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Case Studies

Gender and Security Sector Reform: Examples from the Ground

Selected Resources

Training Resource Package: Guide to Integrating Gender in SSR Training- DCAF

Video: Gender in SSR-Stephen Jackson, Chief of Staff at the UN Office in Burundi

The Examples from the Ground are concrete illustrations of ways in which a gender perspective has been integrated in different security sector institutions around the world. They range from measures to counter human trafficking in Kosovo, to women’s organisations’ involvement with security institutions in Nepal, to female parliamentarians’ contribution to post-conflict reconstruction in Rwanda. These examples can help policymakers, trainers and educators better understand and demonstrate the linkages between gender and SSR.

The examples are organised around the following nine themes, for which a short introduction is provided:

• Police Reform and Gender
• Defence Reform and Gender
• Justice Reform and Gender
• Penal Reform and Gender
• Border Management and Gender
• Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• National Security Policy-Making and Gender
• Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
• SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender

For downloading individual examples and case studies in Integrating Gender into SSR Training on Kosovo, Liberia, Nicaragua, Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Hungary, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the Central African Republic, Indonesia, Peru, Somalia, Afghanistan, the Russian Federation, Tajikstan, Rwand, Brazil, Israel, Jamaica, Nepal, the United States, and the regions of West Africa and the Pacific, kindly follow the link. 

Case Study

Tools

Border Management and Gender (Tool 6)

This tool focuses on border management reform and the different ways in which border transactions impact the lives of women, men, boys and girls.

It encompasses the various border control functions – customs, immigration and law enforcement – and demonstrates the operational benefits of ensuring that gender perspectives are included in border management policies, procedures and practices.

The tool includes:

- A conceptual introduction to border management and gender
- An outline of ways in which integrating gender strengthens border management
- Actions to integrate gender into border management
- Examination of specific gender and border management issues in post-conflict, transitional, developing and developed country contexts

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

Tool

Training Resources on Border Management and Gender

The Gender and SSR Training Resource Package is a series of practical training materials to help trainers integrate gender in SSR training, and deliver effective gender training to SSR audiences.
 
 It is designed for SSR trainers and educators, and gender trainers working with the security sector, to help you present material on gender and SSR in an interesting and interactive manner. The Gender and SSR Training Resource Package contains a wide range of exercises, discussion topics and examples from the ground that you can adapt and integrate into your SSR or gender training.
 
A gender-responsive border management reform process seeks to:

» Strengthen the protection of human rights for all by addressing the specific insecurities of men, women, girls and boys at borders,
» Improve prevention and detection of and responses to human trafficking and smuggling,
» Create more representative border institutions by promoting the participation of women,
» Enhance local ownership of border management processes by improving oversight and collaboration with civil society.

Tool

Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit User Guide

This Toolkit is an initial response to the need for information and analysis on gender and SSR. It is designed to provide policymakers and practitioners with a practical introduction to why gender issues are important in SSR and what can be done to integrate them.

See this page for more information on The GSSR Toolkit and the full range of "Tools" and "Practice Notes."

The Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit includes:

- This user guide- 13 Tools (20 pages)
- 13 Practice Notes (4 pages, based on the Tools)
- Annex on International and Regional Laws and Instruments related to SSR andGender

The topics of the Tools and corresponding Practice Notes are:

1. Security Sector Reform and Gender
2. Police Reform and Gender
3. Defence Reform and Gender
4. Justice Reform and Gender
5. Penal Reform and Gender
6. Border Management and Gender
7. Parliamentary Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
8. National Security Policy-Making and Gender
9. Civil Society Oversight of the Security Sector and Gender
10. Private Military and Security Companies and Gender
11. SSR Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation and Gender
12. Gender Training for Security Sector Personnel
13. Implementing the Women, Peace and Security Resolutions in Security Sector Reform

Tool

Videos

Introduction to SSR

This presentation gives a background on the theory behind the concept Security Sector Reform, as well as an overview of the international efforts within SSR today.

Folke Bernadotte Academy
Video

Policy and Research Papers

Maritime Security Sector Reform

This report, commissioned by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) Center for Security Sector Governance, examines the need for comprehensive approaches to maritime security sector reform and shows why improving maritime governance matters to developing nations, the United States, and a wide range of economic and security partners. The report looks at growing security challenges in the maritime commons: piracy, illicit drug and human trafficking, and maritime support for terrorism and insurgency, including seaborne transport of weapons of mass destruction. In an increasingly complex and dynamic security environment, improving maritime governance will require collaborative approaches and coordinated efforts by governments, nongovernmental organizations, security forces, and commercial interests that depend on having safe, secure access to the maritime commons.

John Sandoz is a former U.S. Naval officer and current president of Adaptive Strategies Consulting, an LLC that supports thought leadership for strategy and policy planning.

