Department for International Development (DFID UK)

DFID is a department of the British Government, led by a cabinet minister.

Telephone: +44 (0) 1355 84 3132
Email: enquiry@dfid.gov.uk
1 Palace Street
London
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UK Whole-of-Government SSR Practitioners Training

UK mandate in UK 15/09/2008 - 17/09/2008

The UK has requested that ISSAT provide support to the GFN-SSR which is carrying out a Security Sector Reform Practitioners Course between 15th and 17th September 2008.

The Course is designed and facilitated by the GFN-SSR and aims to give an overview of SSR and its constituent parts, as well as provide an opportunity for discussion of good and bad practice in SSR and issues to develop when developing programmes and projects.The target audience is primarily for an UK Government audience (MOD, DFID, FCO) as well as external participants from international organizations, governments and NGOs.

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ECOWAS Security Division Institutional Development Scoping Mission, Abuja, Nigeria.

mandate in WESTERN AFRICA 26/01/2009 - 30/01/2008

The UK Government received a request for assistance from ECOWAS, to support the Head of the ECOWAS Security Division in Abuja, Nigeria, in assessing their role with regard to SSR issues and to begin the process to design a strategy to assist the implementation to this new role.

Given the support currently being provided by Canada to the Commission for Policies Affairs, Peace and Security (PAPS) within the ECOWAS Secretariat, both the UK and Canada jointly requested ISSAT to send a team to provide this support. 

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UK SSR Practitioners Training Course

UK mandate in UK 16/03/2009 - 18/03/2009

The UK requested that DCAF/ISSAT provide support to the GFN-SSR Security Sector Reform Practitioners Course from 16 – 18 March 2009.

The Course was designed and facilitated by the GFN-SSR and aimed to give an overview of SSR and its constituent parts, as well as provide an opportunity for discussion of good and bad practice in SSR and issues to develop when developing programmes and projects.

The target audience is primarily for a UK Government audience (MOD, DFID, FCO) as well as external participants from international organisations, governments and NGOs.

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UK SSR Practitioners Training Course

UK mandate in UK 15/06/2009 - 17/06/2009

The UK requested that DCAF/ISSAT provide support to the GFN-SSR Security Sector Reform Practitioners Course from 16 – 18 March 2009.

The Course was designed and facilitated by the GFN-SSR and aimed to give an overview of SSR and its constituent parts, as well as provide an opportunity for discussion of good and bad practice in SSR and issues to develop when developing programmes and projects.

The target audience is primarily for a UK Government audience (MOD, DFID, FCO) as well as external participants from international organisations, governments and NGOs.

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Security Sector Reform Training and Regional Dialogue in South Asia

UK mandate in SOUTH EASTERN ASIA 11/05/2009 - 13/05/2009

The UK requested that ISSAT to support a regional workshop organised by the Asia Consultative Group on Security Sector Reform (ACG-SSR), the Global Facilitation Network for Security Sector Reform (GFN-SSR), together with the Institute for Strategic and Development Studies (ISDS, Manila) and the Association for Security Sector Education and Training (ASSET).

The 2-day training workshop on SSR in South Asia was held in Nepal from 11-13 May. The purpose of the workshop was to follow-up from the training held in Manila in December 2008, and assist civil society organisations in the region to utilize the ISSAT level 1 training and to develop their own training materials, for roll out both regionally and nationally. The event was targeted largely at South Asian and South East Asian civil society organisations.

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UK SSR Practitioners Training Course

UK mandate in UK 09/11/2009 - 11/11/2009

The UK requested that ISSAT provide support to the GFN-SSR Security Sector Reform Practitioners Course from 9 – 11 November 2009. The Course was designed and facilitated by the GFN-SSR and aimed to give an overview of SSR and its constituent parts, as well as provide an opportunity for discussion of good and bad practice in SSR and issues to develop when developing programmes and projects

The target audience was primarily for a UK Government audience (MOD, DFID, FCO) as well as external participants from international organisations, governments and NGOs. ISSAT ran a practical exercise developed as part of the “Whole of Government SSR Training Course”. The exercise simulated the current situation in a specific SSR context and addressed the challenges faced in moving from a national strategy to a concrete, prioritised and funded SSR programme

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UK SSR Practitioners Training Course

UK mandate in UK 18/01/2010 - 20/10/2012

The UK requested that ISSAT provide support to the GFN-SSR Security Sector Reform Practitioners Course from 18 – 20 January 2010.

