South Sudan, The Republic of

South Sudan, The Republic of



Identifying capacity, dealing with trauma

Ferdinand von Habsburg, strategic advisor to the UNDP, shares some of his experiences as an advisor on security sector reform in South Sudan. He addresses aspects an advisor must consider when assessing existing capacity, identifying gaps, and designing a capacity development plan as well as ensuring buy-in. He touches also upon the effects that post-traumatic stress disorder can play in affecting capacity.

Questions asked during the interview:

1. What aspects would an adviser have to think about when designing a capacity development plan?

2. How can buy-in be ensured for an SSR programme?

Part 2 of the interview is looks at sustainability versus dependency.


Sustainability versus dependency

Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen, a former strategic advisor to the UNDP, shares his experiences implementing security sector reform in South Sudan. He discusses the process and challenges of implementing SSR strategies in a newly formed state and provides advice to those going out to the demanding and delicate role of advising.

Questions asked during the interview: 

1. How can sustainability be ensured without creating dependency?

2. Have you ever been asked to do the work instead of providing support?

3. Have you ever come across cases of corruption and how do you deal with them?

4. What top tips would you give to a new advisor in charge of designing a capacity development plan?

Part 1 of this interview discusses identifying capacity and dealing with trauma.


Empowerment for Progress - civil society engagement in SSR

Edmond Yakani, coordinator of the Empowerment for Progress in South Sudan, discusses the role of civil society in security sector reform. He shares experience from interacting with members of the security sector, executive and legislature. He discusses how to effectively manage these relationships and dynamics of reform. He also provides insight into how civil society in South Sudan handles gender in the security sector by capitalizing on quality rather than quantity.  


SSR Lessons from Ethiopia and South Sudan

An interview with General Tsadkan Gebretensae, who has overseen SSR programmes in his native Ethiopia and more recently has worked as an advisor in South Sudan.


Addressing Short and Long-term Security Issues in South Sudan

In light of the internal conflict which erupted in South Sudan in December 2013, this video interview with UNMISS SRSG Hilde Johnson, which was conducted over a year earlier, still highlights some of the challenges facing stability in South Sudan. SRSG Johnson discusses some of the long and short-term challenges, and some of the mechanisms being used to carry out disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR).


Meeting the challenges of advising on SSR

Interview and insights from Eirin Mobekk, Chief Security Sector Reform Section at UNMISS at the time of this interview. She is author of several articles and books, including 'Security Sector Reform and the Challenges of Ownership', in The Future of Security Sector Reform edited by Mark Sedra. 

 Areas of the interview include:

  • typical challenges faced by an SSR adviser
  • coordinating in the face of resistance
  • balancing short-term results with long-term goals
  • helping communities understand the value of SSR
  • the importance of local ownership

Whether it's a strategy, a policy, anything like that, or more basic lower level training etc, etc, without local ownership it's not going to work. Ever.


Trends, Setbacks and Sustainability of International Community Support to SSR

This 11-minute video-interview with Wally Vrey, Regional Coordinator for DDR, Southern Sudan at the United Nations in Sudan, considers:

  • the global trends in security sector reform
  • managing situations when SSR enthusiasm dampens
  • providing long-term support without dependency

"We have to cultivate national ownership - it's not going to come and grow from itself," Wally Vrey.

Wally Vrey

Cattle Raiding and Small Arms Control in South Sudan

Cattle-raiding has a long history in South Sudan, but the vast supply of small arms in civilian hands has led to the raids becoming more violent in recent years. In remote areas the South Sudan Police Service lacks the capacity to protect communities and so many cattle herders keep arms to defend themselves. In this video, Saferworld sets out the problem of small arms proliferation in South Sudan and how we are working with the government and local partners to encourage dynamic and strategic solutions to prevent violent cattle raiding.


Soudan : un air de printemps

Au Soudan, cela fait bientôt un mois que des manifestants tiennent un sit-in devant le QG de l'armée à Khartoum, la capitale. Dans la foulée de la chute du président Omar el-Béchir le 11 avril 2019, ils exigent la fin du régime militaire au pouvoir depuis des décennies et la mise en place d'une démocratie. Nos reporters Bastien Renouil, Élodie Cousin et Julia Steers ont suivi trois acteurs de cette révolte, des Soudanais ordinaires qui se battent pour un avenir meilleur.

Au Soudan, un coup d'État militaire aura finalement mis fin aux 29 années de dictature d’Omar el-Béchir. À la suite d'un soulèvement populaire inédit, en décembre 2018, l'armée s'est mise à protéger les manifestants des services de sécurité loyaux à l'ancien chef d’État, avant de déclarer sa destitution le 11 avril dernier.


