UNMIL requested ISSAT’s support in taking stock of almost 15 years of deployment in Liberia. This exercise aimed to identify lessons, best practices and areas of innovation from the key outcomes of the support provided by UNMIL’s Rule of Law Pillar – with a focus on :
- service delivery at both central and county level ;
- citizen security and justice ;
- efficiency, integrity and public trust ;
- local ownership and sustainability
The lesson-learning exercise focused on four key areas:
(i) capacity building of state institutions (mentoring, training, and human resources);
(ii) management and regulatory frameworks (law and policy reform, strategic direction, leadership, planning, and various elements of institution building);
(iii) accountability (support to internal, state, and non-state level accountability mechanisms; and
(iv) coordination including support to state-level coordination between institutions in the sector and support to coordination between the state and development partners.
In this regard the exercise considered the strengths and shortcomings of the UNMIL approach, including a review of the evolution of the mandate and its strategic Mission priorities, as well as how the internal organization of UNMIL and the UN (e.g. structures, planning, monitoring, analysis coordination and capacity, and gender mainstreaming aspects) influenced the effectiveness and efficiency of UNMIL support.
The exercise also looked at various stages of the mission:
- immediate post-conflict (re-establishment of state authority)
- drawdown and transition processes.
The target audience for the findings of the report included:
- the United Nations Security Council;
- the UN Secretariat, including DPKO, DPA, PBSO;
- UN Agencies, Funds and Programmes;
- other UN peace operations;
- the Government of Liberia;
- national stakeholders; and
- international partners based in Liberia.
This mandate was conducted in the context of the adoption of its resolution 2333 (2016), authorizing a final extension of the substantive mandate of the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) to 30 March 2018, and its subsequent liquidation by 30 June 2018.
Principal among UNMIL’s mandate areas has been its extensive engagement in support of rule of law – reform of the justice and security sectors, being the lead international actor supporting these areas since its establishment in 2003, committing significant technical, financial and political resources towards :
- the reform of the national police ;
- the promotion, protection and monitoring of human rights.
ISSAT and UNDP have established a partnership, since 2016 and until 2020, to jointly work towards establishing a coherent evidence base for Rule of Law programming. Through the roll-out of a wide, country-level evaluation process, the aim is to establish a lesson learning system to ensure that innovative practices, niches of good practice, examples of potential impact and shared challenges are systematically collected, analysed and fed into the programming process. The evaluations follow a uniformed methodology, albeit adapted to country contexts, and critically assess the project’s implementation and monitoring efforts and/or the country office’s broader rule of law efforts.
UNDP has requested that DCAF-ISSAT evaluate the 2015-2017 phase of the Jordan country programme “Community Security and Access to Justice” as part of this series of evaluations. This evaluation will build upon the evidence base developed in the first evaluation of this series, of the Guinea-Bissau programme. It will start the process of understanding the range of UNDP activities occurring under the Global Programme, and thus contribute to the development of the strategic guidance on result reporting and monitoring at the global level (the mandate will also include the extraction of findings from the Jordan evaluation to feed into the strategic monitoring framework).
ISSAT was requested to support UNMIL and UNDP in undertaking an initial needs assessment to understand the institutional and individual needs of the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives in the Liberian Legislature. The aim of the assessment was to identify institutional capacity and resource gaps that impeded the parliament’s ability to fully exercise its oversight, legislative drafting, representation, and agenda-setting role with regard to the Liberian security sector. In parallel, the assessment examined potential windows of opportunity for synergies between: the broader SSR process in Liberia; elements of the Joint Programme for Rule of Law in Liberia; and, the prospective multi-annual UN Legislature capacity-building programme. This needs assessment was the first step in DCAF's assistance to UNMIL and UNDP in designing and implementing this capacity building programme, drawing on the capacities of ISSAT and DCAF’s Sub-Saharan Africa Division (SSAD) to do so.
In 2017, the UN and the World Bank requested DCAF's contribution to their planned study on the prevention of violent conflict. DCAF, used its subject-matter expertise to contribute knowledge and operational experience of how SSR processes have supported prevention efforts. DCAF provided the UN and the World Bank with a short paper setting out examples and available elements of evidence reflecting opportunities and entry-points for SSR processes to actively contribute to conflict prevention objectives in various contexts. This enabled the UN and the World Bank to present a more comprehensive definition of conflict prevention thus widening the space for various actors to work together from different angles.
To access the briefing paper by DCAF-ISSAT, The Contribution and Role of SSR in the Prevention of Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link.
For the final report from the World Bank and UN, Pathways for Peace – Inclusive Approaches to Preventing Violent Conflict, kindly follow the link.
Lessons Learned and Good Practices Workshop on UN Human Rights Due Diligence Policy’s Mitigation Measures
Issued on 13 July 2011 as Secretary-General decision 2011/18, the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy (HRDDP) on United Nations Support to non-UN Security Forces sets out principles and measures to mainstream human rights in the support provided by UN entities to non-UN security forces. The policy was developed by a UN inter-agency mechanism, the Review Group, which has remained in place to oversee implementation at the global level. The Review Group, which is co-led by DPKO and OHCHR and includes UNDP, the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA), the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the UN for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the UN Office of Legal Affairs (OLA), UNHCR, the UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict (SRSG/CAAC), UNICEF and the UN Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO), conducted reviews of policy implementation in 2012 and 2013.
Efforts to implement the policy in a variety of contexts have generated growing practice and new methodologies and procedures have been developed. Over a period of five years, the application of the HRDDP has prompted new ideas about the way the UN should engage with security forces, as well as other national actors, who may commit human rights violations. As noted by the Review Group in its 2013 review, implementing the HRDDP has pointed to the need to compile good practices, in particular examples of cases of support where the HRDDP has been applied and how they have been implemented and monitored, in order to increase understanding of the policy in the UN, as well as to support and guide UN entities in applying it.
In order to contribute to effective implementation of the policy across the UN system and to facilitate the exchange of experience and documentation of relevant practice, OHCHR Methodology, Training and Education Section (METS) will organize a workshop that will bring together participants involved in implementing the HRDDP in the field (from peace operations, as well as from UNCTs), members of the Review Group and external experts.
The workshop will focus on discussion and documentation of good practices related to mitigation measures. This will include the mitigation measures outlined in the 2015 HRDDP Guidance Note developed by the Review Group, other measures applied by operations, agencies, funds and programmes and proposals for potential measures to be used in the future.