Transparency International: Defence and Security Programme

Our vision is a world where Governments, the Armed Forces, and arms transfers are transparent, accountable, and free from corruption.

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Corruption Threats and International Missions: Practical guidance for leaders

Corruption is a feature of all conflicts, playing a key role in the power-struggle between competing groups for resources and power. This places mission leaders in a challenging situation because it means engagement with corrupt entities is frequently inevitable.

This handbook is directed at military and civilian leadership and their staff involved in planning and carrying out operations. It seeks to provide practical guidance that can be used in daily work.

If you have any issues downloading this report, you can e-mail ivo.jongejan@transparency.org.uk for a copy.

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Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index: Regional Results - Africa

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The Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index (GI) assesses the existence, effectiveness and enforcement of institutional and informal controls to manage the risk of corruption in defence and security institutions.

To access the Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index: Regional Results - Africa, kindly follow the link.

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Policy and Research Papers

Middle East and North Africa - Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index 2013

This Index provides governments and citizens with information on how their defence ministries and armed forces compare to others in tackling defence corruption. It measures the degree of corruption risk and vulnerability in government defence establishments – the defence ministry, the armed forces, and other government institutions in that country (such as auditing institutions) that may influence levels of corruption risk in the sector. It forms a basis for reform for concerned governments, and serves as a tool to identify where to concentrate efforts.

This MENA report joins the overall Index report, available at www.defenceindex.org, as an analytical summary of the detailed
results.

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Government Defence Anti-Corruption Index 2013

This is a brand new tool and is the result of a major two-year study. This Index provides governments and citizens with information on how their defence ministries and armed forces compare to others in tackling defence corruption. It measures the degree of corruption risk and vulnerability in government defence establishments – the defence ministry, the armed forces, and other government institutions in that country (such as auditing institutions) that may influence levels of corruption risk in the sector. It forms a basis for reform for concerned governments, and serves as a tool to identify where to concentrate efforts.

As a part of this Index, 82 countries across the globe were subject to expert, independent assessment. These countries accounted for 94 per cent of global military expenditure in 2011 (USD 1.6 trillion). 

They were selected according to the size of their arms trade, the absolute and per capita size of their militaries, and a proxy of the size of their security sector. Each country was assessed using a comprehensive questionnaire of 77 questions, clustered into five risk areas: political risk, finance risk, personnel risk, operations risk, and procurement risk. Each of these five areas in turn has specific risk areas, as shown in the diagram below.

The analysis was subjected to multiple levels of peer review to minimise the risk of bias and inaccuracies in the responses. Governments were given opportunities to comment on the draft and to provide additional commentary if they desired. Each government has received a comprehensive report outlining our findings for each question, with references to all the sources we used. These assessments are made public on our website.

A second index has also been developed that addresses defence companies, analysing the anti-corruption systems of 129 major global companies. This index, the Defence Companies Anti-Corruption Index (www.companies.defenceindex.org), was published by Transparency International UK’s Defence and Security Programme, on 4th October, 2012.

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Raising the Bar: Good Anti-Corruption Practices in Defence Companies

The Defence Companies Anti-Corruption Index (CI) was published on 4 October 2012. This analysis, the first of its kind, provided  comparative information on the disclosure and quality of anti-corruption systems in 129 major defence companies.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

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Corruption & Peacekeeping: Strengthening Peacekeeping and the UN

In this new study, the defence team identifies 28 types of corruption that threaten peacekeeping. It also spells out ways in which the UN can give an important lead in combatting corruption risk in peacekeeping operations. 
The study recommends eight actions to the UN to meet the threat of corruption in peacekeeping missions, six of which are focused on developing policy, guidance and training for the UN, for Troop Contributing Countries (TCC) and for the missions themselves. Another stresses the urgent need for the UN to establish a more independent and robust oversight, investigation and whistle-blowing capability.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

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Codes of Conduct in Defence Ministries and Armed Forces

Corruption risk in defence and security establishments is a key concern for defence officials and senior military officers, as corruption wastes scarce resources, reduces operational effectiveness and reduces public trust in the armed forces and security services. Part of the solution to these risks is clear guidance on the behaviour expected of senior officers and officials, and strong application of those standards of behaviour. 

The report presents the conclusions of an analysis of the written codes of conduct and related documents from 12 participating nations: Argentina, Australia, Croatia, Denmark, Germany, Kenya, Lithuania, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

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Corruption: Lessons from the international mission in Afghanistan

This report assesses how the international mission in Afghanistan was put at risk due to complacency on corruption. The report examines how and why corruption was addressed too slowly during the mission and calls for anti-corruption work to be at the forefront of future intervention and security assistance policy, proposing a framework for policy makers to address corruption issues better in future. Published in February 2015, the report can be read online or downloaded.

A briefing for policy makers is also available for download. 

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Corruption as a threat to stability and peace

This study by Transparency International UK and Transparency International Germany stresses how corruption hinders stability in post-conflict states and undermines peace worldwide. It also shows a robust connection between corruption risk and violent conflict and looks at evidence of this link in detail through case studies of Afghanistan, Kosovo and West Africa. 
Based on Transparency International’s earlier work on corruption, conflict and peacekeeping, the report also examines the structures and practices of international organisations for addressing corruption in fragile and conflict-affected environments. 

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