Sudan

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Global Governance and Local Peace

Why do international peacebuilding organizations sometimes succeed and sometimes fail, even within the same country? Bridging the gaps between the peacekeeping, peacebuilding, and global governance scholarship, Susanna P. Campbell argues in this podcast that international peacebuilding organizations repeatedly fail because they are accountable to global actors, not to local institutions or people. International peacebuilding organizations can succeed only when country-based staff bypass existing accountability structures and empower local stakeholders to hold their global organizations accountable for achieving local-level peacebuilding outcomes.

To listen to the podcast Global Governance and Local Peace, kindly follow the link. 

Podcast

Soudan : radiographie d'une transition politique

Alors qu’au Liban, en Algérie, en Irak..., les soulèvements en cours croient à leur pouvoir de changement et de réforme, mais ne paraissent pas pour l'instant en position ni de négocier avec le pouvoir, ni de le prendre… le Soudan est aujourd’hui un contre-exemple.  Il ne s’agit pas de comparer des pays aux trajectoires très différentes mais de comprendre comment l’insurrection soudanaise a pu avoir des débouchés politiques concrets, même si on n’en est qu’aux prémices de la transition.

Pour écouter le podcast Soudan : radiographie d'une transition politique, veuillez suivre le lien. 

Podcast

Policy and Research Papers

Customary Justice and Legal Pluralism in Post-Conflict and Fragile Societies

While there has been a growing interest in customary justice systems among rule of law practitioners, it has remained very much at the margins of justice reform strategies. This session will challenge us to view customary justice and other forms of legal pluralism not as a side issue, but as a fundamental part of the justice landscapes in which we work. It will take a critical stance in reviewing the current range of overall policy approaches to legal pluralism and the preconceptions and assumptions that underlie those approaches. It will seek to identify and critically review how different approaches (rights-based, developmental, expanding access to justice, peace-building, state-building etc.,) tend to “frame the problem” when it comes to engagement with legal pluralism and will reflect specifically on how these approaches affect a range of key post conflict objectives. Finally it will consider the building blocks needed to define strategic objectives for engagement with legal pluralism.

Paper

Beyond the Pledge: International engagement after Sudan's Comprehensive Peace Agreement

Just ahead of the historic separation between North and South Sudan, this report highlights the environment of violence within all of Sudan that is miring the event. There are many challenges ahead for economic development, improvement of governance and security, and sustaining a peace between the North and South while also defusing their own internal conflicts. The report sets out a number of recommendations for the international community in continuing and improving upon relations with both the North and the South to ensure that the principles of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) are left to the side following cessation.

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Omar al-Bashir at the AU summit: The fragility of security without justice

This article published by the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) discusses the failure to arrest Omar al-Bashir at last week’s AU summit. The decision by the South African government to allow him to attend was in defiance of South Africa's obligations under the Rome Statute and a court order preventing his departure from the country on 15 June. According to the author, this shows that the International Criminal Court is struggling to maintain its legitimacy in Africa.

Read the article here.

Paper

Our fast-growing cities are becoming hotbeds of unrest. It doesn’t have to be that way

This policy brief from the World Economic Forum is drawing attention to the results of the Habitat III conference, which took place in Ecuador from 17-20 October and the promising policy ideas with potential to benefit billions of people living in cities. the author points out that in the New Urban Agenda, the document to guide the next 20 years of urbanization, the security and urbanization strategists are called to talk to each other as it has become indisputable that the way cities develop has a huge impact on security. 

Find the full brief on Our fast-growing cities are becoming hotbeds of unrest. It doesn’t have to be that way. 

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Rapport sur le Conseil de paix et de sécurité 90

Ce rapport de l'Institut des Etudes de Sécurité revient sur la 90e session du Conseil de Paix et de Sécurité de l'Union Africaine. Il évoque notamment la pérennisation de la menace terroriste dans au Mali et en Somalie, les avancées des forces progouvernementales au Darfour l'escalade des tensions entre le Royaume du Maroc et l'Union Africaine sur la question du Sahara Occidental. Sur le plan de la RSS, la dernière partie se penche sur Charte africaine de la démocratie, des élections et de la gouvernance dix ans après sa signature, et étudie plusieurs pistes pour consacrer sa mise en place. 

