ISSAT

Case Studies

Sierra Leone: Local Policing Partnership Boards

Context

Local Policing Partnership Boards (LPPBs) were established in each police division by the Sierra Leone Police (SLP) in 2002-2003 and were subsequently rolled out across the country. However, over recent years many of the LPPBs failed to thrive and in some cases their legitimacy was questioned due to poor representation of the communities they served. The SLP describe the LPPBs as “… part of the community policing strategy aimed at involving non-police stakeholders in security and crime prevention.”

To support and assist the police, the LPPBs draw on the participation of a range of locally based community service organisations, representatives of local business associations and, in some areas, representatives of traditional authorities.

Entry Point

The DFID funded Access to Security & Justice Programme (ASJP), works in support of a wide-ranging number of Government of Sierra Leone institutions, non-governmental organisations and community groups. Since its inception in 2011, ASJP acknowledged the importance of the LPPBs and has supported their further development. It’s first task was to more closely connect the LPPBs to other community groups involved with local security and justice provision, and to ensure better representivity, particularly of women, on the boards. Closer linkages were also developed with District Community Networks, many of whose activities were explicitly focused on juvenile justice, women’s rights, gender-based violence and child protection.

Lessons Identified

The LPPBs play an important role in a number of complimentary activities. They work closely with the SLP and local communities, whom they represent, to ensure more effective, appropriate and accountable delivery of policing services. They are also able to articulate local demand for specific security and justice services, whilst acting as a legitimate sounding board of local SLP performance. They also link into the national framework of discussions and consultation surrounding future legislation or guidance for the security and justice sector. Most importantly, their activities directly lead to improved relationships, understanding and trust between communities and local police.

Impact

ASJP support to the revival of the Local Police Partnership Boards and the work in publishing the LPPB guidelines booklet is acknowledged to have made a positive contribution to improved levels of community safety and security. Selected LPPBs are now able to develop preventive strategies and victim support initiatives in which the SLP and the various locally involved NGOs work together.  This has both improved individual levels of safety and security and perhaps as importantly, improved community safety and security perceptions. The local ownership, direction and empowerment of the LPPBs structures has been a vital ingredient of their success to date.

Selected Resources

Case Study

Liberia: Qualified successes in recruitment eroded by lack of sustainability

Context

Following Charles Taylor’s exile in 2003, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) at Accra put an end to the large-scale, bloody 14-year civil conflict. The UN launched its largest peacekeeping operation at the time—UNMIL—responsible for providing general security as well as restructuring the civilian elements of the security sector as part of the SSR process mandated in the Accra Accords.

Given its historic ties to the Liberian state, the US took the lead in reforming the defence sector, thus sharing responsibilities with the UN for the SSR process. Given the missions in Iraq and Afghanistan at the time, along with USAID’s particular restrictions (it is prohibited from defence development), the Department of Defence and the Department of State were reluctant to intervene directly and decided to outsource its part of SSR to private military companies. The resulting Defence Sector Reform (DSR) is seen as a qualified success of SSR.

Entry points

The mission encompassed two aspects: a logistical, infrastructure-related objective, along with a more substantial project related to operational (rebuild the Armed Forces of Liberia, AFL) and institutional (create a new Ministry of Defence) levels of SSR, which formed the bulk of the DSR. [1] Its relatively limited goals of transforming the military sub-sector were in complement with UNMIL and other actors for the overarching reform of the Liberian security sector as a whole. The different phases of the mission involved the demobilisation of the old AFL, communicating and sensitizing on the new AFL, managing the recruitment and vetting processes and finally developing the Ministry of Defence.

The whole approach was based on a particular understanding of Liberia’s security, which located the main threats in internal dangers arising from failures of development, such as crime, insurrection, or poverty, rather than in interstate conventional military threats. Adopting the human security paradigm led to envisioning the creation of a limited army of around 2,000 soldiers as the core objective of the project. The character of this envisioned army, notably the integration of civic and literacy classes, its ethnic balance, and the inclusion of women also reflected this human security understanding.

Impact

The DSR resulted in the complete demobilisation of the old AFL, consisting of 13,500 members, at a cost of USD 15 Million. Part of the success of the demobilisation lied in treating the members of the army as soldiers rather than criminals, and in “retiring” them with some state recognition. This diminished grounds for grievance, while asserting the state’s presence and prerogatives.

The subsequent creation of the new AFL began with a country-wide communication campaign. The combination of sensitisation on the non-threatening and inclusive nature of the new army, aimed at the general population, and necessary given the recent history of abuse and terror in the country, with a message for recruitment purposes posed some problems and diminished the efficacy of both. The following step of recruitment involved considerable preparation to be able to reach beyond Monrovia itself. The final result was a minimally literate army which, although skewed towards the capital, still included members from all regional and ethnic backgrounds in considerable proportions.

Preventing the enlistment of individuals involved in war crimes and grave abuses of human rights in the new army was ensured via a careful vetting process. To be able to confront the lack of reliable information on individuals, typical in a post-conflict country, the process combined three complementary methods (background checks, records checks, and public vetting). It was conducted by a panel independent of the implementing partner, composed of two Liberians as well as a US Embassy official. All in all, the AFL went from being a security consumer and one of the causes of the civil war to being a security provider. It is now seen as a representative small army that accommodates women, and is capable of successfully integrating in peacekeeping missions (Mali 2013).

