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Africa Union DDR Conference
The Defence and Security Division (DSD) of the Peace and Security Department (PSD) of the African Union has been implementing a DDR Capacity Programme with support from the World Bank. The Programme aims at strengthening DDR capacities within the AU, its member states, the Regional Economic Communities and Regional Mechanisms to support national and regional DDR initiatives. It is divided into three pillars, namely institutionalizing DDR capacity in the AU, Knowledge Management and Direct support to member states. The workshop is being organised under the Knowledge Management component. The two expected products, i.e., the Compendium on DDR Experiences on the African continent and the Training Manual on DDR aim to be tools to train DDR practitioners according to best practices and recent innovations in the field.
ISSAT’s participation in the event will strengthen the evolving work relations with the African Union’s Peace and Security Department.
SSR Contribution to UN-World Bank Prevention Report
In 2017, the UN and the World Bank requested DCAF's contribution to their planned study on the prevention of violent conflict. DCAF, used its subject-matter expertise to contribute knowledge and operational experience of how SSR processes have supported prevention efforts. DCAF provided the UN and the World Bank with a short paper setting out examples and available elements of evidence reflecting opportunities and entry-points for SSR processes to actively contribute to conflict prevention objectives in various contexts. This enabled the UN and the World Bank to present a more comprehensive definition of conflict prevention thus widening the space for various actors to work together from different angles.
To access the briefing paper by DCAF-ISSAT, The Contribution and Role of SSR in the Prevention of Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link.
For the final report from the World Bank and UN, Pathways for Peace – Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link.
Assistance to Public Expenditure Review of the Security Sector in Guinea-Bissau
The purpose of the mandate is to assist the World Bank team in finalizing a public expenditure review (PER) of security and justice institutions in Guinea-Bissau. The PER will provide a rapid assessment of the fiscal affordability of the security sector (military and internal security). To this end, it will (i) outline the main historical and sectoral challenges pertaining to security and justice institutions in Guinea-Bissau, including various phases of its security sector reform efforts; (ii) present an overview of security and justice institutions, with an emphasis on the composition of security spending by economic and functional classification; (iii) examine the affordability of security spending against revenue and growth projections as well as benchmark trends in security expenditures against other fragile and neighbouring countries; and (iv) discuss options for policy reform.
Governance specialist - Public Sector
You will be under the supervision of the GOV Practice Manager for the EA2G1 Unit (Cabo Verde, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, Chad, Guinea Conakry, Mali, Niger, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, and Togo) and will contribute to the implementation and development of the EA2G1 Unit’s lending and analytical program in AFCW3 countries (Chad, Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger), with a primary focus on Burkina Faso! Job duties and responsibilities• Serve as team member and contribute to task managing Bank analytical, lending, and grant operations pertaining to public sector and governance reforms in Burkina Faso.• Contribute to the implementation of tasks in other countries of EA2G1.• Contribute to EA2G1 engagement with counterparts from Burkina Faso Government and assist the Unit with advice on Burkina Faso contextual aspects.• Provide advice and support to other World Bank sector operations and policy dialogue related to public sector reform, service delivery, economic governance, security sector reform, Public Financial Management, and institutional aspects.• Manage the preparation and supervision of assigned tasks and deliverables and ensure effective delivery of programs requested by the Country Management Unit.• Generate and exchange knowledge relating to governance issues.• Support the Practice Manager and senior staff in work program discussions, business development and supervising the quality and timeliness of work program deliverables.• Contribute to the organization of seminars/workshops on public sector governance issues.
Security Officer P3
To support the management of WFP’s security operations to enable the effective delivery of programmes that meet food assistance needs and maintain the security and safety of WFP personnel, activities and facilities.
KEY ACCOUNTABILITIES (not all-inclusive)
Under the general supervision and guidance of the Manager, the Security Officer will be responsible for the following key duties:
- Keep up to date with and advise upon local security developments and issues and the potential impact upon WFP activity to inform security and operational activities
- Monitor and maintain an effective security management communications system that enables rapid and coordinated security activities.
- Supports emergency security preparedness practices to meet emergency food assistance needs.
- Supports the monitoring and evaluation of WFP activities, providing technical analysis and information as required, to support the assessment of activity impact.
- Prepare accurate and timely reporting, e.g. mandatory Field Security reports that enable informed decision making and consistency of information presented to stakeholders.
- Facilitate training sessions as required to build the security capabilities of WFP and external partners.
- Provides technical advice, guidance and support e.g. security assessments and plans to Country Offices to strengthen the capacity within security and crisis management, contributing to the development of country strategy, policies and planning.
- Contribute to the development of systems and tools for the monitoring and assessment of security situation needs in line with innovative methodologies and best practices.
- Act with autonomy in an assigned emergency response capacity as required, to meet emergency food assistance needs.
- Maintain productive relationships with local partners to align activities with wider programmes and ensure compliance with security policies and guidance.
- Assist with communications and negotiations to garner security guarantees or “acceptance” within communities for WFP to operate, including in some cases within NSAG’s areas of control.