Pour accéder au Rapport sur le Conseil de paix et de sécurité 90 de l'Union Africaine, veuillez suivre le lien.

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Climat/environnement : des signaux faibles sur le plan sécuritaire ?

Ce rapport d’étude a pour objectif de comprendre dans quelle mesure le climat et l’environnement peuvent-ils – et ont-ils pu – contribuer à l’émergence des crises violentes. Il interroge donc le potentiel, encore mal compris, des changements climatiques et environnementaux à jouer le rôle de multiplicateur de menaces ou d’amplificateur de risques. Il s’appuie notamment sur trois cas d’étude pour évaluer leurs responsabilités dans le déclenchement de crises passées ou en cours (Syrie, Darfour, Nigéria)

Pour accéder à l'étude Climat/environnement : des signaux faibles sur le plan sécuritaire ?, veuillez suivre le lien. 

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Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

For full access to Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region, kindly follow the link. 

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Keeping the Hotline Open Between Sudan and South Sudan

A UN mission has largely succeeded in keeping the peace in Abyei, an oil-rich area claimed by both Sudan and South Sudan. But there has been less progress made on the mission's work in aiding political mechanisms to determine the final status of Abyei and demilitarise and demarcate the border. As the UN Security Council debates the mission's scope, these mechanisms deserve ongoing support.

For further accessing the commentary on Keeping the Hotline Open Between Sudan and South Sudan, please kindly follow the link. 

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Darfuri Migration from Sudan to Europe: from Displacement to Despair

Significant numbers of Sudanese, many from Darfur, have made the journey from Sudan to Europe in search of safety and a better life. While there has been significant interest in Sudan as a transit country for migration from Africa to Europe, little attention has been paid to Sudan as a source of migrants and refugees. Yet the Sudanese were the fifth, sixth and seventh largest categories of migrants and refugees arriving in Italy in 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively.

This study documents for the first time the experiences of young Darfuris fleeing Sudan for Europe. It aims to deepen understanding of the trends, drivers and causes of migration and displacement from Darfur.

For full access to the paper, Darfuri Migration from Sudan to Europe: from Displacement to Despair, kindly follow the link. 

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Gender Justice & The Law: Assessment of laws affecting gender equality in the Arab States region

Conducted by UNDP, UN Women, UNFPA, and ESCWA, this study on Gender Justice & the Law in the Arab States Region provides a comprehensive assessment of laws and policies affecting gender equality and protection against gender-based violence in Arab countries. The report is composed of 18 country profiles, each of which maps a country’s key legislative developments and gaps regarding gender justice. This introduction provides an overall summary of these country chapters followed by a summary of each country examined.

To access the full report, Gender Justice & The Law, please follow the link provided. 

Paper

UNDP’s Engagement with the Media for Governance, Sustainable Development and Peace

This report features 13 case studies that together highlight the range and impact of UNDP’s engagement with the media for the purpose of achieving development outcomes. First, it seeks to demonstrate that, across development contexts, UNDP has increasingly identified media engagement as a priority for its policy and programmes. Second, the report seeks to outline UNDP’s comparative advantage and unique role in this area of work as well as to spark new approaches on media engagement and build new partnerships with media actors, the private sector, civil society and governments. Finally, by delving into the challenges and lessons learned across UNDP’s initiatives, the report seeks to contribute to broader debates among a range of stakeholders on how to design more effective and sustainable policies and programmes to support the roles of the media, which can better meet the needs and challenges of today’s complex media ecosystems.

To access the full report, UNDP’s Engagement with the Media for Governance, Sustainable Development and Peace, kindly follow the link. 

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Sudan after Bashir: regional opportunities and challenges

Omar al-Bashir’s removal from power will have long-term effects on Sudan’s political future. Even though domestic considerations forced Bashir’s downfall, his extensive involvement in regional issues means his departure will resonate beyond the confines of Sudan’s borders. This report explores the regional implications of Bashir’s removal and the subsequent role of external actors in Sudan’s internal affairs.

For full access to the report Sudan after Bashir: regional opportunities and challenges, kindly follow the link. 