Case Study: Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen

In this eight minute abridged video, Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen, a former strategic advisor to the United Nations Development Programme in South Sudan, shares his experiences on the dilemmas encountered in assessing existing capacity and identifying gaps when implementing Security Sector Reform in South Sudan. He discusses the process and challenges of implementing SSR strategies in a newly formed state and provides advice to those going out to the demanding and delicate role of advising. The full video of this interview can be found here.



Sécurité africaine : l'entrée de la Chine

Ce podcast de l'European Council on Foreign Relations (ECFR) Paris s'intéresse à la politique de sécurité de la Chine en Afrique. Historiquement présente via des ventes d'armes et une implication dans les opérations de maintien de la paix, la perception qu'a la Chine de son rôle dans la sécurité globale évolue, et elle s'implique en conséquence différemment en Afrique. Le principe de non-ingérence est toujours central, mais d'une méfiance historique envers les opérations de maintien de la paix suivie d'une participation limitée aux rôles de soutien, la Chine passe depuis 2012 à un engagement plus important dans des rôles de combat.

Autour de ces questions, les intervenants, Abigaël Vasselier, Manuel Lafont Rapnouil, Mathieu Duchâtel et Tara Varma, discutent aussi du contact entre les populations locales et les effectifs chinois ainsi que des tensions qui, inévitablement, apparaissent sur le terrain pour les forces engagées dans le maintien de la paix. Passant de Juba au Mali pour des exemples sur les différents sujets, les intervenants discutent aussi du rapport entre les missions européennes et l'Armée populaire de libération chinoise.

Pour accéder au podcast de l'ECFR Paris Sécurité africaine : l'entrée de la Chine, veuillez suivre le lien.


High Level Panel Session on SSR (East Africa) : Lessons from the Country Case Studies (Session 5: 03-10-12)

Moderator: Professor Eboe Hutchful, Chair of the African Security Sector Network (ASSN)

Ambassador Antoine Ntamobwa, Director General for North American Affairs Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Burundi
Dr. Norman Mlambo, SSR Focal Point, African Union
Brigadier Kellie Conteh, UNMISS Advisor to the Minister of National Security, South Sudan


National Healing, Peace and Reconciliation in South Sudan

Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen, Advisor at the Committee for National Healing, Peace and Reconciliation in South Sudan, discusses with ISSAT's Teohna Williams progress to date and the challenges of working with a traumatised post-conflict population.


Global Governance and Local Peace

Why do international peacebuilding organizations sometimes succeed and sometimes fail, even within the same country? Bridging the gaps between the peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and global governance scholarship, Susanna P. Campbell argues in this podcast that international peacebuilding organizations repeatedly fail because they are accountable to global actors, not to local institutions or people. International peacebuilding organizations can succeed only when country-based staff bypass existing accountability structures and empower local stakeholders to hold their global organizations accountable for achieving local-level peacebuilding outcomes.

To listen to the podcast Global Governance and Local Peace, kindly follow the link. 


Policy and Research Papers

New War, Old Enemies: Conflict Dynamics in South Kordofan

This Working Paper describes the first year of renewed war in South Kordofan (June 2011–July 2012), focusing on the conduct and dynamics of the conflict and the primary armed actors. It also identifies shared weapons and ammunition holdings based on detailed accounts of materiel seized, as well as photographs and first-hand physical inspections.
 While the war in South Kordofan is fundamentally a conflict between primarily (Northern) Sudanese actors for control of the state, it also has clear cross-border implications—as SAF’s air strikes in Unity state and the Southern fighters’ temporary seizure of the Hejlij oil fields attest. This paper reviews these border aspects of the conflict and its impacts on relations between Khartoum and Juba.

To view this article, please follow this link.


The Road Ahead: Challenges and Opportunities of SSR 2013

On 2-3 October 2012, DCAF-ISSAT organised a High Level Panel (HLP) on Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform (SSR) in East Africa , in partnership with the United Nations Office in Nairobi (UNON), the Governments of Burundi, Kenya, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Somalia and South Sudan, the African Development Bank (AfDB), the African Union (AU), East African Community (EAC), Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the African Security Sector Network (ASSN). It was attended by over two hundred SSR policy makers and practitioners.

This report seeks to take those discussions further, including more of the points raised by participants during the HLP, and adding in lessons from experience gathered from individual missions and related trainings. Three case studies featured in the HLP (Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan) and as such provide many of the examples, although the report also draws from examples beyond East Africa. An introductory section on SSR in each of these countries is provided in section one and full case studies are included in the annex.

This report, which keeps to the same thematic areas as those covered in the HLP, offers information on contemporary thinking in security and justice reform, and provides some recommendations and examples of good practice to those interested in or engaged in SSR.

Some videos interviews of the participants at the event are listed in the Related Resources column on the right of this webpage. A full list of available videos from this event are available under the documents tab on the HLP's Events page. Podcasts of all the sessions are available there also.


