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Case Studies

The Challenges of Sequencing National Security Policy and National Security Legislation in Timor-Leste

In Timor-Leste, the government’s intention was first to develop a national security policy, which would subsequently guide the development of national security legislation. However, following the 2006 security crisis, swift development of the legislation became a priority, so that the roles and responsibilities of the police and defence forces could be more clearly delineated. Legislation and policy thus advanced in parallel: the national security law would be led by the Office of the Prime Minister and Secretary of State for Defence, while national security policy would continue to be developed under the auspices of the Office
of the President and the Secretary of State for Security. In order to ensure links between the two processes, each of the institutions would comment in parallel on the draft law and draft policy. In practice this approach proved challenging; there were limited national resources to lead both processes, and equally limited international resources to support the national effort.  Finally, further delays in the policy-making process resulted in the national security law being adopted prior to the national security policy. As a result there was difficulty aligning policy with law, despite the fact that the law did not undergo the same broad consultative process as national security policy. After considerable national effort, law and policy were finally aligned, with a focus on supporting an integrated security sector.

Source found in: Security Sector Reform: Integrated Technical Guidance Notes , United Nations SSR Task Force, 2012. p. 125.

Case Study

Facilitating National Consultations in Liberia

In Liberia, it was decided that the Governance Commission (GC) would lead in the development of national security strategy. The GC, which had been created by the Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement to promote good governance in the Liberian public sector, resolved to ensure a consultative approach to the development of the strategy. However, this approach was resisted by numerous representatives of government ministries, who feared that including civilians in discussions on national security would
amount to compromising that security.

The leadership provided by the GC was vital in overcoming this challenge. In particular, an effective approach was the South-South dialogue the GC supported, which brought together experts from other countries in the region to share their experiences with similar processes.

This approach proved extremely useful in alleviating fears of undertaking broad national public consultations. The consultation
process then took place across the country and involved traditional chiefs, women, civil society, local authorities, youth and local officials from the United Nations Mission in Liberia. The consultation identified local perceptions of national security threats, which included poverty, unemployment, crime, ethnic tensions and regional insecurity. These concerns were in turn reflected in the national security strategy and resulted in recognition of the need for a wider range of government ministries to support national security provision.

Source found in: Security Sector Reform: Integrated Technical Guidance Notes , United Nations SSR Task Force, 2012. p 133.

Case Study

Women's Meaningful Participation in Peacebuilding and Governance

Selected Resources

Publication: The Role of Women in Peacebuilding
in Nepal- Asian Development Bank

Video: Bringing Women into the Security Sector Reform Process in Somalia, Hanan Ibrahim, African Initiative for Women

This study on Nepal was commissioned by CARE Austria (CÖ) as a contribution to CARE’s International Report on Women, Peace and Security: Review of 1325 +10 years in Nepal, Uganda and Afghanistan, defining ‘meaningful participation by women’. The Country Study was carried out between 13th July and 30th September 2010 by Consultant Lesley Abdela, Senior Partner in UK-based Consultancy Eyecatcher/Shevolution. As well as small-group gatherings in Kathmandu and desk review of relevant documentation, meetings were held with CARE staff and partner organisations and other stakeholders, including war survivors, Donors, INGOs, NGOs, women’s network alliances/coalitions, Nepal Government Departments, LPCs, community groups, Media and UN agencies.

Case Study


UNDPKO-OROLSI Planning Toolkit

This Planning Toolkit is designed to help components prioritize their work in accordance with the “The Contribution of United Nations Peacekeeping to Early Peacebuilding: a DPKO/DFS Strategy for Peacekeepers” (2011). The Planning Toolkit aims at assisting UN Field Missions in prioritising those activities that advance the political objectives of a UN Field Mission and/or a peace process, and which may also contribute to strengthening immediate stability and security, and/or lay the foundations of institution building together with partners. By prioritising more rigorously and planning to implement those activities for which peacekeepers have a comparative advantage within the UN system, peacekeeping operations should deliver assistance in a more efficient and cost-effective manner and be able exit sooner.

To access this toolkit, please visit this website.


How to Guide - Monitoring and Evaluation for Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programmes

The How to Guide provides guidance on how to plan and manage better the M&E of DDR programmes. The guide identifies simple, practical steps for DDR programme planners to integrate M&E into DDR programme design. In addition, it offers advice for DDR programme managers and M&E staff on how to set up and run a DDR M&E system.

To view this publication, please follow this link.



Ambassador Rice Discusses Security Sector Reform in Africa

Ambassador Susan E. Rice, US Permanent Representative to the United Nations, discusses security sector reform in Africa at the United Nations in New York, NY, October 12, 2011. [Go to video.state.gov for more video and text transcript.]


Security Council focuses on reform of police, jails and military in struggling States

12 October 2011 -- The Security Council today debated the need to reform the security sector in African countries emerging from conflict, with the United Nations peacekeeping chief calling it crucial to ensuring stability, reducing poverty and promoting sustainable development. "In Liberia, for example, unresolved security sector governance and management issues in the mid-1990s contributed to the re-emergence of conflict and a dramatic 80 per cent downturn in its economy," Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations Hervé Ladsous told the 15-member body of the West African country that slipped back into bloody civil war after a 1995 peace deal.


UNMIN seeks role in security sector reform

Chief of the United Nations Mission in Nepal (UNMIN) Ian Martin has said his mission is seeking authority for its involvement in security sector reform in Nepal if the mandate and the term of the UNMIN get extended.


Promoting Justice and Security - OROLSI Promotional Film 2011

The Department of Peacekeeping Operations puts a special emphasis on promoting rule of law and security in post-conflict situations. This film describes how the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions inside of the Department works to support this work in UN missions around the world.


Sustainability versus dependency

Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen, a former strategic advisor to the UNDP, shares his experiences implementing security sector reform in South Sudan. He discusses the process and challenges of implementing SSR strategies in a newly formed state and provides advice to those going out to the demanding and delicate role of advising.

Questions asked during the interview: 

1. How can sustainability be ensured without creating dependency?

2. Have you ever been asked to do the work instead of providing support?

3. Have you ever come across cases of corruption and how do you deal with them?

4. What top tips would you give to a new advisor in charge of designing a capacity development plan?

Part 1 of this interview discusses identifying capacity and dealing with trauma.


Identifying capacity, dealing with trauma

Ferdinand von Habsburg, strategic advisor to the UNDP, shares some of his experiences as an advisor on security sector reform in South Sudan. He addresses aspects an advisor must consider when assessing existing capacity, identifying gaps, and designing a capacity development plan as well as ensuring buy-in. He touches also upon the effects that post-traumatic stress disorder can play in affecting capacity.

Questions asked during the interview:

1. What aspects would an adviser have to think about when designing a capacity development plan?

2. How can buy-in be ensured for an SSR programme?

Part 2 of the interview is looks at sustainability versus dependency.


Gender in SSR

Stephen Jackson, Chief of Staff at the UN Office in Burundi, discusses the role gender plays in SSR and considers why a gender component is not a standard part of all SSR programmes.


"Gender often falls low down the list in terms of outcomes in a security sector reform process..... it's not as if that agenda is enormously well advanced in a lot of the partners countries, let's be honest." Stephen Jackson


Women in Mine Action: Clearing landmines and explosives

United Nations - UNMAS programme staff is almost 50% female. What motivates these women? What makes this work so fulfilling? In their own voices UNMAS officers tell what they seek to achieve.


DDR Lesson 2

Lesson Two explores the post-conflict environment in which disarmament, demobilization and reintegration usually takes place, which is often characterized by insecurity and lawlessness, poor or badly functioning economies, and a lack of social services and social cohesion. Integrated DDR programmes (IDDRS) should be designed to deal with the particular characteristics and contexts of the country or region in which they are to be implemented. However, DDR is just one of several post-conflict recovery strategies. As a process that helps to promote both security and development, a DDR programme should work together with other comprehensive peace-building strategies, including socioeconomic recovery programmes, security sector reform, and programmes to re-establish and strengthen the rule of law. DDR contributes to political stability by building confidence so that parties to a conflict can reject violence and transform their political and organizational structures to meet development objectives.


Documentary on Peace and Security for Women in Timor-Leste

2010: During the recent conflicts in Timor Leste, women and girls were the victims of widespread sexual violence and abuse. This documentary describes these traumatic experiences but also the solutions provided by a local NGO, supported by the UN. As such, this piece highlights the particular vulnerability women and girls are exposed to during armed conflict. Including women and girls in peace processes remains an essential element of the sustainibility of these processes. View this documentary here


Revisiting Security Sector Reform in Liberia

As Liberians prepare for the October 2011 elections, the implications of lingering insecurity and mixed results from security sector reform initiatives weigh heavily on their minds. Have former combatants (particularly rebel groups and militias) been effectively demobilized and rehabilitated? Are Liberia?s new security forces (military and police) adequately prepared to address current and emerging threats?


Table ronde sur la restauration de l'autorité de l'Etat en RCA

Cette table ronde fut l’occasion de présenter à la communauté internationale plusieurs projets et réalisations.

Il s’agissait notamment de mettre en avant les deux plans sectoriels de la défense et de la sécurité intérieure et les progrès tangibles réalisés dans ces réformes ; des avancées de la planification pour le déploiement des Forces de Défense et de Sécurité (FDS) qui découlent de la mise en œuvre de ces deux plans sectoriels ; L’évaluation des ressources existantes et des besoins immédiats et futurs pour les opérations planifiées à court et moyen termes ; des mesures à prendre pour renforcer le partenariat avec la communauté internationale sur la base du postulat de la responsabilité partagée, de la transparence et des principes de redevabilité; et enfin, de la confirmation des engagements déjà pris et des nouveaux à prendre par les partenaires techniques et financiers (PTF) pour soutenir l’effort de l’État centrafricain dans son action.