- Represent WFP at local and inter-agency meetings e.g. Security Co-ordination Cells to present relevant security issues and contribute to technical discussions, exchange of knowledge and experience.
- Manage junior security staff, providing coaching and guidance as required to ensure appropriate development and enable high performance.
- Take responsibility for incorporating gender perspective in areas of work, to ensure equal participation of women and men.
- Other duties as required.
For further information on the eligibility and application process of Security Officer P3, please kindly follow the link.
Policy and Research Papers
Justice Sector Assessments: A Handbook
This handbook is a practical guide, primarily intended for World Bank staff involved in justice sector assessments. It also may be of interest to the wider justice reform and
development community. Assessment methodologies for other sectors and justice sector assessment methodologies from other institutions have informed the handbook. As far as we could ascertain, this is the first time that practices in justice sector assessments as they have evolved have actually been described. This handbook is not the last word in assessments; rather, it is a basis for further development.
Legal and Judicial Reform: Strategic Directions
This paper will proceed in four parts. The first part will examine the basic theoretical relationship between legal systems and market-oriented poverty reduction. The second part will examine various elements of legal and judicial reform and current activities. The third part will describe a strategy framework and methodology for designing and preparing legal and judicial activities. Lastly, the fourth part will examine the role of the World Bank and the organizational mechanisms available to the Bank to ensure that its
theoretical and policy approaches are constantly refined for new circumstances and in light of new interdisciplinary research.
Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment Manual
Legal and judicial reform is a long-term process, and for the process to be sustainable, it requires a corresponding long-term commitment from the countries. For this reason, it is critical that any effort in this area is grounded in a long-term sector strategy that includes reforms targeted at the legal and judicial system as whole and all the relevant stakeholders. Law and justice sector activities must be approached strategically, bringing together all the elements that promote the rule of law through holistic and comprehensive sector reform programs. This approach entails the following sequence:
* Legal and Judicial Sector Assessments
* Development of a comprehensive plan
* Identification of priorities and sequencing based on available capacity and in coordination with other active donors
* Dialogue with the stakeholders throughout each stage
Judicial Reform: The Why, the What, and the How
For over a decade, the international community has been helping developing nations reform their judiciaries. The World Bank, the Interamerican Development Bank, and the Asian Development Bank have extended over $800 million in loans for judicial reform. At the same time, the United Nations Development Program, the European Union and its member states, and the American, Australian, Canadian, and Japanese governments have provided significant grant aid to help developing nations improve the operation of the judicial branch of government. Why are international donors supporting reform? What kinds of projects are included within a reform program? How can a successful reform be achieved?
Rule of Law Reform in Post-Conflict Countries: Operational Initiatives and Lessons Learnt
This paper aims to provide a tour d’horizon of common operational initiatives and policy approaches adopted by agencies and institutions involved in the area of rule of law reform in fragile or post-conflict countries, and identify key lessons highlighted in the policy literature.
The paper reviews some of the key lessons to have emerged from the last two decades of rule of law experience, typically undertaken in fragile or post-conflict countries (and more generally in developing countries) by a multiplicity of uncoordinated actors and projects. There is a striking lack of systematic results-based evaluations of the programs, especially independent rigorous cross country evaluations, or comprehensive case studies of all the programs in a country. The rule of law expertise that exists is not centralized or institutionalized, and resides in individuals who have often learnt through trial and error. The field lacks a common foundation or basic agreement on the goals of rule of law reform, on how different aspects should be sequenced to avoid them working against each other, and fundamentally what sortsof strategies are effective. The paper highlights 11 important lessons: lack of coherent strategy and expertise; insufficient knowledge of how to bring about change; a general trend to focus on form over function; emphasis on the formal legal system over informal and traditional systems; short-term reforms in contrast to longer term strategies; wholesale vs. incremental and context-determined change; the need for local change agents; how to engender local ownership; rushed and compromised constitution making; poorly designed training and legal education programs; and the need to sequence and prioritize change.
Transitional Justice, Security and Development
This annex can only provide a brief overview of transitional justice measures (§ I), and summarize an argument that clarifies the aims that these measures arguably are designed to seek (§ II). This is important, in turn, in order to clarify the contributions that transitional justice can make to security and development, particularly in the context of fragility. Contrary to misconceptions, particularly on the part of non-experts, transitional justice is neither past-oriented, nor of concern to victims alone; rather, to the extent that it achieves any of its goals, it does so in virtue of its potential to affirm general but basic norms—therein its potential contributions to both security and development. The argument thus is also meant to counter the perception that transitional justice measures hamper development and reconstruction, or that transitional justice is not urgent in the aftermath of the cessation of conflict (§ III). The next section clarifies the ‘mechanisms’ through which transitional justice can be thought to make their contributions to development, emphasizing their norm affirming function, and their (related) potential to disarticulate and articulate networks (§IV). Finally, I close by showing the relevance of the foregoing analysis to the WDR and offer four cautionary notes about the approach it adopts (§V).