The Course was designed and facilitated by the GFN-SSR and aimed to give an overview of SSR and its constituent parts, as well as provide an opportunity for discussion of good and bad practice in SSR and issues to develop when developing programmes and projects

The training was designed for a UK Government audience (MOD, DFID, FCO) as well as external participants from international organisations, governments and NGOs. 

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Review of Security Development and Defence Transformation (SSDDT) Programme

UK mandate in Sudan 01/04/2010 - 31/05/2010

DFID requested ISSAT to support the review of progress on the Security Sector Development and Defence Transformation (SSDDT) in Sudan. ISSAT provided a Senior Advisor and a Programme Officer, to join a team from the UK’s Stabilization Unit, to assess current outcomes against the programmes logframe and report on:

  • SSDDT Impact – including how the project has progressed, sustainability of progress, a review of the project assumptions and risks, how the programme can be enhanced or adapted, and any other lessons to inform future security and justice programming.
  • Coordination and Synergy – including coordination and complementarity with the Safety and Access Justice Programme, potential areas for greater synergy with other security projects, coordination with other security and justice programmes and other relevant sectors.
  • And other issues – including security during the upcoming referendum, local ownership and gender issues

DFID, through its SSDDT programme has been supporting peace and security efforts in Sudan, through the development of an effective security decision making architecture in southern Sudan, including the transformation of the SPLA.

The review involved:

  • Initial briefing with DFID/HMG Sudan
  • Conducting a literature review of programme documents and reports
  • Conducting field visit and interviews with a range of stakeholders in Juba and Khartoum
  • Visit to a location where support was provided on elections security
  • Appropriate attention to DDR, community security and small arms control (CSAC) and gender considerations

This followed a similar review undertaken for the Swiss SSR Programme of support to Southern Sudan, and part of the review was investigated whether a joint monitoring of these 2 programmes can be established.

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Support Review and Design Mission for UK’s South Sudan Development and Defence Transformation (SSDDT) Programme.

UK mandate in South Sudan 05/12/2011 - 29/02/2012

DFID, together with the UK’s Stabilization Unit, requested ISSAT to support their review of the South Sudan Security Sector Development and Defence Transformation (SSDDT) programme and to provide guidance on future programme design.

DFID, through its SSDDT programme has been supporting peace and security efforts in South Sudan, through the development of an effective security decision making architecture, and including the transformation of the South Sudan Armed Forces.

ISSAT was requested to provide an SSR advisor to join a team from the UK’s Stabilization Unit. The team was tasked to revalidate the focus and content of the SSDDT project and the individual work streams; and to confirm the need, justification and feasibility for continued UK support in some or all of these.

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Mid Year review - DFID DRC SSAPR programme

UK mandate in DRC 31/10/2012 - 11/01/2013

As a part of DFID’s on-going review of its Security Sector Accountability and Police Reform (SSAPR) programme in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, DFID has requested ISSAT support to an annual review of the programme.

The focus on the review will be to follow up on progress in addressing the key issues identified in the December 2011 ISSAT/Stabilisation Unit report.

For this assignment, ISSAT is requested to work with colleagues from the UK’s Stabilisation Unit and support the (4 person) review team by providing the Team Leader. 

The review should focus on:

  • changes in management and structure, procedures and staffing/resourcing put in place since the last ISSAT/SU review
  • changes in SSAPR strategy and approach put in place since the last ISSAT/SU review
  • the approach of SSAPR to support the refinement and implementation of the community policing concept.

The assignment requires reviewing reports, meetings in Kinshasa, visits to pilot zones and a briefing session outlining draft findings and recommendations.

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Security Sector Develop and Defence Transformation Programme (SSDDTP): Programme Completion Review (PCR)

UK mandate in South Sudan 19/11/2012 - 28/02/2013

The Security Sector Development and Defence Transformation Programme (SSDDTP) has been implemented by Adam Smith International (ASI) over 4 years to 31 December 2012.

The Programme's Goal is sustainable peace in Sudan (subsequentaly amended to Sudan and South Sudan following South Sudan's independence). The Purpose is the development of an effective security decision making architecture in South Sudan, complemented by the treansformation of the SPLA, underpinned by a sustainably policy, institutional and legal framework enshrining the principles of civil control, accountability and transparency.