Les Milobs font appel aux nouvelles technologies pour la collecte de renseignements (MINUSCA, CAR)

La protection des civils est l’un des principaux mandats de la MINUSCA au quotidien. Les observateurs militaires (MILOB) jouent un rôle essentiel dans la mise en oeuvre de ce mandat à travers leur programme de sensibilisation et leur engagement avec les communautés locales ainsi que les parties. Les Milobs font appel aux technologies les plus récentes dans le cadre de la collecte de renseignements et d’informations.


Niger tells Assembly UN alone can solve its problems

From the podium of the General Assembly, Niger – victim of the quadruple scourge of climate change, migration, poverty and terrorism – gave a ringing endorsement of the United Nations on Saturday as the “irreplaceable” Organization capable of resolving these and a host of other problems.


La Cour pénale spéciale lance sa stratégie d’enquête

La Cour pénale spéciale a présenté sa « Stratégie d’enquête, de poursuite et d’instruction » lors d’une conférence de presse le 4 décembre à Bangui. Cette stratégie fourni un cadre pour aider le Parquet spécial dans le choix des enquêtes et des poursuites à mener.


UN Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)

In 2003, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1509, establishing the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL). The Security Council has extended the peacekeeping mission through September 30, 2011. UNMIL disarms and reintegrates ex-combatants, reforms the security sector as well as improves the status of women. 



Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): de l’Union Africaine et de l’ONU, les enjeux majeurs et les tendances émergentes (Atelier 1: 02-10-14)

Modérateur: Général Lamine Cissé, ancien Chef d’état-major Général des Armées et ancien Ministre de l’intérieur du Sénégal, ancien Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies et chef du Bureau des Nations Unies en République Centrafricaine (BONUCA), et ancien Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest, Bureau des Nations Unies en Afrique de l’Ouest (UNOWA)


M. Dmitry Titov,Sous-Secrétaire général de l’ONU à l’état de droit et aux institutions chargées de la sécurité, Département des opérations de maintien de la paix.

Dr. Tarek A. Sharif, Chef de division défense et sécurité du Département paix et  sécurité, Union Africaine

M. Gabriel Negatu, Directeur régional du Centre de ressources pour l'Afrique de l'Est, Banque africaine de développement (BAD)


Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): La RSS au Burundi: Leçons, défis et perspectives (Atelier 3: 02-10-12)

Modérateur: M. Stephen Jackson, Chef de Cabinet du Bureau des Nations Unies au Burundi (BNUB

Général Major Silas Ntigurirwa, Secrétaire Permanent, Ministère de la Défense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants
M. Maurice Mbonimpa, Secrétaire Permanent, Ministère de la Sécurité Publique
M. Charles Ndayiziga, Directeur, Centre d’Alerte de Prévention des Conflits (CENAP)


Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): La RSS en Somalie: Leçons, défis et perspectives (Atelier 4: 02-10-12)

Modérateur: Monsieur l’Ambassadeur Augustine Mahiga, Représentant Spécial du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies pour la Somalie et Chef du Bureau Politique des Nations Unies en Somalie (UNPOS)

Colonel Mohammed Jama, Conseiller Militaire Stratégique du Chef d’état-major de la Somalie
M. Hussein Arab Isse, ancien Vice-Premier ministre et Ministre de la défense, membre du Gouvernement Fédéral de la Somalie
Mme. Hanan Ibrahim, Directrice de ‘African Initiative for African Women’
Brigadier Général Abdihakim Dahir Sa’id, Chef de la police adjoint, Somalie


Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): Conclusions (Atelier 8: 03-10-12)

Modérateur: Dr. Michal Mlynár, Ambassadeur de Slovaquie à Nairobi et Président du Comité de direction de l'ISSAT


Madame l'Ambassadrice Sahle-Work Zewde, Directrice Générale de l'Office des Nations Unies à Nairobi (ONUN)
Madame l’Ambassadrice Nancy Kirui, CBS, Secrétaire Permanent, Ministère d’Etat de la défense, Kenya


Session du Groupe de haut niveau sur la SSR (Afrique de l'Est): La RSS en Soudan du Sud: Leçons, défis et perspectives (Atelier 2: 02-10-14)

Modérateur: Mme. Hilde Johnson, Représentante Spéciale du Secrétaire Général des Nations Unies pour le Soudan du Sud et Chef de la Mission des Nations Unies au Soudan du Sud (MINUSS)


Général Oyay Deng Ajak, Ministre de la Sécurité nationale, Soudan du Sud

M. Edmund Yakani, Coordinateur, Community Empowerment for Progress Organisation (CEPO),  Soudan du Sud

Lieutenant Général (Ret) Gebretsadkan Gebretensae, Directeur exécutif, Centre for Policy Research and Dialogue (CPRD)


ICTJ Forum September 2012: Analysis of World Events From a Transitional Justice Perspective

In the first ICTJ Forum, transitional justice experts discuss the upcoming peace negotiations between the Colombian government and leftist FARC rebels, the UN Security Council debate on accountability for crimes against children, the proposed ordinance on a Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Nepal, and the first report to the UN Human Rights Council by the recently appointed Special Rapporteur on transitional justice.


In West Africa and the Sahel, signs of democratic progress amid continued ‘devastating’ violence

There have been “positive developments” when it comes to democratization across the vast West Africa and Sahel region, but that has been “competing with the volatile security situation” particularly around areas where terrorist groups are active such as the Lake Chad Basin, the head of the UN Office for the region (UNOWAS) told the Security Council.

To listen to the podcast, In West Africa and the Sahel, signs of democratic progress amid continued ‘devastating’ violence, please follow the link.


Policy and Research Papers

Ammunition Stockpile Management in Africa: Challenges and scope for action

The improper management of conventional ammunition and explosives poses significant safety and security risks. Frequent ammunition depot explosions and diversions from ammunition stocks of state actors testify to the relevance of the issue to Africa. Overcoming challenges to effective national ammunition management can be a formidable task in itself. This paper considers the challenges to and scope for action on ammunition management in Africa. It is argued that concerted efforts by African states and their international partners will be essential to effectively limiting risks of undesirable explosive events and ammunition diversions on the continent.


Regulating Arms Brokering: Taking Stock and Moving Forward the United Nations Process

The problem of lacking or inconsistent regulations on arms brokering is painstakingly clear. Arms brokers are central in many illicit arms transfers, including transfers to conflict regions, embargoed actors, and serious human rights abusers. In the United Nations Programme of Action on SALW (UN PoA) of 2001, States specifically committed to develop adequate national legislation and common understandings on arms brokering. This report reviews progress made around the control of brokering.

It shows that a growing number of states have established legislation on arms brokering, or will do so. Comparing domestic norms and multilateral standards reveals that there is a large degree of convergence on key regulatory principles and measures, a good foundation for developing global minimal standards on brokering controls. The UNGA in October/November 2005 provides an opportunity for strengthening the international commitment to enhancing cooperation in combating illicit SALW brokering. Further efforts in this regard remain crucial, in particular in order to eliminate the loopholes and inconsistencies which allow brokering activities to take place with relative ease and impunity.

It is therefore urgent that the UN establish, at a minimum, a Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Brokering, mandated to consider the feasibility of an international instrument and to identify the elements required for effective national brokering controls. The mandate should also consider controls on transportation and financial services related to arms brokering. Complementary standards on SALW control should also be developed in conformity with commitments undertaken with the UN PoA, including the development of minimal standards on end-user certificates and of adequate licensing to decide on arms exports and brokering activities.


Making the Law Work for Everyone

When the law works for everyone, it defines and enforces the rights and obligations of all. This allows people to interact with one another in an atmosphere that is certain and predictable. Thus, the rule of law is not a mere adornment to development; it is a vital source of progress. It creates an environment in which the full spectrum of human creativity can flourish, and prosperity can be built. The Commission understands legal empowerment to be a process of systemic change through which the poor and excluded become able to use the law, the legal system, and legal services to protect and advance their rights and interests as citizens and economic actors.


Making the Law Work for Everyone

This is the second of two volumes of the report of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor and consists mainly of the outcomes of fi ve working groups established to inform the Commission’s deliberations through substantive work in the thematic areas of Access to Justice and Rule of Law, Property Rights, Labour Rights,
Business Rights and with respect to overall implementation strategies. The working groups consisted of a core of between fi ve and seven experts and stakeholders in their
individual capacities from around the world, with leading edge expertise and experience in the theme to be studied.


New Voices: National Perspectives on Rule of Law Assistance

It is now widely recognized that the advancement of the rule of law is essential to the maintenance of peace and security, the realization of sustainable development, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms. Rule of law assistance is a growing area of demand and significant experience has been accumulated in this field over the past 20 years. Yet, despite the centrality of the rule of law to our challenging global agenda, rule of law assistance is still too often executed in an ad hoc manner, designed without proper consultations with national stakeholders, and absent exacting standards of evaluation. A new perspective on rule of law assistance delivery is clearly needed.