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L'appareil sécuritaire et la transition politique au Soudan

Depuis le 11 avril 2019 et le renversement d’Omar el-Béchir, le Soudan s’est engagé dans un processus politique incertain et complexe. Parmi les nombreuses questions soulevées domine celle de l’ampleur et de la nature des mutations en cours : s’agit-il d’un véritable changement de régime ou d’une simple transformation du système pour survivre à la crise ? Afin d’y répondre, il est nécessaire de s’intéresser à l’appareil sécuritaire car c’est lui qui a pris les rênes du pouvoir, en particulier l’armée, et qui s’impose comme l’acteur central de la transition face à l’opposition civile. Cette note analyse l’architecture, l’histoire et les évolutions de cet appareil depuis 1989.

Pour accéder à l'intégralité du document L'appareil sécuritaire et la transition politique au Soudan, veuillez suivre le lien. 

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From Timor-Leste to Darfur: New Initiatives for enhancing UN Civilian Policing Capacity

As peacekeepers have deployed at unprecedented levels worldwide, the demand for police to serve in such missions has swelled.The United Nations (UN), for example, has increased the use of police from two percent of its peacekeeping forces in 1995 to more than twelve percent today. The mandates for UN missions have also expanded dramatically, with greater attention devoted to police and rule of law activities. This trend reflects a recognition of the need to establish public security, combat lawlessness, and support the rule of law and governance in post-conflict societies.

Over 40 percent of the police deployed in UN missions today are in Africa, with officers working to support and build more effective and accountable rule of law institutions in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Sudan, Côte d’Ivoire, and Liberia. African countries are also substantial contributors of police to UN missions, with more than a quarter of those deployed coming from the continent.

This Issue Brief explores the current demand for UN police, looks at recent and ongoing reforms undertaken at the United Nations and in the field, and considers additional ways to address shortcomings in the use of police and rule of law teams in peace operations.

This Issue Brief is one of six produced as part of Stimson’s workshop series, A Better Partnership for African Peace Operations, made possible by a generous grant from the United States Institute of Peace. The series examined progress, challenges, and potential steps forward in expanding national, regional, and international capacity to lead and participate in peace operations in Africa. The six issue briefs produced in conjunction with this project provide background and analytical context for the insights gained through the Better Partnership workshops. Each brief also highlights workshop findings and identifies recommendations for the US, UN, regional organizations, and policymakers.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

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Books

Peacebuilding and Rule of Law in Africa

The promotion of the rule of law has become an increasingly important element of peacekeeping and peacebuilding operations, particularly in Africa, where there have been numerous internal armed conflicts and missions over the last decade.„This book explores the expanding international efforts to promote rule of law in countries emerging from violent conflict. With a focus on Africa, the authors critically examines the impact of these activities in relation to liberal peacebuilding, rule of law institutions, and the range of non-state providers of justice and security. They also assess the virtues and limitations of rule of law reform efforts, and policy alternatives. „It brings together expert scholars and practioners from politics, law, anthropology and conflict studies, and features detailed case studies on Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Sudan, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.Making an important contribution to debates about peacebuilding, and assisting specific efforts in reforming the rule of law after conflict, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of international relations, law, African politics, post-conflict reconstruction, peace and conflict studies, as well as practitioners in the UN, development agencies and NGOs.

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Security and Post-Conflict Reconstruction: Dealing with Fighters in the Aftermath of War

This book provides a critical analysis of the changing discourse and practice of post-conflict security-promoting interventions since the Cold War, such as disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR), and security-sector reform (SSR)

Although the international aid and security sectors exhibit an expanding appetite for peace-support operations in the 21st Century, the effectiveness of such interventions are largely untested. This book aims to fill this evidentiary gap and issues a challenge to 'conventional' approaches to security promotion as currently conceived by military and peace-keeping forces, drawing on cutting-edge statistical and qualitative findings from war-torn areas including Afghanistan, Timor Leste, Sudan, Uganda, Colombia and Haiti. By focusing on specific cases where the United Nations and others have sought to contain the (presumed) sources of post-conflict violence and insecurity, it lays out a new research agenda for measuring success or failure

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Monopoly of Force

"Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR) have emerged in recent years as promising though generally poorly understood mechanisms for consolidating stability and reasserting state sovereignty after conflict. Despite the considerable experience acquired by the international community, the critical interrelationship between DDR and SSR and the ability to use these mechanisms with consistent success remain less than optimally developed. The chapters in this book reflect a diversity of field experience and research in DDR and SSR, which suggest that these are complex and interrelated systems, with underlying political attributes. Successful application of DDR and SSR requires the setting aside of preconceived assumptions or formulas, and should be viewed flexibly to restore to the state the monopoly of force."--P. [4] of cover.

