Hans Born


Overseeing Intelligence Services - A Toolkit

DCAF’s toolkit on overseeing intelligence services is a compendium of booklets (tools) written by leading experts on intelligence governance from around the world.  

To view these tools, please follow this link.


Toolkit on Police Integrity

The Toolkit on Police Integrity aims to assist police services in designing effective measures to curb police corruption, increasing their ability to fight crime, improving public security and strengthening the rule of law and public trust in the police. The Toolkit contains nine chapters.

  1. Introduction: corruption and policing
  2. Values, rules and behaviour
  3. Organisation
  4. Supporting police officers facing ethical questions
  5. Internal control
  6. External oversight and control
  7. Investigation
  8. Capacity building
  9. Instruments

For further information on the Toolkit please contact Paulo Costa, Head of Police Programme, DCAF, OPS1.


Policy and Research Papers

Parliamentary Oversight of Justice and Intelligence Agencies in the European Union

This study evaluates the oversight of national security and intelligence agencies by parliaments and specialised non-parliamentary oversight bodies, with a view to identifying good practices that can inform the European Parliament’s approach to strengthening the oversight of Europol, Eurojust, Frontex and, to a lesser extent, Sitcen. The study puts forward a series of detailed recommendations (including in the field of access to classified information) that are formulated on the basis of indepth assessments of: (1) the current functions and powers of these four bodies; (2) existing arrangements for the oversight of these bodies by the European Parliament, the Joint Supervisory Bodies and national parliaments; and (3) the legal and institutional frameworks for parliamentary and specialised oversight of security and intelligence agencies in EU Member States and other major democracies. 


Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

This paper represents a further addition to the series of publications on issues in parliamentary practice from the Office for Promotion of Parliamentary Democracy (OPPD). Its main objective is to provide an overview of the main issues affecting parliamentary oversight and, more generally, democratic governance of the security sector in new and emerging democracies.

Follow this link to download a copy of Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector 


Contrôle et Orientation – La Pertinence du Contrôle Parlementaire pour le Secteur de la Sécurité

Ce volume est une version actualisée du Vademecum de l’Assemblée parlementaire de l’OTAN et du DCAF sur le contrôle et l’orientation du secteur de la sécurité. Comme dans sa première édition, publiée en 2003, ce volume cherche à présenter une information de fond sur le contrôle et l’orientation parlementaire du secteur de la sécurité, en mettant un accent particulier sur les affaires de défense, ainsi que des documents mis au point et agréés par l’Assemblée parlementaire de l’OTAN (APO) qui mettent en valeur le status quaestionis dans cette enceinte et au sein de la communauté euro atlantique élargie.


Ombuds Institutions for the armed forces in francophone countries of sub-Saharan Africa

Ombudsmen Sub Saharan Africa DCAF

This mapping study on ombuds institutions for the armed forces in francophone sub-Saharan African states is a project initiated under the aegis of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF) in collaboration with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF), in the framework of the OIF programme “Providing Support to Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding”.

The mapping study is the continuation of extensive research conducted within the context of a first project entitled “Ombuds Institutions for the Armed Forces in Francophone Africa: Burkina Faso, Burundi and Senegal.” The objectives of the mapping study are to develop a comprehensive analysis of the activities and role of the ombuds institutions; to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the establishment and functioning of such institutions; to encourage ombuds institutions to deal with the armed forces and to improve the functioning and effectiveness of existing institutions; and to involve the ombuds institutions of the states concerned in the global process of exchanging good practice and experience between existing ombuds institutions.

The research explores sub-Saharan states, some with ombuds institutions whose mandates include military matters (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Niger, Senegal, and Togo), some who have established general ombuds institutions, but without such jurisdiction over the armed forces (Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Republic of Guinea, Madagascar and Mali), and some who lack these institutions (Comoros and the Democratic Republic of the Congo). The paper delineates some common characteristics of general ombuds institutions, before pointing the challenges they confront, from the level of resources to a lack of visibility.

To access the Ombuds Institutions for the armed forces in francophone countries of sub-Saharan Africa, kindly follow the link.


Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

A complete reading of the Handbook will provide the most comprehensive understanding of security issues and the role of parliamentary oversight. However, it is also possible to make a selective reading of those sections and chapters which are of particular concern to the user. The index and various cross-references are designed for this purpose.


Security Sector Reform Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice

The persistent gap between theory and practice in SSR can be a source of much irritation and disappointment – at failures to implement SSR norms as well as in response to concepts and strategies that seem unhelpfully far removed from local realities. This paper compares ideal-case SSR environments with real-life conditions of implementing SSR. Through offering suggestions for better practice in SSR implementation, it shows that the art of ‘applied SSR’ can be learned.

To access the full report Security Sector Reform Narrowing the Gap between Theory and Practice, kindly click on the link.

This paper is part of DCAF's SSR Papers series. Click on the link for more DCAF publications on security sector reform.



Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector

This handbook is a broad introduction to enhancing parliamentary oversight of the security sector. The handbook has been written on the assumption that there is no single model of parliamentary oversight which works for all countries. The rules and practices that are accepted and effective in one place may be unthinkable or irrelevant in another. Moreover, all parliaments do not have the same powers.


Democratic Control of Intelligence Services

This comprehensive volume discusses the various challenges of establishing and maintaining accountable and democratically controlled intelligence services, drawing both from states with well-established democratic systems and those emerging from authoritarian systems and in transition towards democracy.


Handbook on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Armed Forces Personnel

The Handbook is the product of a research project initiated in January 2005 and conducted by DCAF in cooperation with the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR).

Inspired by the OSCE Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, the manual presents an overview of legislation, policies and mechanisms within the OSCE region, outlining models or ‘best practices’ of how military structures can successfully integrate human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The handbook focuses on the internal aspects of human rights and fundamental freedoms of armed forces personnel, and not on the external aspects of this issue – the conduct of the armed forces in their operations. At the same time, limitations on human rights and fundamental freedoms of armed forces personnel are taken into account given the requirements of maintaining national security. The project aims to contribute to the enforcement of existing standards and it also contains recommendations for participating States of measures that should be taken in order to ensure that policies and practices are in full compliance with international human rights standards and OSCE human dimension commitments.

The handbook is aimed at all individuals who play a role in promoting, protecting, and enforcing human rights, such as parliamentarians, government officials, policy makers, military personnel, judges, professional military associations, and non-governmental organizations.