The United Nations hosted a consultative process in New York resulting in this report, entitled New Voices: National Perspectives on Rule of Law Assistance. Sixteen national rule of law experts engaged in rule of law reform in 13 countries and regions, joined representatives from the United Nations system and partner countries to offer their respective views on how rule of law assistance can be better channeled to deliver results. The overall aim is to enhance dialogue between rule of law assistance providers and rule of law reformers in countries with a view to placing national perspectives at the centre of rule of law assistance.

This report outlines the following set of recommendations, corresponding to four major common conclusions which emerged from the consultative process. The national experts widely agreed that rule of law assistance is enhanced where: 1) national actors experience greater ownership over rule of law programmes; 2) local stakeholders are empowered; 3) assistance is coordinated and coherent; and 4) meaningful evaluations and assessment of impact are conducted. These common conclusions are based on the personal views and experiences of the national experts with rule of law assistance as articulated in the Voices section of this report.

It is hoped that the common conclusions and recommendations formulated by this informal forum of experts will serve as an important turning point towards a more effective approach to rule of law assistance. A clear call emerged for national rule of law policy-makers and experts and donor partners to come together to develop an internationally-recognized framework guiding rule of law assistance.


African Perspectives on Security Sector Reform, High-level Forum Report, New York, 14 May 2010

On 14 May 2010, the Permanent Missions of Nigeria and South Africa to the United Nations, with facilitation support from the United Nations SSR Unit, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, and with generous financial contribution from the Permanent Mission of the Netherlands to the United Nations, co-hosted the High-level Forum on African Perspectives on SSR. The event brought together approximately 80 high-level participants from 55 Permanent Missions and 11 United Nations entities.

The High-Level Forum highlighted emerging trends and developments in the field of SSR, including its place within broader institutional reform, the role of intra-African SSR support, outsourcing and the role of private commercial security actors in supporting SSR and the significance of the African Union’s SSR Policy as an integral part the African Peace and Security Framework (APSA). 

The co-chairs’ statement, which is included herein, underscored that these developments are “significant for the success and sustainability of such reform processes moving forward but which, so far, have not featured adequately in the SSR policy agenda”. 

The High-Level Forum and co-chairs statement were informed by findings from the Experts-level Seminar on African Perspectives on SSR, which was held the previous day on 13 May. This event brought together representatives from 15 African Permanent Missions, the African Union SSR advisor and high-ranking officials from the Burundian National Defense Forces and the Embassy of the Netherlands in Bujumbura. The discussions, focused on three main themes: 1) national ownership; 2) coordination of SSR assistance; and 3) the regional dimensions of SSR. The discussions highlighted the following issues: 

On national ownership of SSR:  

  • “National ownership” is a contested concept that requires careful unpacking.
  • It consists above all of the ability of national actors to exercise political leadership of the process, including through the commitment of national resources to the process.

 On coordination of SSR assistance:  

  • Coordination and national ownership are intimately linked. Coordination should be the primary responsibility of the national authorities and is in itself a manifestation of ownership.
  • National authorities and donors often have different priorities. This underscores the need for national authorities to commit their own resources in order to make decisions independently. 

On the regional dimensions of SSR: 

  • There is a need to use regional mechanisms to encourage and support countries to undertake sustainable SSR. The African Peer Review Mechanism may be useful in this regard because it is African-led and provides considerable scope through which to consider SSR.
  • It is critical to recognize the challenges and limitations to regional approaches given that many neighbouring countries are in conflict or have a history of conflict, which underscores the importance of engagement at the international level. To provide the required support, the United Nations needs to speak with a coherent voice.

Handbook on police accountability, oversight and integrity

The present UNODC Handbook is one of the practical tools developed by UNODC to support  countries in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal  justice reform. It aims to assist countries in their efforts to develop effective systems of  oversight and accountability within their law enforcement authorities and enhance  police integrity, and it addresses issues including:

  • " Enhancement of police integrity and the integrity of policing
  • Dealing with complaints about policing (receipt, investigation and follow-up)
  • " Setting policing priorities and encouraging policy input, including from outside the police
  • " “Inviting” external review, including from independent actor

Statement by the President of the Security Council

At the 6630th meeting of the Security Council, held on 12 October 2011, in connection with the Council’s consideration of the item entitled “Maintenance of international peace and security”, the President of the Security Council released a statement on behalf of the Council in regards to SSR.


Mapping Study on Gender and Security Sector Reform Actors and Activities in Liberia

DCAF conducted a mapping study on Gender and Security Sector Reform Actors and Activities in Liberia from November 2010 to March 2011. The mapping study was undertaken by an independent consultant, Mr Cecil Griffiths from the Liberian National Law Enforcement Association (LINLEA). This research was made possible thanks to the cooperation of most gender and SSR actors in Liberia including the Ministry of Gender and Development (MoGD), the Ministry of Justice (MoJ), the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women), the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and the Civil Society Organization Working Group on Security Sector Reform.

This project aimed to complement existing information on gender and SSR issues in Liberia and to reinforce information-sharing and coordination between actors.

On 31 March 2011, LINLEA and DCAF organised a workshop in Monrovia to complete and validate the findings of the study. In addition to validating the findings of the study, the participants made key recommendations related to gender and training, policy development, programmes and activities. The report was launched in Monrovia on 23 September 2011.


Linkages between Justice-Sensitive Security Sector Reform and Displacement: Examples of Police and Justice Reform from Liberia and Kosovo

This ICTJ paper explores the linkages between SSR and displacement. It looks at examples drawn primarily from two post-conflict areas undergoing SSR—Liberia and Kosovo—to understand previous experiences with these linkages. It focuses on: first, ways in which SSR initiatives either incorporated or failed to incorporate justice-sensitive approaches to durable solutions with regards to displacement; and second, whether and how these linkages enhanced or impeded the implementation of durable solutions and SSR initiatives. The focus is on rule of law reform, especially with regard to police and justice systems, set in the wider context of SSR strategies and initiatives. Police and justice reform are directly connected to durable solutions because: first, effective rule of law is essential for a secure environment, and therefore a necessary precondition for the return, resettlement/repatriation, and local integration of displaced populations; and second, they are the most visible public security institutions for local populations, and are therefore critical for demonstrating integrity and building legitimacy with displaced populations. 

Follow this link to view the publication on the ICTJ website.


Flux Commerciaux et Contrôles des Transferts de Munitions Pour Armes Légères en Afrique

Le développement de contrôles spécifiques dans le cadre de la lutte contre le commerce illégal de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre a suscité un grand intérêt parmi les Etats, comme en témoignent les récents débats menés sur cette matière à l'échelon international. Le présent article comprend des informations contextuelles sur le commerce de munitions et sur les normes de contrôle existantes en Afrique, une des régions les plus touchées par la prolifération et l'utilisation illégale d'armes légères et de petit calibre et de leurs munitions.

Le chapitre qui suit étudie la problématique générale des contrôles de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre. Il est suivi par un aperçu des sources et transferts officiels autorisés de munitions pour armes de petit calibre à destination et en provenance de l'Afrique, ainsi qu'à l'intérieur de l’Afrique.

Les chapitres suivants sont dédiés aux normes de contrôle multilatérales valables qui existent en Afrique et décrivent les défis que l’Afrique devra encore relever pour instaurer des contrôles fiables des munitions. D'aucuns avancent qu'il existe de bonnes bases pour le développement de contrôles adéquats en Afrique. Pourtant, des efforts supplémentaires seront indispensables pour lutter efficacement contre les conséquences désastreuses de la prolifération et de l'utilisation illégale de munitions pour armes légères et de petit calibre ...


Contrôles des Stocks de Munitions: Des Avancées à l’Echelle Mondiale

Le contrôle des munitions est une question qui a été longtemps négligée dans les forums internationaux. Toutefois certains progrès ont récemment été accomplis au sein des Nations unies. En juillet 2008, un Groupe d'experts gouvernementaux de l'ONU a rendu compte des problèmes résultant des stocks de munitions excédentaires. Les recommandations du Groupe en faveur d’un élargissement de l’action aux niveaux national, régional, et global ont été approuvées par l'Assemblée générale de l'ONU dans le cadre d’une résolution passée en décembre 2008. Les mesures prises à l'ONU sont susceptibles d'apporter une contribution pratique importante à l’élaboration de meilleurs contrôles des stocks de munitions.


UN Peace Keeping Operations and Rule of Law Assistance in Africa 1989-2010: Data, Patterns and Questions for the Future

This Report provides new systematic data on two decades of UN rule of law assistance in Africa, covering a total of 36 UN peace operations (peacekeeping, political missions and offices). Seven areas of rule of law assistance are examined, including: (1) judicial reform, (2) constitutional reform, (3) law reform, (4) rule of law in public administration reform, (5) legal awareness and access to justice reform, (6) law enforcement reform, and (7) reforms of detentions, and prisons. The attached document presents the executive summary of the report.

To read the research report, click here.


Second Generation Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) Practices in Peace Operations

The report is primarily based on four field studies (Afghanistan, Côte d’Ivoire, Haiti and Liberia) but also draws from experiences of other DDR settings based on a desk review and interviews with partners. The term “Second Generation DDR” is used to describe the set of evolving practices documented in the report. Scholar-practitioners and security oriented thinktanks are beginning to use Second Generation DDR and “Interim stabilization” to describe wider security promotion efforts. From the outset, however, it must be underscored that many of the ideas and practices highlighted in the report are not new, and have been implemented, albeit in a fragmented manner, by national Governments and UN agencies. Whereas traditional DDR focuses mainly on combatants that are present within military structures, the focus of Second Generation programmes shifts away from military structures towards the larger communities that are affected by armed violence.