Freedom in Southern Sudan: Priorities for post-referendum statebuilding

Few other countries have been through the birth pains that have been epitomized by Southern Sudan. The scars of civilian conflict and bitter internecine fighting will take a generation or more to heal, yet the results of the January 9, 2011 referendum are reflective not only of an abrogated and militarized history, but also of the determination of the peoples of Southern Sudan for the first time to be in the driving seat of their own destiny. However, the experience of other countries treading a similar path towards independence reveals that the road from war to peace and from dependence to full sovereignty is often as big a challenge as the struggle itself. This short briefing paper seeks to identify, based on international experience, the major challenges and state building priorities likely to be faced by the Government of Southern Sudan. The paper outlines core state-building priorities across the triple-transition (political, security and socio-economic) using political economy as the lens of analysis. Core challenges include securing the integrity of the new state, boundary demarcation, and a plethora of issues resulting from the division of one state into two, such as revenue sharing arrangements, national debt (USD36 billion owed to international creditors) nationality and immigration issues in both the north and south, signature to international treaties including on the Nile, simmering land conflict in the south and overly high expectations bound to be dashed given low delivery capacities. The birth of Southern Sudan comes with a clause; the umbilical cord is still attached!


'Everything is at Zero'. Beyond the Referendum. Drivers and Choices for Development in Southern Sudan

The purpose of this paper is, however, not to add to the extensive literature speculating on various outcomes and their consequences. Serious efforts are currently
being made by the parties themselves, the African Union, other regional partners, the UN and other international stakeholders to address the immediate challenges so as to secure a peaceful transition after the expiry of the interim period. This paper, rather, focuses on the one variable that remains constant in both scenarios, which is long-term and strategic in nature: The ability of the South – where ‘everything’, in the words of its President, ‘is at zero’ – to develop and improve the lives of its ten million people.


Aiding the Peace. A Multi-donor Evaluation of Support to Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Activities in Southern Sudan 2005–2010

This report of the evaluation of donor support to conflict prevention and peacebuilding activities in Southern Sudan comes at a critical juncture in the history of Sudan. The 2011 referendum on the future of the region is the promise given to the citizens of Southern Sudan as part of the historic peace agreement of 2005. The report was prepared during the lead up to the referendum.

The present evaluation examines the international community’s efforts to support conflict mitigation and peacebuilding as well as to provide immediate peace dividends to the Southern Sudanese people in the period following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005. By assessing the extent of progress made and pointing out the factors driving success or failure, the evaluation aims to provide an input into ongoing discussions, future policies and strategies on how to possibly improve the relevance, effectiveness and impact of international engagement in peacebuilding processes in Southern Sudan. By their nature evaluations are backward and forward looking, providing accountability and suggesting lessons for future actions. In looking forward this particular evaluation draws on the period 2005 – 2010 in order to inform future donor policies and strategies as Southern Sudan enters a new era.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Building Police Institutions in Fragile States - Case Studies from Africa

The police are one of the most critical institutions of the state. This is particularly true in nations emerging from conflict, which are characterized by insecurity and high levels of crime. Without security, governments cannot begin rebuilding their economies and improving the lives of their citizens. As a result, they will continue to struggle for legitimacy, and a return to conflict will remain an ever-present risk. For citizens, a police officer is the symbolic representation of state authority. Their view of the state and their acceptance of its authority are partially shaped by their interactions with the police.

Unfortunately, many Africans have entirely negative perceptions of the police. In many countries, the police are ineffective, unprofessional, corrupt, even predatory. Their primary interest is in protecting the government in power rather than serving the public. They are often sources of insecurity rather than providers of security—people to avoid, not to seek out, in the event of trouble. For other African citizens, particularly those living outside urban areas, the police are conspicuous by their absence. Many, perhaps the majority, of Africans rely on non-state security providers such as neighborhood watch groups and chiefdom police to keep them safe.

The aim of this report is to look at what the United States has been doing to help reform or transform the police in three African states: Liberia, Sierra Leone, and South Sudan. It provides recommendations of what could be done better, or differently, based on an assumption that the federal budget for overseas policing will remain small. The findings are based on meetings with policymakers and other experts in Washington, D.C., as well as interviews with program implementers, government officials, police, and civil society representatives in all three countries.

To view this publication, please follow this link.


Politics and Transition in the New South Sudan

This paper cautions that unless there is an opening of political space and a participatory transition, the soon to be independent government risks recreating the kind of centralised, authoritarian and ultimately unstable state it finally managed to escape. The ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) cobbled together an important, though tentative, Southern consensus ahead of the January 2011 referendum. But its choke-hold on power and a “winner-takes-all” approach to the transition have since jeopardised those gains. Meanwhile, armed insurgencies, militia activity and army defections highlight internal fault lines and latent grievances within the security sector. 