 

The Programme Completion Review will assess the achievement of the outputs and the achievements of the outcome. This will include an assessment of results, value for money and an in-depth look at lessons learned.

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Annual Review of DFID Sierra Leone Access to Security and Justice Programme

UK mandate in Sierra Leone 17/02/2014 - 07/03/2014

The objective of this mission is to assess the progress of the DFID Sierra Leone funded Access to Security and Justice Programme; complete a DFID Annual Review for the programme; and provide recommendations to DFID for its approach to engagement in the sector in the future

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Assessment to inform potential options for future international support on Police reform in DRC

EU, UK mandate in 11/07/2014 - 29/08/2014

Following a consultative process involving the European Commission Delegation to the DRC and DFID DRC, we identified a need to develop in detail practical options for enhancing international support on police reform in DRC  - which is widely recognised as a key priority in promoting peace and stability in the country - with a particular focus in improving community security in the East in the short to medium term whilst also supporting long term efforts to promote institutional reform of the police sector  in line with the priorities established within the Peace, Security and Cooperation Framework.       

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Fourth Annual Review of Security Sector Accountability and Police Reform (SSAPR) programme in DRC

UK mandate in DRC 30/09/2013 - 23/02/2014

ISSAT has implemented annual reviews of the SSAPR jointly with Stabilisation Unit since 2010. This is the fourth such annual review, and will follow a similar process to previous reviews.

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Support to UK SSR activities in Guinea-Bissau

UK mandate in Guinea Bissau 20/09/2008 - 27/09/2008

ISSAT has been requested by the UK to provide assistance to support their SSR activities in Guinea-Bissau.

This will comprise a needs assessment of SSR requirements in Guinea Bissau and a detailed programme design including options for management for HMG’s activities in 09/10 in support of SSR inGuinea-Bissauthrough the Africa Conflict Prevention Pool. 

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Support to UK SSR activities in Guinea-Bissau

UK mandate in Guinea Bissau 29/01/2009 - 06/02/2009

Following the recommendations from the ISSAT-supported UK Assessment Mission to Guinea Bissau in September 2008, ISSAT was requested by the UK to provide assistance for their activities in support of the SSR process in Guinea-Bissau post November 2008 elections. Particular emphasis was placed on supporting the role of the national SSR coordination structures.

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Le soutien de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité à la campagne U2P

Germany, Sweden , UK mandate in AMERICA, EUROPE 10/08/2015 - 29/04/2016

Comprendre pour prévenir (U2P) est une des dix lignes de développement dans la Campagne de développement des capacités multinationales (qui comprend principalement les pays de l’OTAN et des pays ayant des points de vues similaires – voir le site Internet du MCDC). Le développement des capacités au cœur de la U2P cherche à définir quel rôle les militaires peuvent adopter, en partenariat avec d’autres départements gouvernementaux et la société civile, dans la prévention des conflits violents.

Les premières réunions (des deux dernières années) ont mené à l’écriture d’une doctrine clé incarnée dans la publication « Comprendre pour prévenir » (lien disponible ci-dessous). Plusieurs réunions en cours actuellement cherchent à concrétiser cette doctrine dans un manuel plus tangible comprenant des outils et des processus. Une grande majorité des représentants militaires impliqués sont des officiers venant de centres nationaux de développement doctrinal et  conceptuel. Les groupes de travail de U2P essaient d'aligner les concepts actuels de préventions des conflits violents avec les doctrines militaires de l'OTAN, pour contribuer, à terme, à l'élaboration de manuels de terrain tactiques nationaux. 

En octobre 2015, le manuel U2P s’est penché sur l'interopérabilité avec la directive de planification opérationnelle globale de l'OTAN (MPOC), ainsi qu’avec la doctrine et les processus CIMIC OTAN. L'Union européenne et un certain nombre de pays sont intéressés par les possibilités de collaboration et d'expérimentation, permettant ainsi à U2P de passer de la théorie à la pratique en tant qu’alternative sur le terrain pour les unités tactiques. Les opportunités d'expérimentation comprennent: 

  • Exercices des forces interarmées multinationales en Suède, Avril 2016
  • Académie royale militaire de Sandhurst, module d'analyse des conflicts pour les officiers juniors (en été)

D'autres opportunités d'expérimenter le manuel sont les bienvenues. 