What is the role of legal and judicial reform in the development process?
This speech, delivered by Amartya Sen at the first World Bank conference on Comprehensive Legal and Judicial Development, discusses the importance of legal reform within a comprehensive development framework. Legal reform advances freedom-a crucial and constitutive quality of comprehensive development. Legal reform is thus important on its own; its cause need not be indirectly established through its contribution to economic development. Legal reform is, however, also causally interconnected with other constitutive elements of comprehensive development. By acting as a platform where the poor have equal voice and by creating the backbone of the capitalist system, a sound legal system is necessary to advance political and economic development.
Informal and formal systems of rule of law
This Note approaches the interplay of formal and informal justice systems and their respective merits by focussing on the justice needs of people. Needs, as expressed through the demand for justice services, has been neglected by the donor community as a factor in informing approaches and attitudes towards plural legal systems. Instead much of the current debate, both in academia and in the communities of law and development practitioners, has run along quasi-ideological lines, with positions often rooted in beliefs and anecdotes but not in evidence.
World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development
More than 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by violent conflict.
The World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development examines the changing nature of violence in the 21st century, and underlines the negative impact of repeated cycles of violence on a country or region’s development prospects. Preventing violence and building peaceful states that respond to the aspirations of their citizens requires strong leadership and concerted national and international efforts. The Report is based on new research, case studies and extensive consultations with leaders and development practitioners throughout the world.
World Bank copyright Holder: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank: World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development (2011)
Accidental Partners? Listening to the Australian Defence and Police Experience of the security-development nexus in Conflict-Affected and Fragile State
This paper reports on a consultative dialogue between the World Bank and Australia’s whole-of-government spectrum of institutions, with a focus on development actors ‘hearing’ the security perspective. In this, we join a growing process of dialogue between ‘accidental partners’ – development and security actors, unfamiliar with each other but faced with the same challenge of being engaged in fragile and conflict-affected environments. It presents the results of this consultative dialogue: (1) describing models of engagement from Australia’s operational experience integrating security and development, extracted from the experience in Solomon Islands and Bougainville (2) raising issues about knowing each other and working together, and (3) identifying emerging themes at the junction of security and development, and offering practical ideas to take further.
The Fall and Rise of the Rule of Law and the Trope of Ownership
‘The rule of law’ draws extraordinarily diverse supporters. Theorists from the Marxist historian E.P. Thompson to the conservative economist Friedrich Hayek have embraced it; in September 2005 the entire membership of the United Nations committed themselves to it. Such widespread endorsement is possible only because of relative vagueness as to what the term might actually mean.
This poses particular problems in states where rule of any sort is uncertain. The facilitation or imposition of the rule of law in fragile or conflict-affected countries has been something of a growth area since the rediscovery of the rule of law — long discredited after the failed ‘law and development’ efforts of the 1960s and 1970s — in the post-Cold War era.
Yet the enthusiasm and resources devoted to programming in this area have not been matched by much success. Rule of law is invoked as a kind of mantra, but efforts to support or promote it tend to be technical quick-fixes or rhetorical abstractions. In part this is due to the absence of agreement on a definition.
The author’s presentation (from which these brief notes are drawn) will examine the fall and rise of the rule of law, some of the lingering definitional questions, and the use and abuse of the term ‘ownership’ in particular.
Customary Justice and Legal Pluralism in Post-Conflict and Fragile Societies
While there has been a growing interest in customary justice systems among rule of law practitioners, it has remained very much at the margins of justice reform strategies. This session will challenge us to view customary justice and other forms of legal pluralism not as a side issue, but as a fundamental part of the justice landscapes in which we work. It will take a critical stance in reviewing the current range of overall policy approaches to legal pluralism and the preconceptions and assumptions that underlie those approaches. It will seek to identify and critically review how different approaches (rights-based, developmental, expanding access to justice, peace-building, state-building etc.,) tend to “frame the problem” when it comes to engagement with legal pluralism and will reflect specifically on how these approaches affect a range of key post conflict objectives. Finally it will consider the building blocks needed to define strategic objectives for engagement with legal pluralism.
Initiatives in Justice Reform 1992-2012
Initiatives in justice reform are a compendium of World Bank-financed activities in justice reform that has been published by the World Bank in seven editions since 2000. This eighth volume of initiatives in justice reform presents brief summaries of World Bank justice reform projects, grants, and research by region and by country, in alphabetical order. In their totality, these descriptions highlight the breadth of the Bank's work in this critical field of development. The importance of a sound justice sector to development is illustrated in cross country data sets such as the World Bank's Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) indicators and the World Bank Institute's (WBI) governance indicators, which demonstrate a correlation between deficiencies in the rule of law and negative economic and social development. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) annual publication doing business also provides a quantitative measure for comparing business regulations in 10 indicator sets across 183 economies. Four general themes emerge as common elements in World Bank justice reform assistance: 1) court management and performance, 2) access to justice, 3) legal information and education, and 4) justice in development.
To access the entire article Initiatives in justice reform 1992-2012, kindly click on the link.