The set of Second Generation DDR practices outlined in this report is a reflection of the broader change in UN peacekeeping. Among the paradigm shifts is the fact that the success of a peacekeeping operation cannot be guaranteed by top-down implementation of a Security Council mandate. Peacekeepers today require more sophisticated skills and tools to negotiate the local dynamics on the ground, which may not reflect the higher level agreement reached between national actors. It is also critical to ensure that programmes are linked to broader peacebuilding/early recovery strategic frameworks, exit strategies of missions, and the development frameworks of UN Country Teams and Governments.

For full report, click here


Report of the Secretary-General on the role of United Nations Peacekeeping in Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (S/2000/101)

The Secretary General's report to the United Nations Security Council relating to the United Nation's role in Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR), with special attention being paid to the problems of disarmament and demobilisation of child soldiers and their reintegration into society. The report cites the precise definition of the term "DDR", and details a discussion on demobilisation and reintegration, and the best ways of approaching the issues.

For full report, click here.


United Nations General Assembly Resolutions on the Rule of Law at the National and International Levels (A/RES/61/39, A/RES/62/70, A/RES/63/128)

Between 2006 and 2008, the General Assembly adopted three resolutions on rule of law, which is at the heart of United Nations' mission. To access the full text of these resolutions, click on the following links.

A/RES/61/39 - 18 December 2006

A/RES/62/70 - 8 January 2008

A/RES/63/128 - 29 January 2008


Socio-Economic Reintegration of Ex-Combatants: Guidelines

The objective of the Guidelines is to provide practitioners on Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants with strategic guidance and operational direction in preparing, implementing and supporting sustainable employment-focused reintegration programmes for social reintegration and reconciliation.These guidelines are based on ILO's experience in this field in various countries. In addition, they complement and operationalise in the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Standard (IDDRS), the Stockholm Initiative on DDR (SIDDR) and the UN Policy for Post-Conflict Employment Creation, Income-generation and Reintegration.

To access the full text, click here.


Transitional Justice and Displacement

Transitional justice is often pursued in contexts where people have been forced from their homes and communities by human rights violations and have suffered additional abuses while displaced. Yet little attention has been paid to how transitional justice measures can be used to address the wide range of injustices associated with displacement and thereby serve as part of a comprehensive approach to the resolution of displacement. This report provides an overview of the relationship between transitional justice and displacement and offers specific guidance to policymakers and practitioners in the numerous fields that share a concern with displacement, including transitional justice, humanitarianism, peacebuilding, and development. Displaced persons often have a critical stake in transitional justice processes, which have the potential to contribute positively to efforts to uphold their rights and well-being. When displacement is linked to large-scale human rights violations, the concerns of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) should be incorporated in appropriate ways into transitional justice efforts. At the same time, responses to the problem of displacement should integrate transitional justice measures.


Willing and Able? Challenges to Security Sector Reform in Weak Post-war States – Insights from the Central African Republic

Security sector reform (SSR) is an integral part of the international community’s efforts to build peace and enhance security in weak post-war states. It has, however, proven difficult to undertake SSR in such contexts. A number of factors constitute a challenge to create security forces that are able to provide security to the population.

Based on previous research, this report highlights some of the challenges to SSR in weak post-war states. Through an analysis of the SSR process in the Central African Republic, this study shows that informal power structures, a volatile security situation and failure to understand how SSR is influenced by other political processes, negatively impact on the prospect for successful  implementation of reforms. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that weak capacity and lack of political will on behalf of the national government, is a challenge to local ownership and sustainable reforms. Despite a holistic approach to reforms aiming to improve both the capacity of the security forces and to increase democratic control of the security institutions, insufficient international engagement, scarce resources, lack of strategic direction and inadequate donor coordination have limited the prospect for implementation of reforms.


Thematic Programme - Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Reform 2012-2015

This Thematic Programme (TP) provides the global framework for UNODC’s work in crime prevention and criminal justice reform for the period 2012-2015. As such, the TP will ensure consistency in the UNODC approach to issues in this area, based on the
UNODC Strategic Framework for the period 2012-2013 and the UNODC Strategy 2012-2015 and in line with the relevant UN Conventions and standards and norms on crime prevention and criminal justice reform. The TP outlines the focus areas of UNODC in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice and gives an overview of outcomes to reach agreed objectives, as well as a specific set of indicators. Providing a global framework, the TP integrates the various components of the Office’s mandates and expertise in the areas of advocacy, research, setting norms and providing technical assistance. As such, it reflects the UN Secretary General’s programme of action for the strengthening of the rule of law at the national and international level, as presented to the General Assembly early 2012.

Moreover, for the implementation of this TP, particular attention will be paid to the practical recommendations offered by the World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development, on how to move beyond conflict and fragility and secure development.

Follow this link to view the publication.


Report of the Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia, Shamsul Bari

The unending saga of human rights deprivations in Somalia over the past two decades have now been compounded by another humanitarian crisis. The devastating drought currently ravaging the Horn of Africa, compounded by conflict and the denial of
humanitarian assistance, has resulted in a declaration of famine in two regions of South-Central Somalia. Already in the course of the independent expert’s sixth visit to Somalia, in February 2011, the drought had taken a heavy toll on livestock and food reserves. The full impact of the drought can be seen on the Somali population, a large number of whom have been forced to flee their homes in search of food and succour. Deaths caused by malnutrition have been documented among new arrivals in refugee camps in Kenya and Ethiopia and into Mogadishu. The United Nations has already warned that, unless urgent measures are taken to increase the response, the famine will spread to the whole of southern Somalia within the next two months. This should not be allowed to happen and become another blot on the conscience of mankind.

Apart from the drought and famine, the armed conflicts between Islamist insurgents and the Transitional Federal Government, supported by the troops of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), continues to cause deaths and injury to the civilian
population. Indiscriminate shelling and firing in urban areas, and suicide and improvised explosive attacks by the insurgent group Al-Shabaab, are the main causes.

Recent offensive has resulted in territorial gains for AMISOM and Transitional Federal Government forces. On 6 August 2011, Al-Shabaab announced its withdrawal from positions it had held in Mogadishu for nearly two years. Although Al-Shabaab has been
under military pressure in Mogadishu from the combined operations of AMISOM and Transitional Federal Government forces forsome time, its sudden withdrawal came as a surprise.

To view this publication, follow this link.


Civilian Peacekeeping Capacity: Mobilizing Partners to Match Supply and Demand

The timely deployment of suitably qualified civilian personnel is a challenge that none of the organizations that deploy peacekeepers has yet addressed. This challenge has floundered on the periphery of the peacekeeping debate for many years, but a 2010–11 UN civilian capacity review provides a unique opportunity to focus attention on the problem. This article proposes the formation of a global civilian capacity partnership that brings together the training and roster community, the UN Secretariat and a grouping of interested states, with the aim of significantly improving the UN Secretariat’s ability to identify, recruit and deploy suitably qualified civilian personnel in a reasonable time, and without adverse side effects for the local community or the mission mandate.


Advancing the Rule of Law Agenda at the 67th General Assembly

Since 2004, the rule of law has gained solid attention in the UN community. This year, on September 24th, there is an opportunity to mark a milestone in enhancing its role in the global effort to rebuild societies after conflict, support transitions
and economic growth, and strengthen state institutions. For the first time, the United Nations General Assembly will devote its opening high-level event to the topic.

Over the course of the last twenty years, attention around the rule of law has increased in many different contexts and fora. While its precise definition remains elusive, a sizable “industry” on the rule of law has developed, with its agencies, programs, and scholars. Different views on the precise notion and scope of the rule of law, however, are emerging as we approach the high-level event, making the attempt to adopt a consensual political declaration a painful exercise. A breakthrough is still possible, if additional political e ort is made in the final steps.

To view this publication, please follow this link


The United Nations SSR Perspective

The Security Sector Reform (SSR) Unit of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI), Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO), has presented its first United Nations Security Sector Reform Perspective. This publication introduces, explains and discusses the role and contribution of SSR in multidimensional peacekeeping and broader peacebuilding efforts. The publication highlights achievements and challenges in supporting national SSR efforts, presents the many important partnerships in this area and describes what SSR means for its beneficiaries and contributors.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Reviewing the Justice and Security Hub Modality as Piloted in Liberia

‘The Republic of Bangui’ or ‘the Republic of Monrovia’ are phrases we sometimes hear from practitioners to describe post conflict countries where very few services exist outside the capital city. This is especially the case for security – the critical public good in post conflict countries. In response to the need to bring security services closer to the citizens who often need them most, the Government of Liberia and the United Nations are piloting a new approach financed by the UN Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) – the so-called ‘Justice and Security Hubs’. The donor community and the United Nations are watching closely. If this works, there is indication from UN officials that the model could potentially be replicated in other settings such as the East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Haiti and the northern states of South Sudan. If the hub concept is capable of being adapted and successful elsewhere, the United Nations will not only have added a new instrument to its peacekeeping toolkit but will also firmly demonstrate how the UN Peacebuilding Fund can in essence be catalytic in fostering long-term and comprehensive approaches to peacebuilding. This practice note outlines the process of developing and constructing the first hub in Liberia, which is due to be partly operational by the end of 2012, and provides a prognosis on its chances for success.