Reconciliation in South Sudan in the Context of the Current Crisis

In March 2014, the Center for Peacebuilding (KOFF) organised a roundtable to discuss ways in which Swiss actors could support ongoing reconciliation processes in conflict affected South Sudan. In the following pages Ferdinand von Habsburg-Lothringen, former Advisor to the Committee for National Healing, Peace and Reconciliation in South Sudan, first shares his view on reconciliation in South Sudan in relation to the current crisis. In the second part Briony Jones, Senior Researcher of Dealing with the Past Program, Swisspeace, explores core aspects of the notion “reconciliation”.


Beyond the Pledge: International engagement after Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Just ahead of the historic separation between North and South Sudan, this report highlights the environment of violence within all of Sudan that is miring the event. There are many challenges ahead for economic development, improvement of governance and security, and sustaining a peace between the North and South while also defusing their own internal conflicts. The report sets out a number of recommendations for the international community in continuing and improving upon relations with both the North and the South to ensure that the principles of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) are left to the side following cessation.


EU State Building Contracts: early lessons from the EU's new budget support instrument for fragile states

The European Union (EU) began using State Building Contracts (SBCs) to provide budget support to fragile and conflict affected states in early 2013.  Over the next five years, the EU plans to use more than two thirds of funding under the 11th European Development Fund and over half from the Development Cooperation Instrument for 2014–2020 to assist people in fragile situations. The State Building Contract is a key instrument in the EU’s fragile states toolkit, and thus likely to increase in visibility and importance. At the same time, while most European Member States’ development agencies are gradually shifting away from the use of budget support, they continue to provide fiscal support in fragile states through the EU’s SBCs and through budget support-like instruments.

Read full description and download PDF


Security Sector Reform in South Sudan and prospects for peace

Escalation since April in the conflict in South Sudan left little hope a settlement could be reached any time soon. Both government and opposition forces appeared dedicated to a military solution. In the past weeks however renewed hope has come from a series of engagements by 1) the South African government, 2) progress in reconciliation between the G10 group of leaders, and 3) renewed offers of conciliation by President Kiir himself. Those close to the situation however continue to see a major impasse from the various commanders of the opposition forces, who continue to reject deals on offer. This research article by Matthew Leriche examines the causes and implications of these obstacles, as well as the "new security market" in South Sudan derived from the SSR agenda. 

Read the piece here.


South Sudan: On the Brink of Renewed War

A major breach of the agreement signed in Addis Ababa and Juba in August to end South Sudan’s now two-year old civil war is increasingly likely. While low-level conflict is continuing in Unity state, conflict is now escalating in the Equatorias and Western Bahr el Ghazal. Many of the disparate members of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army-In Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) reject the agreement, while the government shies from implementing a deal it believes is to its detriment. The heads of state of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD, the regional body that mediated the agreement), former Botswanan President Festus Moghae, head of the agreement’s Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC), and key states that partnered with IGAD, including China, Norway, the U.S. and the UK, must take urgent, united action to put the peace process back on track or South Sudan will enter the new year at war again.

Link to the paper: South Sudan: On the Brink of Renewed War


Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in South Sudan: The Case of Western Equatoria’s Arrows Boys

Arrow boys

The Centre for Security Governance (CSG) published of a new CSG Paper analysing the arrow boys, a militia in South Sudan’s south-western region established as a civilian protection mechanism, to understand how non-state security providers affect the process of state formation and security governance in South Sudan.
This is the second of four papers produced as part of the CSG’s project on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in Conflict-Affected States.

For full access to the paper on Non-State Security Providers and Political Formation in South Sudan: The Case of Western Equatoria’s Arrows Boys, kindly follow the link.


Transitional policing in South Sudan’s peace agreement: Joint Integrated Police


The formation of a new Joint Integrated Police (JIP) unit – mandated by South Sudan’s August 2015 peace agreement – is now well under way. The unit, which is charged with providing security in some of the most fragile locations in the country, has a potential role to play in enhancing stability. However, challenges related to training, vetting and deployment mean that not only does the JIP risk failing to deliver on its policing mandate but it also risks actively contributing to conflict dynamics. This briefing outlines some of the potential difficulties associated with the JIP and some of the challenges the unit is likely to face in delivering security for communities. It is intended to inform those planning to support the JIP and the security sector reform process in South Sudan going forward.

To access the full Transitional policing in South Sudan’s peace agreement: Joint Integrated Police briefing, kindly follow the link.


Access to Justice in South Sudan


The University for Peace's Peace and Conflict Studies Programme, in partnership with PAX and the South Sudan Law Society, has published this policy brief that assesses the rates of seven types of violent crime – cattle raiding, armed robbery, physical assault, murder, sexual assault, abduction and torture – in various parts of South Sudan and examines the choices that South Sudanese make when confronted with instances of violent crime. The brief is structured in three sections. The first section provides an overview of existing justice systems in South Sudan. The second section provides information on crime incidence rates in the midst of conflict and in more stable settings. The third section provides detailed findings about the choices that people make when confronted with violent crimes. The conclusion summarises the main findings and provides recommendations for how to cultivate demand for justice and ensure the available services are in line with user needs.