For the full report go to:

http://www.usip.org/publications/maritime-security-sector-reform

Paper

Developing the Security Sector. Security for Whom, by Whom. Security Sector Reform and Gender

This paper was drafted further to the Dutch policy framework for security sector reform (SSR). It examines the following three questions: 1) Why is it important to apply a gender perspective in SSR? 2) What commitments has the Netherlands made? 3) What opportunities for reform are presented by our partnerships with the various actors that make up the security sector?. It briefly examines the current situation with regard to gender and security sector reform and underscores the importance of devoting attention to equal rights and opportunities for both men and women within the security sector. The second chapter offers examples and some practical recommendations.

Paper

Security Sector Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings

In recent years trafficking in human beings has become an issue of increasingconcern to European states. Trafficking in human beings is understood as ahuman rights issue, a violation of labour and migration laws, and as underminingnational and international security through its links to organised crime andcorruption.

United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Council of Europe and theOrganisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, amongst others, makeimportant contributions to coordinating the fight against human trafficking.However, there remain significant deficits in concrete information sharing andcooperation between the security agencies of different states necessary to achieve success. In many countries, cooperation among local security sector actors, other state agencies and non governmental organisations has improved. However, ensuring that the human rights of trafficking victims are protected requires more substantial training and specialised operational procedures within the security sector.

This paper brings a governance analysis to security sector responses to humantrafficking. It focuses on security governance approaches concerningcriminalisation and harmonisation of laws, prosecution of traffickers, protectionof trafficked persons, prevention in countries of origin and prevention incountries of destination. The authors identify key shortcomings in current securityresponses to human trafficking, and make recommendations to states with aparticular focus on national and international coordination and the prevention ofhuman trafficking.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Nature and Scope of Trafficking in Human Beings
2.1. Key concepts
2.2. Overview of Global Patterns in Human Trafficking
2.3. Overview of Patterns in Human Trafficking in Europe
2.4. Both Organised Crime and Violation of Human Rights

3. A Security Governance Analysis of Responses toTrafficking in Human Beings

4. Improving Security Sector Responses to Traffickingin Human Beings
4.1. Legal measures
4.2. Prosecution
4.3. Protection
4.4. Prevention in Countries of Origin
4.5. Prevention in Countries of Destination

5. Conclusions

Appendix

Paper

Security Sector Responses to Trafficking in Human Beings

In recent years trafficking in human beings has become an issue of increasingconcern to European states. Trafficking in human beings is understood as ahuman rights issue, a violation of labour and migration laws, and as underminingnational and international security through its links to organised crime andcorruption.

United Nations agencies, the European Union, the Council of Europe and theOrganisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe, amongst others, makeimportant contributions to coordinating the fight against human trafficking.However, there remain significant deficits in concrete information sharing andcooperation between the security agencies of different states necessary to achieve success. In many countries, cooperation among local security sector actors, other state agencies and non governmental organisations has improved. However, ensuring that the human rights of trafficking victims are protected requires more substantial training and specialised operational procedures within the security sector.

This paper brings a governance analysis to security sector responses to humantrafficking. It focuses on security governance approaches concerningcriminalisation and harmonisation of laws, prosecution of traffickers, protectionof trafficked persons, prevention in countries of origin and prevention incountries of destination. The authors identify key shortcomings in current securityresponses to human trafficking, and make recommendations to states with aparticular focus on national and international coordination and the prevention ofhuman trafficking.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

2. The Nature and Scope of Trafficking in Human Beings
2.1. Key concepts
2.2. Overview of Global Patterns in Human Trafficking
2.3. Overview of Patterns in Human Trafficking in Europe
2.4. Both Organised Crime and Violation of Human Rights

3. A Security Governance Analysis of Responses toTrafficking in Human Beings

4. Improving Security Sector Responses to Traffickingin Human Beings
4.1. Legal measures
4.2. Prosecution
4.3. Protection
4.4. Prevention in Countries of Origin
4.5. Prevention in Countries of Destination

5. Conclusions

Appendix

Paper

Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria’s Pivotal Ambivalence

The past year has seen a ratcheting up and convergence of security concerns in the Sahel and Maghreb with the growing potency of al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, the influx of mercenaries and weaponry from Libya, the expanding influence of narcotics traffickers, and Boko Haram's widening lethality. Nonetheless, regional cooperation to address these transnational threats remains fragmented.  In Regional Security Cooperation in the Maghreb and Sahel: Algeria's Pivotal Ambivalence , the latest Africa Security Brief from the Africa Center for Strategic Studies, Laurence Aïda Ammour examines the central role that Algeria plays in defining this cooperation and the complex domestic, regional, and international considerations that shape its decision-making... 

◆ Efforts to counter al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb’s (AQIM) growing influence in both the Maghreb and the Sahel are fragmented because of the inability of neighbors to forge collaborative partnerships.

◆ Algeria faces inverse incentives to combat AQIM outside of Algiers as it gains much of its geostrategic leverage by maintaining overstated perceptions of a serious terrorism threat.

◆ The Algerian government’s limited legitimacy, primarily derived from its ability to deliver stability, constrains a more comprehensive regional strategy.