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Customary Justice and the Rule of Law in War-Torn Societies

The major peacekeeping and stability operations of the last ten years have mostly taken place in countries that have pervasive customary justice systems, which pose significant challenges and opportunities for efforts to reestablish the rule of law. These systems are the primary, if not sole, means of dispute resolution for the majority of the population, but post-conflict practitioners and policymakers often focus primarily on constructing formal justice institutions in the Western image, as opposed to engaging existing traditional mechanisms. This book offers insight into how the rule of law community might make the leap beyond rhetorical recognition of customary justice toward a practical approach that incorporates the realities of its role in justice strategies."Customary Justice and the Rule of Law in War-Torn Societies" presents seven in-depth case studies that take a broad interdisciplinary approach to the study of the justice system. Moving beyond the narrow lens of legal analysis, the cases Mozambique, Guatemala, East Timor, Afghanistan, Liberia, Iraq, Sudan examine the larger historical, political, and social factors that shape the character and role of customary justice systems and their place in the overall justice sector. Written by resident experts, the case studies provide advice to rule of law practitioners on how to engage with customary law and suggest concrete ways policymakers can bridge the divide between formal and customary systems in both the short and long terms. Instead of focusing exclusively on ideal legal forms of regulation and integration, this study suggests a holistic and flexible palette of reform options that offers realistic improvements in light of social realities and capacity limitations. The volume highlights how customary justice systems contribute to, or detract from, stability in the immediate post-conflict period and offers an analytical framework for assessing customary justice systems that can be applied in any country.

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Criminal Law Reform and Transitional Justice: Human Rights Perspectives for Sudan

Sudan has been undergoing profound changes characterized by an uncertain transition from conflict to post-conflict society and the separation of the country in the midst of ongoing human rights concerns. This book examines the nature, policy aspects and interrelationship of Sudanese criminal law and law reform in this context, situating developments in the broader debate of international human rights, rule of law and transitional justice. For the first time, Sudanese, national, regional and international experts and practitioners are brought together to share experiences, combining a range of legal and policy perspectives. The book provides valuable lessons on how relevant standards and experiences can be used to inform criminal law reform in Sudan. It also considers what broader lessons can be drawn for reform initiatives in other societies facing similar challenges. This includes the type of violations that need to be addressed in reforms as a prerequisite for enhanced human rights protection, challenges experienced in this regard, and the contribution of civil society in this process.

Book

Other Documents

Justice and Corrections Standing Capacity (JCSC) Newsletter 2018

In 2018 JCSC focused on supporting existing United Nations peace operations according to its mandate. Assistance from JCSC was in particular demand to advance rule of law transition planning, implementation and lessons learned studies in Darfur, Haiti and Liberia. JCSC also provided specific expertise in substantive areas, such as the investigation and prosecution of destabilizing crimes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Mali; anti-corruption in Afghanistan; and prison security, with a specific focus on prison intelligence and information in the DRC. 

For full access to the Justice and Corrections Standing Capacity (JCSC) Newsletter 2018, kindly follow the link. 

Follow other Justice and Corrections Publications. 

Other Document

Holding Sudan back from civil war

After militias killed up to 100 peaceful protesters in Khartoum on 3 June, the African Union’s Peace and Security Council (AU PSC) took swift action, suspending Sudan’s membership of the continental body three days later. The suspension sends a strong message, but must be followed by unified, dedicated and well-resourced mediation by the AU in order to prevent a slide into civil war.

For full access to the article Holding Sudan back from civil war, kindly follow the link. 

Other Document

Can the AU and UN Maintain Common Ground in Support of Sudan’s Transition?

Developments around Sudan’s transfer of political power demonstrate why a more strategic partnership between the African Union (AU) and the United Nations, especially at the council levels, matters. According to the author, the recent volatility shows both the fault lines and the significant opportunities for the two bodies to work together in their efforts to stabilize Sudan.

For full access to the document Can the AU and UN Maintain Common Ground in Support of Sudan’s Transition?, kindly follow the link.

Other Document