For full access to the report on Access to Justice in South Sudan, kindly follow the link.


The first crack in Africa’s map?

A Brenthurst discussion paper (2012/01) tackling the case of South Sudan six months on from achieving statehood. South Sudan is facing serious challenges: economic warfare with Sudan, the emergence of Cashmir-like scenarios on their border and renewed internecine conflicts within its own territory. None of these threats were unforeseen by the African Union or the wider international community in the months and years leading up to independence. In some respects, how the new state of South Sudan would address these issues could either soften the firm stance against changing Africa's borders or cement international opinion against any further 'balkanisation' of Africa.  

This Discussion Paper considers whether South Sudan's secession has made independence more likely for other would-be states in Africa, from Somaliland to Cabinda. Based on extensive discussions between senior policy makers and academics at a high-level workshop convened by the Brenthurst Foundation in collaboration with the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung in September 2011, as well as additional research, the Paper argues that Africa's borders are likely to remain stubbornly resistant to change despite Sudan's historic split -  and this stance has likely only been reinforced by South Sudan's troubled start.  Although the South Sudan case is likely to remain an exception rather than a precedent, the Arab Spring is a salutary reminder, if any was needed, that events have a way of building on themselves. For all the powerful constraints on secession highlighted in this Paper, the much-feared balkanisation of Africa must never be dismissed as fanciful. 

The idea of self-determination is not on the wane in Africa - South Sudan's long struggle will surely embolden existing secessionist groups and may inspire new movements - but the obstacles to independent statehood appear as formidable as ever.


Stabilization in Eastern and Central Africa: Insights from Somalia, South Sudan and the DRC

RVI Stabilsation

This Meeting Report by the Rift Valley Institute (RVI) presents highlights from a two-day regional conference organised in 2014 with the University of Gothenburg. The conference took place in Kenya and assembled participants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Somalia and South Sudan as well as academics and specialists from Europe and North America. The gathering sought to question, review, evaluate and exchange lessons on stabilisation programmes in the DRC, Somalia and South Sudan with the aim of informing policies that enhance peace and security in eastern and central Africa. 

Rather than presenting the debates and their conclusions in full, this report gives a central space to voices from countries that are subject to stabilisation programmes and complements their statements, explanations and clarifications with those of regional and international specialists and experienced practitioners in international aid, development and stabilization.

To access the RVI Meeting Report Stabilization in Eastern and Central Africa: Insights from Somalia, South Sudan and the DRC, kindly follow the link.


Access to Justice in a Post-conflict State: Donor-supported Multidimensional Peacekeeping in Southern Sudan

Who are the main providers of justice and police services in post-conflict Southern Sudan? Why is a focus on state justice unworkable in Southern Sudan and other post-conflict countries? This article examines justice and policing in Southern Sudan and questions the assumptions that underlie donor-driven access to justice and rule of law programmes. The key issue is to strengthen legitimate existing providers first, rather than to assume for ideological reasons that central government is, can, or should be the main provider.

For full access to the article Access to Justice in a Post-conflict State: Donor-supported Multidimensional Peacekeeping in Southern Sudan, kindly follow the link. 


South Sudan: Rearranging the Chessboard

Fighting in Juba in July ended efforts that had brought President Salva Kiir and former First Vice President Riek Machar together in a transitional government. Since then, Kiir has played a weak hand well, reconfiguring domestic and regional politics in his favour. Machar’s exile makes the president more amenable to certain compromises. The result has been calm in the capital, while national peace remains distant with much of the country under fragile local truces or in conflict. The government’s ability to balance its military and diplomatic advantages with peacemaking will determine whether conflict diminishes. Regional consensus to support it and isolate armed opposition groups presents a brief window when a strengthened Juba’s political calculations favour ending conflicts. Regional and wider international powers should seize the opportunity to push strongly for inclusive national dialogue and negotiations with rebel groups focused on politics (eg, governance arrangements), local security dynamics, the economy and communal relations rather than military-based solutions.

For full access to the report South Sudan: Rearranging the Chessboard, kindly follow the link.


Findings around conflict sensitivity and food aid in Northern Bahr el-Ghazal

This briefing paper sheds light on some aspects of the conflict sensitivity of food aid in former Northern Bahr el Ghazal (NBeG). In contrast to other states, NBeG has been spared by large scale armed violence, but it is affected by a severe food security crisis that has forced tens of thousands of people to move to Sudan. The paper is based on semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions conducted in former NBeG (Aweil East and Aweil states) in late February and early March 2017.

For full access to Findings around conflict sensitivity and food aid in Northern Bahr el-Ghazal, kindly follow the link.