Criminal Justice and Rule of Law Capacity Building to Counter Terrorism in Fragile Institutional Contexts: Lessons From Development Cooperation

Rule of law–based criminal justice responses to terrorism are most effectively ensured when they are practiced within a criminal justice system capable of handling ordinary criminal offenses while protecting the rights of the accused and when all are equally accountable under the law. Building the capacity of weak criminal justice systems to safeguard mutual rights and responsibilities of governments and their citizens is essential for the alleviation of a number of conditions conducive to violent extremism and the spread of terrorism. A new wave of multilateral counterterrorism initiatives has the opportunity to recalibrate how criminal justice and rule of law–oriented counterterrorism capacity-building assistance is delivered to developing states with weak institutions.

This policy brief argues that aligning counterterrorism capacity-building agendas within a framework informed by the Paris Principles and the development cooperation experience could greatly enhance the effectiveness and sustainability of criminal justice and rule of law capacity-building assistance in general and in preventing terrorism specifically.


Bridging the Gap: The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission and the Challenges of Integrating DDR and Transitional Justice

While peacebuilding is a long-term and complex endeavor, a cacophony of actors and agendas, together with a persistent tendency to focus on short-term needs at the expense of long-term priorities, stymie efforts to build lasting peace. Complex problems call for innovative and integrated interventions. The staples of post-conflict peacebuilding — including, disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR), security sector reform (SSR), rule of law initiatives, and transitional justice mechanisms ranging from prosecutions to truth commissions — are meant to serve overlapping constituencies and common purposes. In practice, however, such initiatives have often operated on separate tracks, leading to redundancy, avoidable tensions, and lost opportunities. This article focuses on the special challenges that arise out of the need to develop more integrated approaches to DDR and transitional justice and argues that the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) must play a stronger role in bringing together this and other pieces of the post-conflict puzzle. Even though the possibility of tension between transitional justice mechanisms and DDR programs cannot be eliminated, careful attention to areas of overlap should be part of innovative and integrated approaches to post-conflict peacebuilding going forward in order to advance common goals. The gains of such an approach would be modest, but worthwhile.

To view this article, please follow this link.


Training in Vain? Bottlenecks in Deploying Civilians for UN Peacekeeping

UN peacekeeping missions suffer from cumbersome recruitment processes, high vacancy rates and a shortage of civilian staff. This article explores the bottlenecks hampering the recruitment and deployment of trained personnel, especially civilians. Paradoxically, an increased number of trained personnel has not translated into higher deployment rates. Individual factors and structural bottlenecks together accounted for half of the nondeployments. Of the latter, the informal nature of the UN’s recruitment system and the central role played by personal contacts stands out. The article makes the case for an improved link between the recruitment architecture of the UN and its training programmes, and a significant overhaul of the UN recruitment architecture per se. Unless the UN and international training programmes address this paradox, the risk of training in vain will remain.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections Components in UN Peace Operations

Over the last decade or so, the UN Security Council gave complex UN peace operations broader mandates in police development, followed by mandates to help restore criminal justice systems and eventually for advisory support to national prison systems. The UN's rule of law community recognizes that an emphasis on quality of people and plans, what the UN calls a "capability-based approach," has to replace a quantity-based approach to meeting the requirements of such mandates.

The Stimson Center's Future of Peace Operations Program responded to a request from the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) in DPKO, coordinating with its Police Division and Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Service (CLJAS), to study the effects, or more specifically, the impact that police, justice and corrections components in UN peace operations have on the areas in which they work.

The study was set up to search for "minimum essential tasks" - those that 1) always seem needed in comparable ways across missions; and 2) seem to consistently have the desired effects on the host country's approach to police, justice and corrections. It found that while certain tasks may always be needed, their implementation is often dependent on characteristics of a mission's operational environment over which the mission cannot exert direct control. Missions face perhaps irresolvable dilemmas in being asked to deploy quickly into places where politics can prevent the quick actions that peacebuilding precepts dictate, or with resources inadequate to substitute for capacities that government lacks. That is, they often have resources sufficient to offer some security and stability but not sufficient for very much else. The study identifies areas where the imprints left by the police, justice and corrections components of UN missions are larger than those of other players and offers recommendations for those components.

To view this article, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Liberia - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Côte d'Ivoire - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in the Republic of Chad - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view this publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view this publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Sierra Leone - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Haïti - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in South Sudan - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Timor Leste - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


Post-Conflict Borders and UN Peace Operations

This border security study from the Future of Peace Operations (FOPO) program is in two parts. For part one, author Kathleen A. Walsh surveyed more than 100 international border assistance and training programs. Her report, Border Security, Trade Controls, and UN Peace Operations (2007), found both a great deal of overlap and lack of coordination among these programs that, if remedied, could make them much more cost-effective. The second part of the study, A Phased Approach to Post-Conflict Border Security (2007), by Katherine N. Andrews, Brandon L. Hunt, and William J. Durch, lays out the requirements for coordinated international support to border security in post-conflict states that host international peace operations.

The borders database, a comprehensive matrix of border security assistance programs, was updated in March 2010, by Jessica L. Anderson with Alix J. Boucher and Hilary A. Hamlin

This report is one of five FOPO studies on essential aspects of improving rule of law in post-conflict states. Other studies focus on the creation of a standing UN police capacityfighting corruption in war-torn states, increasing accountability for non-military personnel in peace operations, and using UN Panels of Experts more effectively to combat spoilers and monitor targeted sanctions.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations SSR Newsletter - October-December 2012

The SSR Newsletter provides an update on recent activities of the SSR Unit, gives an overview of upcoming initiatives and shares relevant information and announcements with the greater SSR community.

In this issue:

  • Launch of UN SSR Integrated Technical Guidance Notes 
  • High-Level Meeting of the Group of Friends of SSR 
  • High-Level Forum on Defence Sector Reform 
  • Spotlight on a Mission: UNMIT 
  • Answering the Call for SSR Assistance to Mali 
  • Roundtable on SSR in Peacebuilding 
  • Addressing the Inter-Linkages between SSR and the Protection of Civilians 
  • The UN Security and Justice Sectors Fact Sheet 
  • Coming Soon... 
  • About the SSR Newsletter

From Timor-Leste to Darfur: New Initiatives for enhancing UN Civilian Policing Capacity

As peacekeepers have deployed at unprecedented levels worldwide, the demand for police to serve in such missions has swelled.The United Nations (UN), for example, has increased the use of police from two percent of its peacekeeping forces in 1995 to more than twelve percent today. The mandates for UN missions have also expanded dramatically, with greater attention devoted to police and rule of law activities. This trend reflects a recognition of the need to establish public security, combat lawlessness, and support the rule of law and governance in post-conflict societies.

Over 40 percent of the police deployed in UN missions today are in Africa, with officers working to support and build more effective and accountable rule of law institutions in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, and Liberia. African countries are also substantial contributors of police to UN missions, with more than a quarter of those deployed coming from the continent.

This Issue Brief explores the current demand for UN police, looks at recent and ongoing reforms undertaken at the United Nations and in the field, and considers additional ways to address shortcomings in the use of police and rule of law teams in peace operations.

This Issue Brief is one of six produced as part of Stimson’s workshop series, A Better Partnership for African Peace Operations, made possible by a generous grant from the United States Institute of Peace. The series examined progress, challenges, and potential steps forward in expanding national, regional, and international capacity to lead and participate in peace operations in Africa. The six issue briefs produced in conjunction with this project provide background and analytical context for the insights gained through the Better Partnership workshops. Each brief also highlights workshop findings and identifies recommendations for the US, UN, regional organizations, and policymakers.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


United Nations Police Evolution: Present Capacity and Future Tasks

United Nations policing in the context of peace operations evolved rapidly during the 1990s after three decades of serving as a minor adjunct to the principal, military, purposes of UN peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, UN policing became a recognized component of operations, but lacked doctrine, administrative structure, quality assurance in recruitment or adequate training. Each is being addressed with some urgency at present, as UN police deployments head toward 15,000 officers. Although Headquarters police support capacity has grown, the United Nations still has proportionately far fewer people at Headquarters supporting deployed personnel than do developed states, such as Australia, that deploy international police contingents. The objectives of UN police operations meanwhile remain a matter of debate: to stabilize post-conflict public security while others rebuild local police capacity or to engage actively in capacity-building and associated institutional reform.

UN police support programs need to partner with development institutions that can offer the budget support for local infrastructure, equipment, and salaries that UN peacekeeping budgets cannot fund. UN programs also may need to take more account of extensive “informal” justice and security institutions in many of the post-conflict states where they work.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


A Giant with Feet of Clay? The EU’s Ability to Develop Capabilities for Civilian Crisis Management

Civilian crisis management has long been considered the EU’s forte. Recent research however has questioned the EU’s claim to this specialization. I will interrogate how the EU has fared in building civilian capabilities for CSDP through a case study of the impact of the Europeanization of CCM norms in one of the newer EU member states - Poland. I investigate the domestic reverberations of an EU-level CCM governance – conceptualized as a vertical diffusion of norms - and a horizontal diffusion in the realms of policy setting, institutional adaptation, as well as in recruitment and training. I hypothesize that the European cognitive constructions and policy designs are the more likely to impact upon Polish security policy the more they resonate with the ideas embedded in the national security identity.

Another intervening variable affecting the ‘translation’ of EU policy into the domestic context is state capacity. Due to weaknesses
in the supply side of CCM and the refracting impact of national security identity and state capacity, I find that Europeanization has had a limited impact on the civilian response capability-building in Poland. Europeanization has been shallow, featuring adjustments
on the margins rather than the core of the security policy.


