is, making them specific and relevant to context – by involving communities is one way to better identify priorities and realistic action plans.

This briefing provides an overview of some of the discourse informing contextualisation, problematises the concept and illustrates one attempt to test an approach through a case study on experience in three of Zimbabwe’s rural districts engaging with SDG3 (‘Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages’). It explores the extent to which collaborative rationality can contribute to contexutalisation, to deliver progress on leaving on one behind, by building understanding between institutions such as the State and local government, businesses, NGOs and communities.

For full access to the Media hub Contextualising the SDGs to Leave No One Behind in Health: A Case Study from Zimbabwe, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Back to the Future: Legitimising Zimbabwe’s 2018 Elections

Zimbabwe’s next elections are due no later than August 2018 and there has been renewed interest in explaining the remarkable landslide victory of President Robert Mugabe and his ZANU-PF party in 2013. Several sources attribute the outcome to the party’s ‘expanded social base’, citing the results of opinion polls conducted in 2013. This report analyses that claim. It suggests an alternative explanation for the extent of ZANU-PF’s 2013 win, and considers the implications for the impending polls.

For full access to the article Back to the Future: Legitimising Zimbabwe’s 2018 Elections, please kindly follow the link. 

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Zimbabwe’s ‘Coup’: Infighting and the Primacy of the People

The events in Zimbabwe over the past few days have returned to the conversation an often disregarded stakeholder: the country’s citizens. On November 18, Zimbabweans—both within the country and in the diaspora—took to the streets en masse, with a palpable excitement and of their own accord, to take a public stance. They wanted to communicate to the international community, the African Union (AU), and the Southern African Development Community (SADC) that as a people they can no longer be compelled to accept the leadership of President Robert Mugabe.

For full access to the article Zimbabwe’s ‘Coup’: Infighting and the Primacy of the People, please kindly follow the link.  

Paper

Zimbabwe: International Donors Should Restart Targeted Finance

The departure of Robert Mugabe provides the international community with an opportunity to use targeted finance in support of the political and economic change that the people of Zimbabwe are calling for.

Over the last decade, Zimbabwe’s economy has halved in size, unemployment has reached 95% and its government has become bankrupt.

The agricultural and manufacturing sectors were the main providers of formal jobs but land reform and indigenisation policies under Mugabe severely weakened business confidence. As levels of investment fell, these sectors shrank and huge rises in unemployment and poverty followed.

For further information and full access to the article  Zimbabwe: International Donors Should Restart Targeted Finance, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Five Issues to Watch as Zimbabwe’s Transition Unfolds

With the resignation of President Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe enters a new political era—setting a course without the only leader the country has known since independence in 1980. However, a change in leadership, especially one not ushered in through competitive elections, is not a guarantee that genuine reform is forthcoming. Such change will require substantive institutional reforms, a challenging task for a political system that has been dominated for so long by one political party.There are five strategic consideration suggested further in the article. 

For full access to the article Five Issues to Watch as Zimbabwe’s Transition Unfolds, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Zimbabwe: Stranded in Stasis

Zimbabwe is floundering, with little sign of meaningful reform and sustainable, broad-based recovery. Political uncertainty and economic insecurity have worsened; the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) government has consolidated power, as the opposition stumbles, but is consumed by struggles over who will succeed President Robert Mugabe. Upbeat economic projections by international institutions are predicated on government rhetoric about new policy commitments and belief in the country’s potential, but there are growing doubts that ZANU-PF can “walk the talk” of reform. Conditions are likely to deteriorate further due to insolvency, drought and growing food insecurity. Economic constraints have forced Harare to deal with international financial institutions (IFIs) and Western capitals, but to regain the trust of donors, private investors and ordinary citizens, the government must become more accountable, articulate a coherent vision and take actions that go beyond personal, factional and party aggrandisement.

For full access to the article Zimbabwe: Stranded in Stasis, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Zimbabwe’s Threadbare Theatre of Reform

Zimbabweans are slowly rediscovering the courage to speak out as Zimbabwe’s much-vaunted reform process is consumed by insincerity, slow-burn crisis, and infighting over the succession to 92-year-old President Robert Mugabe.

Complementing growing opposition activity, recent weeks have seen a rash of spirited and well organised protest campaigns, most notably #Tajamuka and #ThisFlag, and a widely observed “stay-away” from work, adding further pressure on a bankrupt government, whose efforts to pilot a much needed recovery look increasingly artificial due to political infighting within the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front. 

For full access to the article Zimbabwe’s Threadbare Theatre of Reform, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Zimbabwe's reforms: An exercise in credibility - or pretence?

Zimbabwe is again facing major political and economic challenges. Prospects for recovery under the leadership of 92-year-old Robert Mugabe and his chief lieutenants in the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front are looking increasingly bleak. The government has publically committed itself to a reform process that is intended to help reconnect to international channels of credit and investment and an underlying confidence in the country’s potential to bounce back remains. The international community supports these endeavours, but convictions are being tested as headway is stymied by a combination of internal and external exigencies that have exposed the limitations of a political leadership desperate to maintain its hegemony, but clearly running out of options.

For full access to the article Zimbabwe's reforms: An exercise in credibility - or pretence?, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

An Inside Job Zimbabwe: The State, The Security Forces, And A Decade Of Disappearing Diamonds

Global Witness has uncovered new evidence linking Zimbabwe’s state and partisan security forces to a decade of disappearing diamond wealth. ‘An Inside Job’ examines five of the major mining companies that have recently operated in the Marange diamond fields and so continue to hold a stake in its future: Kusena, Anjin, Jinan, Diamond Mining Corporation (DMC), and Mbada. It details the steps companies have taken, in some cases, to conceal their finances, shield their operations from public scrutiny, and hide their ultimate beneficiaries and owners. 

For full access to the report, An Inside Job Zimbabwe: The State, The Security Forces, And A Decade Of Disappearing Diamonds, please follow the link. 

Paper

Zimbabwe Transition in a Muddy Terrain: Political Economy Under Military Capture

This report presents the findings of a three-month study across ten provinces of Zimbabwe to capture and ascertain an up-to-date map of the current state of security sector involvement in political and economic affairs in Zimbabwe. It found that security sector involvement in politics and related economics is rooted in the nature of the political terrain that underpinned the independence of Zimbabwe, the brand of politicians who entered the political scene thereafter, and their ideologies, hopes and fears.

For full access to the report, Zimbabwe Transition in a Muddy Terrain: Political Economy Under Military Capture, please kindly follow the link. 

Paper

Autres documents

ZPSP - Lessons Identified

Lessons Identified doc

This document contains some twenty lessons identified by the ISSAT mission with the ZPSP, as part of the webpage dedicated to the programme. The lessons are organised broadly on process and on programme management.

This document is part of the ISSAT Case Study on the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Programme (ZPSP)

Other Document

ZPSP - Good Practice

Good Practice doc

This document sums-up good practice identified by the ISSAT mission with the ZPSP, as part of the webpage dedicated to the programme, where you can also access fourteen videos illustrating each of the elements described.

This document is part of the ISSAT Case Study on the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Programme (ZPSP)

Other Document

ZPSP - Narrative Report

Narrative Report doc

This narrative report explores how the ZPSP is fostering change in a context hostile to Security Sector Transformation (SST), and is part of the resources dedicated by ISSAT to the programme.

This document is part of the ISSAT Case Study on the Zimbabwe Peace and Security Programme (ZPSP)

Other Document