Keeping the Hotline Open Between Sudan and South Sudan

A UN mission has largely succeeded in keeping the peace in Abyei, an oil-rich area claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan. But there has been less progress made on the mission's work in aiding political mechanisms to determine the final status of Abyei and demilitarise and demarcate the border. As the UN Security Council debates the mission's scope, these mechanisms deserve ongoing support.

For further accessing the commentary on Keeping the Hotline Open Between Sudan and South Sudan, please kindly follow the link. 


Envisager un Soudan du Sud stable

Alors que la diplomatie régionale et internationale se concentre à juste titre sur la fin immédiate des hostilités, le Centre d’études stratégiques de l’Afrique a demandé à une sélection d’universitaires sud-soudanais et internationaux, de spécialistes de la sécurité et de leaders de la société civile de partager leurs visions sur les obstacles stratégiques que le pays doit surmonter pour accomplir une transition de son état actuel de dissimilation à une réalité plus stable.

Ces visions, prises individuellement et collectivement, ont pour but d’aider à définir certaines des priorités et conditions préalables pour transformer le paysage sécuritaire hautement fragmenté d’aujourd’hui au Soudan du Sud en un environnement où les citoyens sont en sécurité dans leur propre pays et protégés des menaces extérieures.

Afin d'accéder à l'analyse, Envisager un Soudan du Sud stable, veuillez suivre le lien.


Peace and Conflict Assessment of South Sudan - 2012

This report is an assessment of peace, conflict and peacebuilding in South Sudan, conducted between June 2011 and March 2012. It analyses how local, national and international dynamics around independence in July 2011 and the end of the six-and-a-half-year formal Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) process with Sudan have impacted on peace and conflict in 2011–2012 and how they are likely to influence peace and development over the next decade. Utilising International Alert’s Peacebuilding Framework, it assesses the dynamics, structures and opportunities for building a positive peace under five Peace Factors: Power, Economy, Safety, Justice and Well-being. It also analyses some of the challenges and impact of peacebuilding actors, institutions and strategies over the CPA period and provides a series of recommendations on improving peacebuilding programming beyond 2012 in terms of prioritising approaches, target locations and actors/partners. It concludes that, while the enjoyment of peace is highly variable across South Sudan, the nation as a whole and few if any of its constituent peoples or counties have yet experienced a positive, sustainable peace. Conflictual and rapidly worsening relations with Sudan as well as uncertainty about the length of suspension of oil exports (and thus revenues) appear likely to aggravate longstanding deficits in governance, security, economic opportunity, justice and reconciliation. This in turn increases the risk that South Sudan will become more violent in 2012 and beyond. Follow this link to view the publication.


Revitalizing Peace in South Sudan: Citizen Perceptions of the Peace Process

From October to November 2018, the South Sudan Civil Society Forum (SSCSF), a coalition of more than two hundred South Sudanese civic organizations, surveyed 1,147 people in five locations in South Sudan and a refugee camp in Uganda to better understand their views on the peace process and the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (R-ARCSS). The report summarizes the main findings and recommendations.

To read the full report Revitalizing Peace in South Sudan: Citizen Perceptions of the Peace Process, please follow the link.


Informal Conclusions of the Chair: High Level Panel on the Challenges and Opportunities for Security Sector Reform (SSR) in East Africa

The overall purpose of the High Level Panel (October 2nd-3rd 2012) was to take stock of the challenges when implementing security and justice reforms at a national level; to identify lessons that could be applied to other SSR processes in the Eastern African region; and to look at what role regional and international actors could optimally have in SSR initiatives. The High Level Panel brought together over 200 SSR policy makers and practitioners to unpack the key issues faced by both those implementing and leading SSR. Those attending the event were experts responsible for leading and implementing processes in Burundi, Somalia and South Sudan, as well as key donors, regional and multilateral organisations and representatives from the African Security Sector Network and other civil society organisations. 

This report reflects the informal conclusions drawn from the selected country-case studies as well as thematic debates at the High-Level Panel. 


Bilan de l’Accord revitalisé sur la résolution du conflit au Soudan du Sud

La signature de l’accord revitalisé sur la résolution du conflit au Soudan du Sud (R-ARCSS) par les rivaux de longue date Salva Kiir et Riek Machar à Khartoum en septembre 2018 a été saluée comme une percée décisive dans la résolution du conflit civil qui a coûté la vie à 400 000 victimes et a forcé le déplacement de plus de 4 millions de personnes depuis le début du conflit en décembre 2013. Cette analyse, qui s’articule autour des principaux éléments de l’accord, évalue l’évolution de la situation depuis la signature et les perspectives de mise en pratique pour l’avenir.

Pour accéder à l'article, Bilan de l’Accord revitalisé sur la résolution du conflit au Soudan du Sud, veuillez suivre le lien.


