Report of the Joint Security Sector Reform Assessment Mission to the Central African Republic

This report is a product of the Joint Assistance Mission to CAR, conducted by the African Union, European Union, the United Nations and the African Security Sector Network, in conjunction with the Government of the CAR. It presents an analysis of the evolution of the CAR security sector, the current situation since the crisis that started in 2013, a threat assessment of the country, and makes recommendations, on the way forward in the short term before the elections planned for 2015, and in the medium and long terms after the elections.

Content

Executive Summary
Introduction
Findings of the Mission
Summary of Recommendations
Chapter I – Political, Socio-economic and Security Context

  • Political
  • Socioeconomic Analysis
  • Existing spoilers and armed groups
  • The Ex-Seleka Coalition
  • The Anti-Balaka Militias
  • Zaraguinas “coupeur de route”
  • Poachers
  • The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA)

Chapter II - Threats Assessment of the Central African Republic

  • Overview
  • Borders and Neighbours
  • Environmental Threats
  • Demographic Stress
  • Inter-communal Violence

Chapter III – The CAR Security Sector Reform Coordination Mechanism

  • Background on the coordination mechanism
  • Current Coordination Mechanisms
  • Gap analysis
  • Recommendations
  • Short-term (Until the elections)
  • Medium-term (After the elections)

Chapter IV - Police, Gendarmerie and the Status of Intelligence Services

  • The Police and Gendarmerie before the 2013 crisis
  • The National Police
  • The Gendarmerie
  • The Police and Gendarmerie after the 2013 crisis
  • Observations and Recommendations
    • Short term (Before the elections)
    • Long term (After the elections)

Chapter V – The Central African Armed Forces (FACA)

  • Background
  • The CAR Air Forces and Fluvial Battalion
  • Current Status of FACA
  • National and International Framework
  • Operational challenges
  • International community projects related to the army
  • Threats to and opportunities for the army
  • Recommendations
    • Short-term (Before the elections)
    • Medium-term (After the elections)

Chapter VI - The Forest Guards and Customs Services

  • The CAR Forest Guards
  • The Customs Services
  • Recommendations

Chapter VII – The Justice and Penitentiary System

  • Overall organisation
  • The Penitentiary System
  • Observations and Recommendations
  • Short term (Before the elections)
  • Medium term (After the elections)

Chapter VIII - Democratic Control and Non-State Actors

  • Overview and arrangements for the transition period
  • Civil Society & non-state actors
  • Private Security Companies
  • Recommendations
    • Short-term (Up to the elections)
    • Medium and long-term (After the elections)

Chapter IX – The Gender Dimension in the Current Context of the Central African Republic

  • The realities and opportunities of gender mainstreaming in CAR
  • Gender issues in the armed and security forces
  • Recommendations
    • Short-term (Up to the elections)
    • Medium and long-term (After the elections)

Chapter X - Linking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration and Security Sector Reform in Central African Republic

  • Background and Former DDR assistance
  • Background from 2008 to 2013
  • Background from 2013 to February 2014
  • The importance of coordination at different levels
  • Challenges
  • Recommendations for the improvement of linkages between DDR and SSR
    • Short-term (Up to the elections)
    • Medium-term (After the elections)

Bibliography
ANNEX I - Members of the Joint Assessment Mission
ANNEX II - List of People and Organisations consulted
ANNEX III - Table of current support provided by the International Community on SSR related issues
ANNEX IV - Constellations of Stakeholders in the Security Sector of the CAR

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Publisher

2014