Lessons Identified

1. SSR should take into account the conditions that each country faces. Importing ready-made models is not an adequate approach; rather, the security sector should reflect the needs of the country. In Liberia, much was to be rebuilt “from scratch” following the 14-year civil war, and the greater freedom in devising and implementing DSR was appropriately used. Consideration of the specific threats facing the country and of its capacity to pay salaries – an essential planning constraint given the danger posed by unpaid, disgruntled soldiers - thus led to the development of a limited national army. 

2. A crucial aspect in building security forces lies in an adequate admissions process. Appropriately vetting the candidates to the AFL was essential to manage spoilers and check backgrounds thoroughly. Given the sensitivities involved in rebuilding an armed force in a post-conflict country, communication towards the population on the processes in place and inclusiveness in planning and engaging are important and need to be backed by great care on the selection process. Successfully vetting the applicants is essential, lest the entire DSR or SSR program is undermined. More generally, “training and equipping”, relatively straightforward provided the financing follows, is alone not sufficient for successful SSR, and other aspects such as local inclusion are essential.

3. The different objectives pursued in SSR at times contradict each other, and prioritising and sequencing among the different objectives are in such cases essential. For example, turning over the vetting records, valuable information on individuals in a country characterised by a lack of reliable archives or documents, can advance transitional justice. Yet it can also entail reprisal against witnesses, and hinder the completion of the new AFL. In the case of Liberia, security was prioritised as a precondition to development, and only later were the records handed over to the government for justice purposes and to highlight that the new AFL was untainted. Similarly, rates of literacy diverged across ethnic groups. The requirement of literacy was thus lowered for some of them in order to favour ethnic inclusiveness, while a literacy program was included into the training in order to mitigate the challenge.

4. The original successes of training and recruitment were not sustainable over the long-term, especially with the departure of the outsourced privates military company. See Steffen, and Welken, for further insight.

Selected Resources

[1] Pacific Architects & Engineers (PA&E) was the private military company responsible for former objective, and DynCorp for the latter.

Case Study

Tools

Was ist Sicherheit?

German info

Diese A3 Infografik gibt einen einführenden Überblick über die Reform des Sicherheitssektors (SSR). Sie stellt die Eigenschaften der SSR und ihrer verschiedenen operationellen Phasen dar und bietet eine detaillierte Beschreibung des „Fähigkeits-, Integritäts- und Nachhaltigkeitsrahmenwerks“. Zudem erläutert sie den Ansatz der „Einschätzung des Endergerbnisses“.

Dieses Dokument ist auch auf Englisch und Französisch verfügbar.

Tool

La RSS en Bref

Rss francais

Manuel de formation: Introduction à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité  

Ce manuel vient compléter le Cours d’initiation (niveau 1) à la formation en matière de réforme du secteur de la sécurité proposé par l’ISSAT. S’inspirant de différents exemples d’efforts déployés pour soutenir la réforme de la sécurité et de la justice, il présente les grandes lignes de la stratégie et des pratiques utilisées dans ce domaine. Le manuel s’articule autour des quatre piliers de la RSS :

Ie chapitre : le concept de RSS

Ce chapitre traite de la RSS en tant que concept, explique son évolution ainsi que les préceptes théoriques qui l’ont inspirée et donne la définition des termes les plus importants. Il met aussi l’accent sur certaines caractéristiques importantes de la RSS.

IIe chapitre : les différents acteurs

Ce chapitre dresse le catalogue des principaux acteurs - nationaux et internationaux – du secteur de la sécurité et de la justice, puis examine comment assurer la coordination entre ces parties prenantes lorsqu’elles décident d’entreprendre un programme de RSS.

IIIe chapitre : la programmation de la RSS

Ce chapitre décrit les divers stades du cycle de programmation de la RSS et aborde les différentes difficultés - d’ordre politique ou technique - susceptibles de survenir au cours de la programmation.

IVe chapitre : les questions intersectorielles

Ce chapitre examine d’importants aspects thématiques et pratiques de la RSS souvent négligés, notamment les questions de genre. Il traite aussi des sujets étroitement liés à la RSS, tels que le désarmement, démobilisation et réinsertion (DDR), le contrôle des armes légères et de petit calibre (ALPC) et la justice transitionnelle (JT).

Ce manuel donne une idée générale du contexte théorique et des connaissances pratiques nécessaires pour se lancer dans une programmation de RSS car, ne se contentant pas d’énoncer les principes de base, il met aussi l’accent sur les divers obstacles qui risquent de surgir lorsque l’on décide d’entreprendre un prgrammme de RSS. Ouvrage de référence par excellence, il sera utile tout autant à ceux qui ont déjà assisté au Cours d’initiation (niveau 1) à la formation en matière de réforme du secteur de la sécurité proposé par l’ISSAT qu’aux néophytes.

La version espagnole de RSS en Bref se trouve ici. La version anglaise de RSS en Bref se trouve ici. Pour notre version en langue arabe, veuillez suivre le lien.