The European Union and security sector reform: South Sudan and the challenge of ownership

Security sector reform (SSR) is a cornerstone of the EU's crisis management activities. Africa, along with the Western Balkans and Eastern Europe, has received special emphasis in this regard from the EU. Thus, immediately after the independence of South Sudan, the EU deployed an aviation security mission, EUAVSEC South Sudan, within the framework of its Common Security and Defence Policy. The aim of the mission was to contribute to strengthening aviation security, border control and law enforcement under local ownership, in order to raise the standards at Juba Airport to internationally accepted levels. This paper analyses Common Security and Defence Policy engagement in the context of security sector reform in Africa and critically reflects on the implementation of the EU's comprehensive approach in South Sudan. Further, it examines to what extent local ownership could be achieved with regard to EUAVSEC South Sudan.

To access the full article, The European Union and security sector reform: South Sudan and the challenge of ownership, please follow the link provided.


The European Union’s Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan

When South Sudan gained independence in 2011, the new country needed assistance from external actors during the transition to prevent the security situation from deteriorating. In 2012 the EU launched its Aviation Security Mission (EUAVSEC) in South Sudan as part of its Common Security and Defence Policy. 
This came in response to a South Sudanese request for EU support and assistance in strengthening the security in Juba International Airport, as it had proven difficult for South Sudan to establish a fully operational transport hub. The EU estimated that an improvement of the airport security would contribute to the fight against crime and international terrorism, but also allow for a greater flow of people and goods, which in return would increase trade levels and promote regional integration. The mission, however, never reached full operational capacity, and due to an overall deterioration of the security situation in the country, all EU personnel were evacuated in January 2014, and the mission was (informally) terminated after fulfilling its mandated deployment period. 
Even though the mission had succeeded in training 350 personnel prior to the evacuation, its contribution to the overall security situation in South Sudan was limited, partly due to a misguided mission objective. Despite its shortcomings, the EUAVSEC mission can provide valuable lessons for future CSDP missions and operations.

To read the full policy brief, The European Union’s Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan, please follow the link provided.


Prioritizing and Sequencing Peacekeeping Mandates: The Case of UNMISS

In September 2018, warring parties in South Sudan signed the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS), which has resulted in several positive developments, including the establishment of transitional committees and a reduction in casualties of political violence. In spite of this, however, the UN mission (UNMISS) and humanitarian actors continue to confront impediments to complete and unhindered success. Threats against civilians continue, armed groups are clashing, and implementation of key R-ARCSS provisions is behind schedule.

In this context, the International Peace Institute (IPI), the Stimson Center, and Security Council Report organized a workshop on February 6, 2019, to discuss UNMISS’s mandate and political strategy. This workshop offered a platform for member states, UN actors, and outside experts to share their assessment of the situation in South Sudan. The discussion was intended to help the Security Council make informed decisions with respect to the strategic orientation, prioritization, and sequencing of the mission’s mandate and actions on the ground. The workshop focused on the dynamics of the current political process in South Sudan, including the challenges facing the implementation of the R-ARCSS and continuing threats to civilians, the UN mission, and humanitarian actors. Participants identified several ideas to strengthen and adapt UNMISS’s mandate to help the mission advance its political strategy and achieve the Security Council’s objectives in the coming year.

Workshop participants encouraged the Security Council to maintain the UNMISS mandate’s flexible nature and advised against making radical changes. They highlighted several opportunities to improve the mission’s mandate by refining existing tasks to ensure the mission is well-positioned to respond to changes in the operating environment. Among these, the Council should authorize the mission to provide technical support to the peace process, maintain flexible POC language and mandate the mission to facilitate voluntary returns from POC sites, and encourage continued regional engagement in South Sudan’s political process.

To read the full paper, Prioritizing and Sequencing Peacekeeping Mandates: The Case of UNMISS, please follow the link provided. 


In South Sudan, Nonviolent Action is Essential to Building Peace

On September 12 of last year, South Sudan’s president, Salva Kiir, signed the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan(R-ARCSS) with South Sudan People Liberation Movement in Opposition chairman Dr. Riek Machar and several other armed groups. Meanwhile, South Sudanese civil society has sought to further advance the country’s peace process through coordinated, strategic nonviolent actions and campaigns.

There is hope among South Sudanese that this agreement will finally bring about peace and there have been some positive indicators despite the challenges it is facing for it's implementation.

To access the full paper In South Sudan, Nonviolent Action is Essential to Building Peace, please follow the link provided.


A Challenge for Peacekeeping: Balancing Static Protection with Mobility in South Sudan

Since the outbreak of civil war in South Sudan in December 2013, UNMISS has provided protection to several hundred thousand civilians who sought shelter on their bases around the country. With limited resources, UNMISS has struggled to provide protection to civilians that reside in the POC sites, and to also project resources to provide protection for the many more civilians outside of the sites.