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Engaging Politically for Effective Security and Justice Sector Reform and Governance

Pays-Bas, UK mandate in Pays-Bas, UK 18/06/2015 - 18/06/2015

ISSAT facilitated a one-day meeting on how the international community can more effectively engage with political elites in partner countries in order to promote governance within the security and justice sector reform.

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Policy and Research Papers

Security Sector Reform and the Management of Defence Expenditure - A Conceptual Framework

This discussion paper stems from growing recognition of the linkages between sustainable development and security. It proposes a conceptual framework for addressing one aspect of security sector governance: the management of defence expenditure.

Specifically, the paper suggests that:

  • an approach based on strengthening the process by which defence expenditure is managed and monitored will be the most effective means of achieving appropriate levels of military expenditure;
  • policies, laws and structures in the security sector will reflect each country’s history, culture, legal framework, and institutions;
  • despite each country’s unique situation, a set of generic public sector management principles exist which should be applied to all components of the public sector, including the security sector, and consequently strengthening governance in the security and non-security portions of the public sector should proceed simultaneously, to the extent possible;
  • the pace and sequencing of efforts to strengthen the management of defence expenditure will vary across countries;
  • efforts to improve the efficiency of defence expenditure management should be set in the broadercontext of security sector reform; and
  • national ownership of the reform process and the strengthening of capacity to manage and oversee the defence sector are essential to ensure sustainability.
  • A number of next steps are proposed for considering the integration of security sector governance and better defence expenditure management into development policy.

To view this publication, follow this link.

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Survey Module

This module will guide you through the process of conducting surveys for your project.

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Practical Approaches to Theories of Change in Conflict, Security, and Justice Programmes Part II: Using Theories of Change in Monitoring and Evaluation

This paper is part of a two-part series on practical approaches to theories of change in conflict, security and justice programmes.

Part I first explores the fundamentals of theories of change: what they are, why they are important, and how to create a theory of change. It explores theories of change at different levels, and concludes with advice on how theories of change can enhance the effectiveness and relevance of programming.

Part II continues to build upon Part I by focusing on how theories of change can be used in the monitoring and evaluation stages of the project cycle. It provides practical guidance on how and why to use theories of change-focused monitoring and evaluation strategies, particularly exploring the ways in which theories of change can be included in any evaluation approach.

Key questions this document addresses:

  • Why are Theories of Change important in evaluating programmes and projects?
  • How can Theories of Change be used in Monitoring and Evaluation?
  • How can Theories of Change be used to generate programme and project indicators?
  • What are the limitations of Theories of Change and how can they be overcome?

Key messages/essential “take aways”:

  • Using theories of change during the monitoring stage of project implementation provides feedback on whether a project, programme or strategy is ‘on track’ to accomplish the desired change and if the environment is evolving as anticipated in the project or programme design.
  • The power of using theories of change is not only important in monitoring but also in evaluation. Using theories of change during the evaluation enables evaluators to ask hard questions about why certain changes are expected, the assumptions of how the change process unfolds, and which outcomes are being selected to focus on and why.
  • Developing and explicitly articulating multiple levels of theories of change allows for a greater efficiency in evaluation and identifying problems and successes.
  • The process of monitoring our assumptions and theories of change is the same as traditional monitoring of output and performance indicators: it involves an iterative cycle of regular data collection, analysis, reflection, feedback and action. The only thing that changes is what you are monitoring.
  • Theory-based Evaluation helps assess whether underlying theories of change or assumptions of a programme are correct by identifying the causal linkages between different variables: from inputs to expected results. In a broad definition, any evaluation uncovering implicit or explicit assumptions, hypotheses or theories can be categorized as theory-based evaluation. This approach is particularly useful for learning and accountability as it allows for identifying whether
  • the success, failure or mixed results of the intervention was due to programme theories and assumptions, or implementation.
  • Theories of change are not a solve-all panacea for challenges in design, monitoring and evaluation for conflict, crime and violence initiatives: they must be used in conjunction with other tools and concepts.
  • Theories of change are more than simple ‘if-then’ statements. As testable hypotheses, we need theories of change to be as reflective of the actual environment as possible without overly complicating the situation. Clearly defining the boundaries of the theory and its assumptions is critical.
Paper

Practical Approaches to Theories of Change in Conflict, Security & Justice Programmes Part I: What they are, different types, how to develop and use them

This paper is part of a two-part series on theories of change in conflict, security and justice programmes.