The full paper can be downloaded from

http://africacenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/ASB18.pdf

Paper

Managing Land Borders and the Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons

Border controls are an important dimension of the international efforts to combat the uncontrolled proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) and their ammunition. Indeed, even if their relevance sometimes seems to be challenged by some changes (such as new technologies and globalization), borders remain the most visible sign of the sovereignty of a State on its territory. Borders management are crucial to a State’s involvement in the protection of its population. The illicit trafficking of SALW across green borders is characterized by specific dynamics which must be taken into account in the actions to prevent it: a strong link between cross-border trafficking of SALW and other transnational crimes, the role of transborder communities and the fact that border areas can become a shelter for criminal groups, rebels or traffickers and finally the “ant trade”. Because these aspects have an impact on the demand in arms, the intensity and the direction of the traffics between neighbouring countries, they deserve particular attention in the efforts to strengthen border monitoring and control at checkpoints. For an effective border management several challenges must be highlighted. First, the flow of illicit SALW must be considered a separate issue when conceiving and organising the management. Second, controls at checkpoints must be optimised by clarifying the role of the agencies involved in border management and their human and technical needs according to realities on the ground. Controls at checkpoints must be reinforced by a careful and coordinated monitoring along the border. Measures also need to be taken upstream: national legislations, identification of the actors involved in trafficking by intelligence services, etc. A fourth issue is corruption which affects the very existence of border management. A stronger cooperation between agencies at intra- and inter-level as well as between populations in border areas and the political and administrative authorities can also contribute to a more effective border management. Finally, technology transfers and training, tailored to the needs of each State also prove of great importance.

Paper

Post-Conflict Borders and UN Peace Operations

This border security study from the Future of Peace Operations (FOPO) program is in two parts. For part one, author Kathleen A. Walsh surveyed more than 100 international border assistance and training programs. Her report, Border Security, Trade Controls, and UN Peace Operations (2007), found both a great deal of overlap and lack of coordination among these programs that, if remedied, could make them much more cost-effective. The second part of the study, A Phased Approach to Post-Conflict Border Security (2007), by Katherine N. Andrews, Brandon L. Hunt, and William J. Durch, lays out the requirements for coordinated international support to border security in post-conflict states that host international peace operations.

The borders database, a comprehensive matrix of border security assistance programs, was updated in March 2010, by Jessica L. Anderson with Alix J. Boucher and Hilary A. Hamlin

This report is one of five FOPO studies on essential aspects of improving rule of law in post-conflict states. Other studies focus on the creation of a standing UN police capacityfighting corruption in war-torn states, increasing accountability for non-military personnel in peace operations, and using UN Panels of Experts more effectively to combat spoilers and monitor targeted sanctions.

To view this publication, please follow this link.

Paper

Insécurité Maritime dans le Golfe de Guinée : Vers une Stratégie Régionale Intégrée ?

L’insécurité maritime se confirme comme l’une des menaces persistantes à la stabilité des États riverains du golfe de Guinée. En dépit d’une prise de conscience croissante et de la volonté politique d’y faire face, l’augmentation rapide des actes de piraterie a pris de court plusieurs pays de la région. L’absence d’un dispositif commun, relativement complet, de surveillance et de lutte contre la piraterie, limite encore la portée des initiatives prises par certains États, et qui ne couvrent pas l’ensemble de la région du golfe de Guinée. Une stratégie à long terme passe par la mutualisation des moyens, et par la coopération entre les trois organisations régionales, la CEEAC, la CEDEAO et la Commission du golfe de Guinée, ainsi que par l’implication d’autres acteurs du secteur maritime concernés par la lutte contre la piraterie dans la région.

Veuillez suivre ce lien sur l'Insécurité Maritime dans le Golfe de Guinée :  Vers une Stratégie Régionale Intégrée afin de lire la publication.

Paper

'Everything is at Zero'. Beyond the Referendum. Drivers and Choices for Development in Southern Sudan

The purpose of this paper is, however, not to add to the extensive literature speculating on various outcomes and their consequences. Serious efforts are currently
being made by the parties themselves, the African Union, other regional partners, the UN and other international stakeholders to address the immediate challenges so as to secure a peaceful transition after the expiry of the interim period. This paper, rather, focuses on the one variable that remains constant in both scenarios, which is long-term and strategic in nature: The ability of the South – where ‘everything’, in the words of its President, ‘is at zero’ – to develop and improve the lives of its ten million people.

Paper

US International Criminal Investigative Training assistance Programme (ICITAP)

This plan outlines ICITAP's projected assistance efforts for FY 2010, which encompasses the following projects areas: Integrated Border Management, Police Development, Accountability, and Human Resources Management, complex Criminal Investigations, Rule of Law Information Management, and Community Safety Action Teams and Community Policing.

Paper

European Commission 2009 Progress Report on Kosovo

This report briefly describes the relations between Kosovo1 and the Union; analyses the political situation in Kosovo in terms of democracy, the rule of law, human rights, protection of minorities, and regional issues; analyses the economic situation in Kosovo; reviews Kosovo’s capacity to implement European standards, that is, to gradually
approximate its legislation and policies with those of the acquis, in line with the European Partnership priorities. The period covered by this report is from early October 2008 to mid-September 2009.

Paper