The Role of the UNPBF in the Postwar Recovery of Fragile States

Peacebuilding is an experimental field and the impact of international measure implemented in war-torn contexts is often difficult to assess. This article provides a QCA analysis of the impact of five key-dimensions of the UNPBF in African states, aiming to investigate whether the path to stability can consist of single independent measures or if it is the result of their combined effect.



These Principles were developed in order to provide guidance to those engaged in drafting, revising, or implementing laws or provisions relating to the state’s authority to withhold information on national security grounds or to punish the disclosure of such information.

They are based on international (including regional) and national law, standards, good practices, and the writings of experts.
They address national security—rather than all grounds for withholding information. All other public grounds for restricting access should at least meet these standards.

These Principles were drafted by 22 organizations and academic centres (listed in the Annex) in consultation with more than 500 experts from more than 70 countries at 14 meetings held around the world, facilitated by the Open Society Justice Initiative, and in consultation with the four special rapporteurs on freedom of expression and/or media freedom and the special rapporteur on counter-terrorism and human rights:

 the United Nations (UN) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression,
 the UN Special Rapporteur on Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights,
 the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression and Access to Information,
 the Organization of American States (OAS) Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, and
 the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Representative on Freedom of the Media.


Corruption & Peacekeeping: Strengthening Peacekeeping and the UN

In this new study, the defence team identifies 28 types of corruption that threaten peacekeeping. It also spells out ways in which the UN can give an important lead in combatting corruption risk in peacekeeping operations. 
The study recommends eight actions to the UN to meet the threat of corruption in peacekeeping missions, six of which are focused on developing policy, guidance and training for the UN, for Troop Contributing Countries (TCC) and for the missions themselves. Another stresses the urgent need for the UN to establish a more independent and robust oversight, investigation and whistle-blowing capability.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Department of Peacekeeping Operations Justice Review - Volume 3

In 2003 the Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Service was created within DPKO to promote rule of law by addressing both judicial and penal systems in UN peace operations. This Review is about the work of this Service and of Justice Components working in peace operations around the world.

Click here to access the journal. 


The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities of SSR 2013

On 2-3 October 2012, DCAF-ISSAT organised a High Level Panel (HLP) on Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform (SSR) in East Africa , in partnership with the United Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON), the Governments of Burundi, Kenya, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Somalia and South Sudan, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the African Security Sector Network (ASSN). It was attended by over two hundred SSR policy makers and practitioners.

This report seeks to take those discussions further, including more of the points raised by participants during the HLP, and adding in lessons from experience gathered from individual missions and related trainings. Three case studies featured in the HLP (Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan) and as such provide many of the examples, although the report also draws from examples beyond East Africa. An introductory section on SSR in each of these countries is provided in section one and full case studies are included in the annex.

This report, which keeps to the same thematic areas as those covered in the HLP, offers information on contemporary thinking in security and justice reform, and provides some recommendations and examples of good practice to those interested in or engaged in SSR.

Some videos interviews of the participants at the event are listed in the Related Resources column on the right of this webpage. A full list of available videos from this event are available under the documents tab on the HLP's Events page. Podcasts of all the sessions are available there also.


Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (Ref: A/55/305 - S/2000/809)

The Secretary-General commissioned a panel composed of individuals experienced in various aspects of conflict prevention, peacekeeping and peace-building, to assess the shortcomings of the existing system and to make specific and realistic recommendations for change. The recommendations of the report focus not only on politics and strategy but also and perhaps even more so on operational and organizational areas of need. The report is popularly known as the Brahimi Report, named after the Chairman of the Panel, Lakhdar Brahimi.

To access the executive summary and the full report, click here.


Enhancing United Nations Capacity to Support Post-Conflict Policing and Rule of Law

This report provides an overview of recent trends in the use of police in UN peacekeeping missions, assesses chronic challenges, and lays out a series of proposals aimed at improving UN capacity to support post-conflict policing and the rule of law. It concludes that the UN's historically ad hoc approach-driven in large part by resource constraints, but also by a lack of vision that has only recently begun to be corrected-is no longer acceptable, if it ever was. It therefore recommends new approaches for more systematic planning, recruiting, and rapid deployment of larger numbers of quality UN police (UNPOL) and other rule of law personnel for integrated peace operations. These include a standing UN Rule of Law Capacity, a complementary ready reserve of police and other criminal justice personnel, and a Senior Reserve Roster of experienced, retired police officers, judges, prosecutors, and defense lawyers. The study provides a description of these proposed reforms, including detailed cost estimates, and concludes that the implementation of such initiatives would dramatically improve the UN's ability to carry out its mandates to support post-conflict policing and rule of law.

This report is one of five FOPO studies on essential aspects of improving rule of law in post-conflict states. Other studies focus on improving border control and border securityfighting corruption in war-torn states, increasing accountability for non-military personnel in peace operations, and using UN Panels of Experts more effectively to combat spoilers and monitor targeted sanctions.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Localising Peacebuilding in Sierra Leone: What Does it Mean?

Contemporary peacebuilding processes increasingly propose and adopt local ownership as a fundamental prerequisite in sustainable peacebuilding. Local ownership presupposes the application of an organic and context-specific approach to peacebuilding. Localisation also assumes the active participation of local actors, including national governments, civil society groups, community organisations and the private sector, in achieving a common purpose in peacebuilding processes.

Following years under the trusteeship of the international community, including the United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (UNPBC), Sierra Leone’s post-conflict peacebuilding processes continue. Within this context, this paper examines how questions of local ownership have been understood and operationalised in Sierra Leone since the end of the civil war.

The first part of the paper explores the evolution of both the discourse and practice of local ownership in recent years.The second part of the paper pays particular attention to the implication of local ownership, and the relationship between international and domestic actors. The third part discusses the challenges of implementing locallyowned peace processes, particularly in countries like Sierra Leone where peace is still fragile. The last part of the paper argues that despite the challenges, local ownership remains essential to Sierra Leone’s achievement of sustainable peace.

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Strengthening the Rule of Law in Crisis-affected and Fragile Situations (2014 report)

The rule of law lies at the centre of the relationship between society and the state. Measures to establish or strengthen the rule of law are the basis for creating accountability among people as well as between citizens and their governments. Since 2008, UNDP has been a leader in supporting the rule of law in countries affected by crisis through its Global Programme to Strengthen the Rule of Law in Crisis-Affected and Fragile Situations.
This report gives a synopsis of the results achieved in 2014 at the country-level through UNDP implemented programmes, including through the Global Focal Point, in assisting 38 crisis-affected countries to deal with the legacy of violence, increase safety and security for all, build confidence through accessible and effective justice and security institutions, and improve the delivery of justice and security for women. Serving the UN System through rule of law, key policy developments and response to crises are also highlighted.

Find more information and download the report here.


Report of the Secretary-General on the Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies. (S/2004/616)

The report was prepared  to discuss the United Nations' role in establishing justice and rule of law in post conflict societies.

To access the full report, click here.


From Combatants to Peacebuilders: A Case for Inclusive, Participatory and Holistic Security Transitions

The purpose of this project is to present key policy-relevant findings from a two-year participatory research project on the timing, sequencing and components of post-war security transitions, from the perspective and self-analysis of conflict stakeholders who have made the shift from being state challengers to being peace- and state-building agents in South Africa, Colombia, El Salvador, Northern Ireland, Kosovo, Burundi, Southern Sudan, Nepal and Aceh.

Access From Combatants to Peacebuilders: A Case for Inclusive, Participatory and Holistic Security Transitions



CIVCAP 2012: Laying Concrete Foundations

Even in the current context of financial constraints and challenging Member State dynamics at the UN, the next 12 months should be be seized as an important time for realizing pragmatic improvement in how the international community assists countries emerging from conflict. The Civilian Capacity (CIVCAP) initiative represents areal opportunity to drive concrete change on issues long recognized as deficient. CIVCAP is an important chance to depart from tired and often ineffective approaches to
providing technical support in fragile settings. There are practical steps policy-makers can take to support a strategic
shift in how peacebuilding and post-conflict assistance is provided.

Since March 2011, CIVCAP has remained a prominent agenda item at the United Nations. The key findings and main recommendations of the CIVCAP report were strongly supported by the UN Secretary-General and in May 2012 the CIVCAP process was officially recognized by the 193 Member States of the General Assembly. Since that time, the UN and partners have engaged in intensive policy consultations and have sought to identify solutions both in the field and for systemic challenges.

This policy brief presents developments in 2012 and it spotlights the CAPMATCH consultation with the Training and Rostering Community held in June 2012, which was supported by NUPI and co-hosted by the Permanent Missions of Indonesia and Canada to the United Nations. The coming General Assembly session will be important for maintaining momentum for the CIVCAP agenda.

This policy brief identifies three broad opportunities for policy makers to help deliver short-term results for CIVCAP and to set the stage for further reform:

  1. At the upcoming 67thGeneral Assembly session;
  2. In support of select field programmes; and
  3. In support of the CAPMATCH launch in mid-September 2012

Coherence and Coordination in United Nations Peacebuilding and Integrated Missions - A Norwegian Perspective

This report analyses the coherence and coordination dilemma in peacebuilding systems, with special reference to the UN integrated missions concept. It argues that all peacebuilding agents are interdependent in that they cannot individually achieve the goal of the overall peacebuilding system. Pursuing coherence helps to manage the interdependencies that bind the peacebuilding system together, and coordination is the means through which individual peacebuilding agents can ensure that they are connected to the overall strategic framework process that binds the peacebuilding system together. The report is focussed on two areas where the lack of coherence holds the most promise for improving peacebuilding coherence. The first is the need to generate a clearly articulated overall peacebuilding strategy. The second is the need to operationalise the principle of local ownership. The report argues that without meaningfully addressing these shortcomings peacebuilding systems will
continue to suffer from poor rates of sustainability and success.