Part I first explores the fundamentals of theories of change: what they are, why they are important, and
how to create a theory of change. It explores theories of change at different levels, and concludes with
advice on how theories of change can enhance the effectiveness and relevance of programming.

Part II continues to build upon Part I by focusing on how theories of change can be used in the
monitoring and evaluation stages of the project cycle. It provides practical guidance on how and why to
use theories of change-focused monitoring and evaluation strategies, particularly exploring the ways in
which theories of change can be included in any evaluation approach.

Key questions this document addresses:

  • What are theories of change& why do we care?
  • What are the different types & levels of theories of change?
  • How should I develop theories of change?
  • How should I use theories of change?

Key messages/essential “take aways”:

  • A basic definition applicable to all initiatives that seek to induce change is as follows:A theory of change explains why and how we think certain actions will produce desired change in a given context.
  • In their simplest form, Theories of change are expressed in the following form:
    • “If we do X (action),then we will produce Y (change/shift towards peace, justice, security)”
      or
    • “We believe that by doing X (action) successfully, we will produce Y (movement towards a desired goal)”
  • It is often helpful and clarifying to extend the statement a bit further by adding at least some of the rationale or logic in a “because” phrase. This then produces the formula: “Ifwe do X…,thenY...,becauseZ….”
  • Making a theory of change explicit allows us to reveal ourassumptionsabout how change will happen, how and why our chosen strategy or programme will achieve its outcomes and desired impacts, and why it will function better than others in this context. Revealing these assumptions also helps identify gaps and unmet needs, including additional necessary activities or actors that should be engaged. We may also detect activities that are extraneous, weak or that fail to contribute to achieving the overall goal.
  • Theories of changed are embedded in a particularcontextand should be considered incontext. How change can or will occur in one context cannot be automatically transferred to another setting. Theories of change must therefore be linked to a robustconflict analysis, in order to ensure that programming addresses the key drivers of conflict and fragility in the context.
  • Theories of change can be developed or identified at severaldifferent levels. These range from the strategic or policy level, through broad sectoral or program levels, to project--‐level theories, and finally micro--‐level theories about specific limited activities.
    • Strategic Level:What is the change logic that informs the choice of priority areas within a country strategy (formal or informal)—and why were other options not chosen?
    • Portfolio/Sector/Programme Level:What are the two or three dominant theories of change embedded in the programming within the sector/portfolio? How will the combined efforts of the range of funded projects achieve desired changes (results) within a priority area?
    • Project Level:What is the core theory of change informing the project approach? How will reaching the project goal/objective contribute to the larger goals/objectives at the sector/programme level?
    • Activity Level:How will the activity (training, dialogue…) produce the intended micro--‐ level change(s) and, ultimately, lead to the project objectives/goals?
  • It is never too late to develop a theory of change;it can be useful during all stages of the programming cycle.
Paper

ICTs for Monitoring and Evaluation of Peacebuilding Programs

The purpose of this paper is to explore the incorporation of information and communications technologies (ICTs) into the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) systems of peacebuilding programmes. It introduces the reader to the breadth and depth of new technologies that are currently available or could potentially be available to monitor and evaluate (including measure and disseminate) results of peacebuilding programmes. More specifically, the paper focuses on exploring the application of the following ICTs: mobile technology, social media, big data, the digitzation of surveys, and tools to better visualize data. 

Key questions this document addresses: 

  • How can ICTs help overcome key structural and programmatic monitoring and evaluation challenges as they relate to peacebuilding programmes? 
  • How have ICTs been integrated or used to monitor and evaluate peacebuilding programmes? 
  • What are the key considerations that must be taken into account when incorporating new technologies into monitoring and evaluation systems for programmes implemented in conflict and fragile environments? 
  • What are some of the resources, in terms of hardware, or software, available to practitioners? 

Access the paper here.

Paper

Does SSR improve security in developing countries?

ssr lisa denney

Lisa Denney and Craig Valters studied the effectiveness of security sector reform (SSR) in a recently published review of international experience for the UK Department for International Development (DFID). The authors point out in the report serious shortcomings of capacity building approaches in SSR, notably the insufficiency of providing solely technical skills and the need to recognise the political roots of insecurity. 