Tool

Qu'est-ce que la sécurité?

ssr french

Cette infographie au format A3 donne un bref aperçu de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité (RSS). Elle présente les caractéristiques de la RSS, ses différentes phases opérationnelles, ainsi qu’une description détaillée du cadre de « capacité, intégrité et durabilité » et de l’Outil d’estimation des effets. 

Ce document est également disponible en allemand et anglais.

Tool

Qu'est-ce que la gouvernance?

vdyscy

Cette infographie donne un aperçu de la gouvernance en lien avec la réforme du secteur de la justice et de la sécurité. Elle fournit une représentation visuelle de la bonne gouvernance et une présentation détaillée des éléments interdépendants essentiels à la bonne gouvernance.  En outre, elle comprend des ressources supplémentaires sur la gouvernance dans le secteur de la sécurité, sur les indicateurs de performance et les mesures d'effets, ainsi que sur des sujets connexes.

Ce document s’imprime en taille A3. Vous pouvez le télécharger, l'imprimer et le plier le long des lignes pointillées – ce qui vous fournira un document A5 facile à partager.

Tool

Policy and Research Papers

A Common Approach for Building International Capacity to Support SJSR

"A Common Approach for Building International Capacity to Support SJSR" is the title of ISSAT's second High Level Panel (HLP), organised on May 19th, 2011. ISSAT hosted its HLP discussion in Brussels, Belgium with the focus on the increasing need for establishing the right balance of technical, methodological and contextual expertise within SSR interventions.

The basis for the HLP topic was the recognition that the number of SSR mandates within Peace Support Operations (PSO) and crisis management operations has increased over the past years. In parallel, the demand for SSR and rule of law advisors who combine specialist knowledge with a solid understanding of the politics involved in reform processes has increased.

At present, many bilateral and multilateral donors face serious capacity gaps when it comes to having readily-available and deployable personnel with SSR experience and expertise. Security and justice reform requires a multi-disciplinary response: it requires personnel with an understanding of the political nature of SSR and the importance of accountability to a legitimate authority, coupled with those who have a technical understanding of how, for example, a police service, the military, the courts system and the various ministries function.

The panel who addressed these issues were:

  • Mr. Richard Wright, Director Conflict Prevention & Security Policy, European External Action Service (EEAS)
  • Mr. Cedric de Coning, Advisor to ACCORD and NUPI and Author of the Study on Civilian Capacities within the Non-governmental Civilian Roster Community
  • Mr Mika-Markus Leinonen, Director, Civcom Chair, European External Action Service (EEAS) 
  • General Juan Estaban (by video), Former Head of the EU SSR Mission in Guinea Bissau
Paper

What Works in International Security and Justice Programming?

S_J_study_UK_mission

 

This preliminary scoping study was commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), with the aim of considering the security and justice sector reform efforts of 19 of the main Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – Development Assistance Council (OECD-DAC) donors. It focuses on the efforts of each nation’s foreign affairs, development, defence, and justice agencies, and provides an initial assessment of how policy and programming are linked, what evidence of good practice has been collected, and what knowledge and programming gaps exist currently.

Paper

Other Documents

Final report of the European Association of Peace Operations Training Centres (EAPTC) annual meeting 2014

The annual meeting of the European Association of Peace Operations Training Centres (EAPTC) was organised by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) and the International Security Sector Advisory Team of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF/ISSAT) from 12-13 March 2014, in Stans, Switzerland. The meeting brought together over 40 participants from various European training institutions.

The meeting provided members the opportunity to share information on their ongoing and planned activities. The main focus of the meeting was to discuss lessons learned and challenges in the design and delivery of Peace Support Operations (PSO) trainings.

Other Document

German SSR support in practice in Nigeria

This paper documents good practice evidence from German SSR activities in Nigeria. Major German involvement in support to SSR is relatively new, and has tended to focus on train and equip approaches. The examples of German support to SSR included here may not involve full-fledged reform processes, they may, however, provide an insight into some good practices from the ground that could be used as entry points for wider SSR engagement and strategic Security Sector Governance reform.

Other Document

ISSAT Gender and SSR Report (2016)

DCAF-ISSAT aims to incorporate gender sensitivity throughout its work. This report on gender and SSR in DCAF-ISSAT's work for 2016 highlights how we have incorporated gender aspects in:

  • our Member's national policy thinking
  • partner country thinking on their national security strategy 
  • programming 
  • training
  • advocacy and outreach
  • knowledge products
  • gender sensitive representation
Other Document

Soutien RSS allemand en pratique au Mali

L’engagement de l’Allemagne en soutien aux processus de la RSS dans des pays tiers est relativement nouveau et se base principalement sur des approches de formation et équipement. Les exemples ci-dessous du soutien de l’Allemagne à la RSS au Mali ne constituent pas tout à fait des programmes RSS tel qu’entendu par l’OCDE CAD. Toutefois, les activités ci-dessous représentent des exemples intéressants de bonne pratique à partager au sein de la communauté RSS. Ce papier traite des aspects de confiance, d’approche inclusive, et de coordination. 

Other Document