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Lessons from the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM) for Peace Operations in Mali

Mali and Somalia have both suffered determined Islamist-inspired insurgencies, and in both African Union-led peace operations have been a central pillar in political and security stabilization efforts. Despite challenges in transferring lessons between unique situations, the AMISOM experience can offer some useful lessons for Mali. We have identified several themes that helped to drive success for AMISOM, amongst others the determination of troop contributors and their funding partners, and actively pursuing the support of the host population. At the operational and tactical levels, we have highlighted a number of features that has contributed to more effective operations, including a high degree of adaptability, working with allied armed groups and a dogged determination to see the fight through. The next stage for both countries may be the most challenging yet as African Union and United Nations troops are called to keep a complex and fragile peace in Mali and Somalia. 

To access the full report Lessons from the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM) for Peace Operations in Mali, kindly click on the link.


Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA)—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

For full access to  Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell, kindly follow the link. 


Security Sector Reform Integrated Technical Guidance Notes

Five years after the Secretary-General's report on security sector reform (A/62/659-S/2008/39), where he advocated a more comprehensive approach to this important subject, SSR has become a core element in multidimensional peacekeeping.

It is also increasingly recognized as an integral part of conflict prevention, socioeconomic development and peacebuilding more broadly. Among member states, support for our work in security sector reform has grown steadily, not least due to our demonstrated commitment to provide a transparent forum for member states to discuss their experiences and develop and agree common approaches to security sector reform.

The United Nations is pleased to present the first volume of United Nations SSR Integrated Technical Guidance Notes (SSR ITGN). Produced through the systemwide effort undertaken in the framework of the inter-agency SSR Task Force, the ITGNs provide a body of guidance to United Nations personnel in the field and at Headquarters. The ITGNs also represent a potentially valuable source of information for national actors, and a platform from which we can launch joint initiatives with our partners, including Member States, multilateral and regional organizations and partners in the private and public sector. The ITGNs are an  important part of the Organization’s efforts to provide a holistic and coherent United Nations approach to SSR.

As with all guidance documents, the ITGNs need to be tailored to the specific context of our work; they will also need to be updated regularly to reflect the evolving needs and lessons of our work and that of member states. It is envisaged hat all colleagues and partners working in this vital area will find the ITGN a useful tool, and will provide feedback and comments so that our knowledge in this evolving field can be expanded continuously.

Table of Contents.

Introduction to the United Nations Approach to Security Sector Reform

  • The United Nations’ conceptual framework for SSR 
  • The United Nations’ role in SSR 
  • Overview of the ITGNs 

National Ownership of Security Sector Reform

  • Conceptual Framework and Guiding Principles for Supporting National Ownership 
  • Guidance on the Main Components of National Ownership 
  • Addressing Operational Challenges 

Gender-Responsive Security Sector Reform

  • Gender-responsive SSR 
  • Challenges and Opportunities 

Peace Processes and Security Sector Reform

  • Understanding the Necessity of Addressing SSR in Peace Processes 
  • Understanding the Need for All Actors to Synchronize Mediation Requirements with SSR Implementation 
  • Addressing SSR in the Peace Process 
  • Preparing the Case for SSR – Mapping the Context
  • Strategies for Addressing SSR in Peace Processes 
  • Technical Approaches to Integrating SSR into Peace Agreements 

Democratic Governance of the Security Sector

  • Differing Rationales in Different Contexts 
  • Principle and Foundations of Security Sector Governance 
  • Support to the Democratic Governance of the Security Sector 
  • Approaches for United Nations Support 

United Nations Support to National Security Policy and Strategy-Making Processes

  • Overview: National Security Policies and Strategies 
  • Guidance Framework 
  • Support Strategies and Roles 
  • Challenges and Opportunities 

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UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in Guinea-Bissau - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 


UN Secretary General Report on "Securing peace and development: the role of the United Nations in supporting security sector reform" (A/62/659-S/20...

The UNSG Report testifies the growing importance SSR is getting at the global level and the need for the international community to address it in a efficient, effective, coherent, and coordinated manner. The report was submitted on 23 January 2008 both to the General Assembly and Security Council following a request by the General Assembly for a comprehensive report on United Nation’s approaches to security sector reform.

The report underlines that security, human rights and development are interdependent and mutually reinforcing conditions for sustainable peace. In addition it recognises that these fundamental elements can be achieved only within a broad framework of the rule of law. The report is built on the overall assumption that Member States and their organizations remain central providers of security and therefore that national authorities bear the primary responsibility for carrying out SSR processes that should be undertaken on the basis of a national decision. It provides an overview of the scope and content of SSR; reviews UN’s experience in supporting SSR; sets out some basic principles that must governed UN support to SSR. Potential roles for the UN in support of SSR are also identified; they include a normative (establishing international principles and standards as well as policies and guidelines on SSR, and by providing a forum for international dialogue) and operational (helping to establish an enabling environment; supporting needs assessments and strategic planning; facilitating national dialogue; providing technical advice and support to security institutions and capacity-building support for oversight mechanisms) ones. Finally, it sets up immediate priorities and makes some recommendations for an effective, holistic, and coherent UN approach to SSR.


Caron End of assignment report MONUC

End of assignment of LGen (Ret) Marc Caron as the SSR advisor to the SRSG of MONUC.


UNSG Report "The Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies"

Recent years have seen an increased focus by the United Nations on questions of transitional justice and the rule of law in conflict and post-conflict societies,yielding important lessons for our future activities. Success will depend on a number of critical factors, among them the need to ensure a common basis in international norms and standards and to mobilize the necessary resources for a sustainable investment in justice. We must learn as well to eschew one-size-fits-all formulas and the importation of foreign models, and, instead, base our support on national assessments, national participation and national needs and aspirations. Effective strategies will seek to support both technical capacity for reform and political will for reform. The United Nations must therefore support domestic reform constituencies, help build the capacity of national justice sector institutions, facilitate national consultations on justice reform and transitional justice and help fill the rule of law vacuum evident in so many post-conflict societies.


Developing the Security Sector: Security for whom, by whom? SSR and Gender

This paper briefly examines the current situation with regard to gender and security sector reform and underscores the importance of devoting attention to equal rights and opportunities for both men and women within the security sector. The second chapter offers examples and some practical recommendations.


Security System Reform. France's Approach

Security system reform is an essential factor in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. It plays a direct role in establishing democratic governance that respects human rights.
Insecurity obstructs development and poverty upsets security: SSR contributes to creating a development and reconstruction-friendly environment. Further upstream, it helps
prevent crisis and conflict.


Legal And Judicial Rule of Law work in Multi-dimensional Peacekeeping Operations: Lessons-Learned Study

Within the last 15 years, peacekeeping has undergone a rapid and remarkable transformation. Today, peacekeeping enjoys a much more expansive definition, which acknowledges the complexity and difficulty of truly winning the peace. The absence of the rule of law is a common cause and byproduct of conflicts, and in recognition of this fact, the United Nations (UN) has begun to regularly incorporate rule of law programming into complex multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations (hereinafter, peacekeeping operations).

This study reviews the recent experience with judicial and legal reform programming in UN peacekeeping operations and proposes measures to strengthen and integrate this programming within the mission to maximize its contribution to lasting peace and security. Though this relatively new aspect of peacekeeping has grown consistently in recent years, this study represents one of the first introspective examinations of its status and integration within the UN system.

While significant progress has been made in integrating judicial and legal reform programming into peacekeeping, this study concludes that the effort is still in its early stages, and a number of additional steps are needed to prepare the UN to address judicial and legal system issues in a post-conflict environment. Some of these measures may require additional resources, but more importantly, some demand changes in the way the UN plans and administers the rule of law dimension of peacekeeping operations.


Justice Components in United Nations Peace Operations

The purpose of this policy is to define the objectives, principles and functions of justice components of United Nations peacekeeping operations and special political
missions managed by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (hereafter “peace operations” or “missions”). In addition, this policy provides an illustrative list of the
substantive areas in which justice components may be engaged, as well as the partners with whom justice components must work in order to achieve their objectives. Finally, the policy provides guidance on basic management issues relating to justice components, including organizational structure, link to Headquarters, sub-programme plans, personnel, training, budget and reporting.


Preparing for a Security Sector Review: Lessons from Kosovo

These lessons learned, drawn directly from the author’s field experience, are not provided asinstructions or directives but as a practitioner’s suggestions and reflections. It is hoped that this report cancontribute to the development of good practices and more specifically to the establishment of moreproactive and holistic mechanisms in the preparation of security sector reform projects such as theKosovo ISSR. This report might also prove useful to governments, UN agencies and othernongovernmental organisations in designing security sector reform strategies or programmes. Given theimportance of security sector reform projects, especially in post-conflict environments, the preparatorywork undertaken before these projects should receive more attention and care, and this report intends onproviding actionable suggestions to assist the decision-makers and practitioners alike.
The core of the report lists and describes the tasks, objectives and outputs undertaken as part of theISSR preparatory phase. Each of these items is then analysed and lessons learned are drawn from them,based on Mr. Jérôme Mellon‘s specific experience with the Kosovo ISSR process, but with the objective ofbeing relevant and useful for future similar projects. This report also benefited from the input andassistance of BCPR staff members.