Like its predecessor, the new UN Security Council mandate recognizes the important role that UNMISS plays providing protection to the POC sites and directs the Mission to continue to “maintain public safety and security of and within UNMISS protection of civilians sites.” However, the mandate also includes new language that emphasizes the need for UNMISS to “support the facilitation of the safe, informed, voluntary, and dignified return or relocation” of displaced persons and imposes a 180-day deadline for the mission to complete an assessment of each POC site, including the model for providing security to the sites and steps necessary to foster a secure environment for the safe, informed, voluntary, and dignified returns and relocations of displaced persons.

Nuanced and location specific assessments of POC sites could help UNMISS better understand security threats to civilians in and around the sites and plan to address them. However, the timeline for the assessments is short and setting a deadline on assessments could inadvertently create pressure on Mission officials to begin supporting population movements that are potentially risky given the conflict environment.

This report examines the challenges the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) faces in adopting a more mobile and flexible approach to peacekeeping in South Sudan. It provides reflections on the balance the Mission should try to reach between increasing mobility and continuing to provide static protection to civilians sheltered in Protection of Civilians (POC) sites on UNMISS bases. These reflections are particularly important in light of UNMISS’s already stretched resources and new mandate language, which focuses on UNMISS’s role in facilitating returns and relocations for displaced persons.

To access the full report A Challenge for Peacekeeping: Balancing Static Protection with Mobility in South Sudan, please follow the link provided.


What’s Behind South Sudan’s Delayed Peace Deal

Now that the implementation of South Sudan’s shaky peace agreement has officially been delayed by six months, worries are mounting that a half year leaves enough time for things to go badly wrong in a country where distrust between the warring parties still runs deep.

In this briefing the author explores the challenges faced by all sides in putting in place a deal to end a five-year conflict that has killed almost 400,000 people, displaced millions, and plunged pockets of the country into famine.

Please follow the link provided to access the full paper, What’s Behind South Sudan’s Delayed Peace Deal.


The Religious Landscape in South Sudan: Challenges and Opportunities for Engagement

This study, conducted in South Sudan in 2017 and 2018, draws on informant interviews, focus groups, and consultations to better understand and map the religious sector in South Sudan. Its primary finding is that religious actors and institutions are the most important peace actors in the country. However, due in part to efforts by the government to constrain their influence, religious actors are not using their legitimacy effectively to turn the tide from war and violence to peace and reconciliation.

For full access to the paper, The Religious Landscape in South Sudan: Challenges and Opportunities for Engagement, kindly follow the link. 


Peace and stability in South Sudan: Challenges and recommendations

Between July 2017 and February 2019, Saferworld – together with its partners – organised eight state-level roundtable discussions to identify peace and safety concerns and provide recommendations for strengthening community safety. The events brought together state-level and local authorities, heads of organised forces (military, police and national security), UN agencies, national and international NGOs, community-based organisations, community members, religious leaders, and youth and women leaders. This briefing presents the main findings of those discussions and outlines recommendations for national, state and local government and civil society for improving peace and stability in South Sudan.

For full access to the paper, Peace and stability in South Sudan: Challenges and recommendations, kindly follow the link.


Sudan after Bashir: regional opportunities and challenges

Omar al-Bashir’s removal from power will have long-term effects on Sudan’s political future. Even though domestic considerations forced Bashir’s downfall, his extensive involvement in regional issues means his departure will resonate beyond the confines of Sudan’s borders. This report explores the regional implications of Bashir’s removal and the subsequent role of external actors in Sudan’s internal affairs.

For full access to the report Sudan after Bashir: regional opportunities and challenges, kindly follow the link. 


UN Police, Justice and Corrections Programming in South Sudan - A Compact Case Study

Case studies on police, justice and corrections programming for nine UN complex operations and special political missions were developed by Stimson’s Future of Peace Operations Program at the request of the Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions (OROLSI) of the UN’s Department of Peacekeeping Operations. They are descriptive rather than analytic documents that help to organize, by mission, the issues and activities that the main study, Understanding Impact of Police, Justice and Corrections in UN Peace Operations, treats functionally, across cases, and are summarized in the study’s annexes. 

To view the publication, please follow this link.


"Like the military of the village”: Security, justice and community defence groups in south-east South Sudan

This report explores how the various providers of security and justice have responded to violence associated with the civil war, intercommunal conflict, and gender-based violence in Torit and Kapoeta, south-east South Sudan. It asks to what extent the security and justice providers are effective, inclusive, and whether people see them as legitimate. The report aims to inform efforts to enhance people’s security and access to justice.

For full access to the paper Security, justice and community defence groups in south-east South Sudan, kindly follow the link. 


Other Documents

Breakdown in South Sudan. What Went Wrong -- and How to Fix It

Article on the current crisis in the republic of South Sudan. Please click on the following link:

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Donor-Driven Technical Fixes Failed South Sudan: It’s Time to Get Political

While commentators argue about who or what is most at fault for South Sudan's return to conflict, one thing is clear: the international community is not free from blame. 

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