Internal security and public order is maintained by a multitude of forces including the gendarmerie, National Guard and most notably, the National Police. Below is a brief description of some of the sub-sectors of internal security and RoL.
- The National Police falls under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Security and Civil Protection (MoI). It is estimated to employ over 6,000 individuals, 700 of whom are women. The National Police’s mandate focuses primarily on the protection of people and property; the ability to identify and record criminal offenses, gather evidence, find and arrest perpetrators; as well as the capacity to seek and gather intelligence to inform government decision-making.
- The Judicial Police, an integral part of the National Police, is tasked specifically with reporting violations of criminal law, gathering evidence, tracking down suspects and supporting investigating authorities once a case is opened. While the judicial police are directed by the public prosecutor in support of specific cases, they fall hierarchically under the MoI. The judicial police can be thought of either as a status for certain officials, 8 with an associated bundle of rights and duties, or as an organisation in itself.
- The National Gendarmerie is entrusted with maintaining internal security and order. It shares a number of security related responsibilities with the National Police and the National Guard, including maintaining public order, collecting intelligence and protecting private property. However, because of its military status, it is entrusted with territorial defence operations, particularly during times of crisis. For this reason, the National Gendarmerie falls under of the authority of the MoI as well as the Ministry of Armed Forces and Former Combatants (MoAF). As of 2015, it is estimated that the gendarmerie counts 4,000 individuals, 100 of whom are women.
- The National Guard is a military-type force responsible for providing security to political and administrative institutions, as well as contributing to the maintenance of public order and the territorial defence of Mali. The National Guard falls under the MoAF for administrative affairs and the MoI for deployment. The National Guard does not carry out criminal investigations, instead only participating in policing functions such as the maintenance of law and order, and the patrol of sensitive areas. It is additionally considered one of the most widespread of all the security forces. As of 2015, it is estimated that the National Guard contains 3,000 individuals, 100 of whom are women.