In this commentary, the authors stress that programmes are more effective when politically aware, when adapted to the local needs and capacities, and when there is a flexible yet long-term commitment by donors. Finally, given the investment and stakes of SSR programmes, better understanding the effectiveness of different forms of support is necessary.

To access the piece Does SSR improve security in developing countries? as well as the report Evidence Synthesis: Security Sector Reform and Organisational Capacity Building , kindly follow the link.

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Making the Case for Conflict Sensitivity in Security and Justice Reform Programming

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for conflict sensitivity in security and justice sector reform (SJSR) programming. It is intended to help those involved in designing or implementing SJSR programming understand how conflict sensitivity could ensure their programming avoids inadvertently contributing to conflict.
 
Key questions this document addresses:
What is conflict sensitivity and why is it relevant to SJSR programming?
How might SJSR programming become inadvertently caught up in conflict dynamics?
What tools are available to enable conflict sensitivity in SJSR programming?

Key messages/essential “take aways”:
All interventions introduce resources into a context, be they equipment, funding, training or process enhancement. All resources coming into a conflict context have the potential to become caught up in the conflict dynamic, and thus no intervention is neutral. Unless there is specific analysis of how any type of intervention may inadvertently contribute to tensions there is a real risk that conflict or tensions may escalate – this applies to SJSR programming as well as any other type of intervention in a fragile and conflict affected state.

Support to the security and justice sector can contribute to tensions by:
 inadvertently replicating or amplifying existing tensions;
 reinforcing patterns of domination and exclusion – often causes of conflict;
 Introducing resources which then become the focus of a struggle for control;
 Challenging power and vested interests triggering a violent backlash.

Additionally, for the security and justice sectors the potential exists that skills, facilities, processes or hardware may be misused and promote conflict or violence.

There are a range of tools that have been developed to enable conflict sensitivity in the development and humanitarian sector. Key to these are:
 Conflict analysis;
 Identification of possible interactions between programming and conflict; and
 Revision of programming in light of that analysis.

These are also applicable to SJSR programming.

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Review of the use of ‘Theory of Change’ in International Development

The report, produced by Isabel Vogel and commissioned by the DFID evaluation division,considers the current uses and definitions of Theory of Change (ToC). A methodology which maps the assumptions which inform planned interventions within all stages of an initiative, ToC is increasingly regarded as an essential tool in designing and appreciating the complex network of factors which influence project outcomes.The review considers the practical aspects of ToC implementation and to develop a more consistent approach which is gaining in reputation and use within the international development community.

Vogel acknowledges that lack of consensus exists around the specific definition of ToC. The review highlights the necessity for flexibility in developing a successful ToC. Through consideration of different approaches, outlining examples of ToC in practice within the appendix, Vogel identifies and draws together a short list of the core elements, generally agreed upon as essential requirements for any discussion centred on theory of change. The review further examines the most effective means of establishing a logical pathway to desired outcomes using the ToC model. Vogel highlights the need to establish ToC as an ongoing process developed alongside all phases of a programme from inception to impact evaluation and emphasises that assumptions should be made explicit within the organising framework of a project.

ToC, as the review makes clear, has the potential to provide an invaluable framework for discussion and critical thinking surrounding project implementation and evaluation. It allows for subjective analysis to be discussed and represented, through diagrams and visuals, which can in turn support more dynamic exchange between policy actors, grantees and donors.

For full report, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/r4d/pdf/outputs/mis_spc/DFID_ToC_Review_VogelV7.pdf

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DFID - Security and Justice Sector Reform Programming in Africa

This document is a review of security and justice sector reform (SJSR) programmes and lessons learned from 2001 to 2005 that were part of DFID's Africa Conflict Prevent Pool (ACPP). The programmes were reviewed based on the criteria of coherence, effectiveness, and impact.

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Security and justice evidence mapping update

This evidence mapping was conducted to identify the empirical evidence on the outcomes of security and justice interventions. Selected sources, including journal indices, online research and evaluation repositories, resource centres, and experts, were searched. The findings are presented in the form of an interactive database and evidence gap map which provides an accessible and visual representation of where the evidence for security and justice programming is deepest and where the key limitations lie.

For full access to the report Security and justice evidence mapping update, kindly follow the link. 

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