Access to Justice: Practice Note

This practice note is intended to suggest strategies for UNDP support to access to justice, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged, including women, children, minorities, persons living with HIV/AIDS and disabilities. Part II of the note emphasizes the need to focus on capacities to seek and provide remedies for injustice and outlines the normative principles that provide the framework within which these capacities can be developed. Part III of the note sets out principles for action, approaches and techniques that can be used by UNDP practitioners involved in access to justice programming. It also suggests steps in policy dialogue, partnership building, design, implementation and execution that are intended to increase the likelihood of success of access to justice programmes. Part III also highlights issues related to monitoring and evaluation that are particularly important, including the use of disaggregated data to indicate whether there have been results for different poor and disadvantaged groups. Part IV suggests ways to capitalize on UNDP’s advantage as an impartial and trusted partner of developing countries, and suggests possible entry points for programming. Finally, Part V lists knowledge resources for practitioners engaged in access to justice programming.


Human Rights in UNDP: Practice Note

With this Note, UNDP confirms its original policy position and elaborates, on the basis of experience, how this policy is to be implemented in the three strategic areas of intervention covering UNDPs work on human rights and human rights mainstreaming.
(1) Supporting the strengthening of national human rights systems;
(2) Promoting the application of a human rights-based approach to development programming; and
(3) Greater engagement with the international human rights machinery
The Practice Note links the implementation of the policy to the framework definition of a human rights-based approach to programming as captured in the “UN Common Understanding on a Human Rights-based Approach”, and explores opportunities and possibilities that arise during the programming cycle. The Practice Note moreover stresses that human rights are the business of every staff member, and that partnerships with other actors, notably the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, must be a defining characteristic of UNDP support with respect to human rights.


Roundtable on Security Sector Expenditure Reviews; Nairobi, Kenya 1 October 2012

On 1 October 2012 the roundtable on Security Sector Expenditure Reviews, hosted by the World Bank Global Centre on Conflict, Security and Development in Nairobi, Kenya and organised in partnership with DCAF’s International Security Sector Advisory Team, brought together economists and Security Sector Reform (SSR) practitioners and experts to discuss the challenges and opportunities for supporting the conduct of expenditure reviews and enhancing financial management in the security sector. 

The roundtable considered past and ongoing security sector expenditure reviews, in particular in Afghanistan and Liberia.  It sought to examine the challenges, trends and prospects of including similar reviews in other post-conflict countries.  It also provided a platform for economists and SSR practitioners to discuss how they can better collaborate to promote and enhance security sector expenditure review processes.  In addition, the roundtable included discussions on how such expenditure reviews can enhance ongoing SSR efforts and how to ensure that financial management becomes more integrated in SSR processes.


The Implementation of Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Analysing UN and EU Efforts

This document analyses the role of the main international actors involved in the implementation of police reform in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, notably that of the UN and the EU. Despite considerable efforts and resources deployed over 17 years, the implementation of police reform remains an ‘unfinished business’ that demonstrates the slow pace of implementing rule of law reforms in Bosnia’s post-conflict setting, yet, in the long-term, remains vital for Bosnia’s stability and post-conflict reconstruction process. Starting with a presentation of the status of the police before and after the conflict, UN reforms (1995–2002) are first discussed in order to set the stage for an analysis of the role of the EU in the implementation of police reform. Here, particular emphasis is placed on the institution-building actions of the EU police mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina deployed on the ground for almost a decade (2003-June 2012). The article concludes with an overall assessment of UN and EU efforts in post-conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina, including the remaining challenges encountered by the EU on the ground, as the current leader to police reform implementation efforts. More generally, the article highlights that for police reform to succeed in the long-term, from 2012-onwards, the EU should pay particular attention to the political level, where most of the stumbling blocks for the implementation of police reform lie.


Sustaining Peace: Can a New Approach Change the UN?

Last April's High-Level Meeting on Peacebuilding and Sustaining Peace, convened by the president of the General Assembly, comes two years after the concurrent resolutions of the UN General Assembly and Security Council that adopted a new approach called “sustaining peace,” which is aimed at significantly bolstering the international effort to prevent the outbreak, escalation, continuation and recurrence of conflict.

The secretary-general recently released his first report on how he will implement and operationalise the sustaining peace approach. It is now an ideal time to take stock of how the concept has developed since it was adopted and assess the challenges to its implementation.

To access the full article, "Sustaining Peace: Can a New Approach Change the UN?", please follow the link.


What Future for International Migration and Human Mobility? – A joint scenario building initiative

The 2017 publication “Tomorrow’s World of Migration and Mobility"  is the outcome of the joint migration future scenario building initiative pursued in 2016-2017 in a partnership among IOM, the Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung and the Geneva based NGO Global Futures. It builds on the recommendations of the 2015 IOM-CSO Annual Consultations in Geneva for IOM to continue working with civil society on exploring ‘the future of migration’, to pursue longer-term thinking on migration challenges beyond the current focus on emergencies, in recognition that simple forecasting and projections of what migration may look like in the future can be challenging and inaccurate. Four independent scenario teams were brought together including participants from civil society, academia, migrants and others drawn from different regions of the world to consider over the course of 18 months, what possible migration scenarios may arise by 2030. The ensuing scenarios were drawn up independently through workshops, webinars and interviews with salient personalities. 

For full access to the report, What Future for International Migration and Human Mobility? – A joint scenario building initiative, please follow the link. 


Global Trends of Forced Displacement in 2017

Multiple ongoing displacement crises and several new ones characterized 2017. As a result, the global population of forcibly displaced people increased to 68.5 million, compared with 65.6 million in 2016. Significant new displacement, affecting millions of people, was seen in particular from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Myanmar as well as continuing displacement due to the Syrian crisis. The past decade has seen substantial growth in the global population of forcibly displaced people. In 2007, this population numbered 42.7 million; over the last 10 years, this figure has increased by over 50 per cent.

Today 1 out of every 110 people in the world is displaced, compared with 1 in 157 a decade ago, with much of this increase having occurred over the last five years.5 While the Syrian conflict contributed significantly to this increase, there have been other major displacements throughout the world over the last five years, notably in and from Burundi, Central African Republic, the DRC, Iraq, Myanmar, South Sudan, Sudan, Ukraine, and Yemen.

To access the report, Global Trends of Forced Displacement in 2017, please follow the link provided. 


Gender Justice & The Law: Assessment of laws affecting gender equality in the Arab States region

Conducted by UNDP, UN Women, UNFPA, and ESCWA, this study on Gender Justice & the Law in the Arab States Region provides a comprehensive assessment of laws and policies affecting gender equality and protection against gender-based violence in Arab countries. The report is composed of 18 country profiles, each of which maps a country’s key legislative developments and gaps regarding gender justice. This introduction provides an overall summary of these country chapters followed by a summary of each country examined.

To access the full report, Gender Justice & The Law, please follow the link provided. 


Incorporating Gender into UN Senior Leadership Training

Comprehensive leadership training is necessary to ensure that peace operations are effective and that senior leaders are prepared for both the daily challenges and the inevitable crises of peacekeeping. A gender perspective is of central importance to such training. However, gender considerations—from gendered conflict analysis to recognition of who is in the room when decisions are made—remain poorly understood at a practical level, including among senior mission leaders.

This issue brief discusses what it means to apply a “gender perspective” and the importance of such a perspective for senior leaders to effectively implement mission mandates. It provides an overview of existing gender-related training and preparation techniques for senior leaders, including gaps. It concludes with a series of recommendations on how trainings and approaches to senior leadership training can better reflect these considerations:

  • The current status of gender training for senior leaders should be assessed.
  • Facilitators of trainings should ensure that their curricula address and respond to a peacekeeping workspace dominated by men.
  • Facilitators should be aware that leaders often think they do not need training.
  • Trainings for senior leaders should be designed to reflect the complexity of implementing women, peace, and security obligations in a mission.
  • Efforts to ensure gender parity in senior mission leadership should be strengthened.
  • Gender advisers should be included as formal members of a mission’s crisis management team and play an active role in decision-making bodies.
  • Facilitators should understand the gender dimensions of a given training scenario and be aware of the gender balance among participants.
  • The UN should develop resources for leaders, including key documents and guidance on understanding the gender dimensions of their mission.

To read the full report, Incorporating Gender into UN Senior Leadership Training, please follow the link provided. 


UNSCR 2151

En 2014, le Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies a adopté la résolution 2151 soulignant l'importance de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité pour la paix et la sécurité. 


Rapport du Secrétaire général "Sécurité des États et des sociétés : renforcer l’appui global apporté par l’Organisation des Nations Unies à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité" (A/67/970–S/2013/480)

Le présent rapport fait le point sur l’appui que l’Organisation des Nations Unies apporte à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité et formule des recommandations sur la meilleure façon de renforcer la stratégie globale de l’Organisation dans ce domaine, en application de la Déclaration du Président du Conseil de sécurité en date du 12 octobre 2011 (S/PRST/2011/19). Cinq ans après le premier rapport du Secrétaire général intitulé « Assurer la paix et le développement : le rôle des Nations Unies dans l’appui à la réforme du secteur de la sécurité » (A/62/659-S/2008/39), l’accent sera mis ici sur un certain nombre de succès et sur les domaines qui appellent des efforts supplémentaires.