This Almanac on Human Rights and Security Sector Oversight in Indonesia maps the current status of human rights observance by Indonesia’s security sector in terms of policies and practices. By benchmarking the status of human rights observance, the Almanac is a tool which can help prioritise ongoing security sector reform needs to ensure the improved provision of public security by Indonesia’s security sector actors.
From 1998 onwards, Indonesian civil society organisations (CSOs) have relentlessly mapped instances of human rights abuses by state agencies and lobbied their government and the international community for assistance in changing policies and practices and in prosecuting those accused of documented human rights abuses. In recent years, the Munir Case has, for many, been highly symbolic of the contentiousness of the interaction between state, society and the security sector. But, at the same time, many CSOs have systematically developed their capacity to monitor, research and analyse key issues, as well as to follow-up with recommendations to improve the provision of public security through lobbying, advocacy and awareness raising with multiple stakeholders.
Since 1998, Indonesia’s continued democratic development and emergence as a key economic actor in Asia has provided the back-drop to the debate on security sector reform in the post-Suharto era. In the general context of security sector reform, much attention has been focused on Defence Reform, with much more attention now being paid to the Police Reform agenda and Intelligence Reform on issues such as the ‘State Secrecy Bill’. The crux of these debates has been the need for increased transparency and accountability in terms of policy, practices and budgeting. The security sector has cooperated with various reform platforms, not least through democratic reform imperatives but also its corporate interests in the post-Suharto reform era.
To further inform the debate on transparency and accountability across Indonesia’s security sector, and to identify ongoing reform needs across defence, police and intelligence, this Almanac reflects a concise effort to map the intersection of public security provision and the practices of state agencies. By mapping key problem areas and sub-dividing the relevant security sector actors, agencies and thematic issues, the Almanac provides a benchmark of various agencies’ contributions to public security, while at the same time enabling the mapping out of solutions that can help resolve the critical issues identified. It is intended that this mapping process can be repeated in the future in order to map the extent to which human rights observance improves across the security sector.