Eboe Hutchful

Policy and Research Papers

Hybridité et politiques de sécurité en Afrique

francopaix hybridité

Ce Bulletin du Centre FrancoPaix en résolution des conflits et missions de paix par Niagalé Bagayoko, Robin Luckham et Eboe Hutchful étudie le contexte d'hybridité dans le secteur de la sécurité de nombreux pays d'Afrique et son influence sur les programmes RSS mis en œuvre.

Les auteurs pointent ainsi le fait que de nombreux programmes de réforme des systèmes de sécurité (RSS) mis en œuvre en Afrique se concentrent en priorité sur les institutions étatiques, les cadres légalement établis et les acteurs gouvernementaux. Cela peut affecter leur mise en œuvre, car cela les amène à ignorer un large éventail d'acteurs et de réseaux qui se réfèrent à des normes non codifiées. Selon les auteurs, intégrer plus largement le concept d'hybridité dans les analyses liées à la RSS est nécessaire pour mieux comprendre les pays concernés et in fine informer plus efficacement les politiques de sécurité menées sur le continent.

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Hybridité et politiques de sécurité en Afrique

Dans le 7ème numéro du Bulletin FrancoPaix, l'auteur de cet article souligne l’importance des acteurs non étatiques qui participent à la gouvernance de la sécurité en Afrique subsaharienne. Ces acteurs qui forment des entités plus ou moins « informelles » ont pourtant un rôle non négligeable, mais ils ne sont que peu pris en compte par les programmes internationaux de réforme du secteur de la sécurité.

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Security Sector Reform Provisions in Peace Agreements

Peace agreements form a crucial entry point for Security Sector Reform (SSR), but there has been little consistency in the way that SSR provisions have been approached or implemented in peace agreements. This report demonstrates that there is a potentially high price to be paid for failing to integrate issues of SSR into peace negotiations at the very outset, or to do so in a selective and shallow manner.

For full access to Security Sector Reform Provisions in Peace Agreements, kindly follow the link.



Budgeting for the Military Sector in Africa

In this comprehensive study, 12 experts describe and analyse the military budgetary processes and degree of oversight and control in eight African countries-Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and South Africa-spanning the continent's sub-regions. Each country study addresses a wide range of questions, such as the roles of the finance and defence ministries, budget offices, audit departments and external actors in the military budgetary processes; the extent ofcompliance with standard public expenditure management procedures; and how well official military expenditure figures reflect the true economic resources devoted to military activities in these countries. The framework for the country studies is provided by a detailed model for good practice in budgeting for the military sector. The individual studies are tied together by a synthesis chapter, which provides a comparative analysis of the studies, classifies the eight countries according to theiradherence to the principles of public expenditure management and explains why individual countries find themselves with a certain classification. The book draws on the results of the country studies and their analysis by making concrete recommendations to the governments of African countries and the international community. While the military sector in many African states is believed to be favoured in terms of resource allocation and degree of political autonomy, it is not subject to the samerules and procedures as other sectors. Because of the unique role of the armed forces as the guarantor of national security, and their demand for a high degree of confidentiality in certain activities, the military sector receives a significant proportion of state resources and is not subject to public scrutiny. The book argues that while the military sector requires some confidentiality it should be subject to the same standard procedures and rules followed by other state sectors.

View the book here.


Other Documents

Learning Lab on ‘Improving Security Sector Governance in Africa’

The African Security Sector Network (ASSN) and the Geneva Democratic Centre for the Control on Armed Forces (DCAF) with funding support from the Open Society Foundation (OSF) organised a workshop in Dakar (Sénégal) from 26 – 27 April 2016. The workshop was themed Improving Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa : a Learning Lab.”


…If it (SSR) is treated as a technical process abstracted from national political, security, socio-economic and cultural realities, it will not succeed. 


Despite multiple reasons why SSR in Africa is difficult examples of reform examples of reform also show that significant opportunities to move towards more democratic security governance do exist. The ‘Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa’ drew on the experience of academics, researchers, policy makers and practitioners in this field in order to explore these challenges and identify ways to move forward in spite of them. To support these reflections, the Background Paper, Security Sector Governance and Reform in Africa provides a baseline understanding of SSG/R concepts, policies and practice. It then considers key challenges for SSR in Africa before assessing programming gaps and potential entry points for engagement. The Background Paper is complemented by six Think Pieces, which are intended to help shape discussion during the different sessions of the Learning Lab.

The Learning Lab was a two-day workshop-event drawing together predominantly African experts (researchers, academics, policy makers and practitioners) with practical experience of the security sector, Security Sector Reform (SSR), and Security Sector Governance (SSG) in Africa. The Lab began with an introductory session which was graced by the presence of His Excellency Dr Mohamed Ibn Chambas, Special Representative of the UN Secretary General and Head of the United Nations Office for West Africa and the Sahel (UNOWAS).

The bulk of the Lab took the form of six moderated sessions, underpinned by the six following Think Pieces:


experience has shown that important progress can be made when internal and external support for reform align at opportune moments for change.


In light of the opportunities and challenges to SSR processes identified, a concluding session summarised options and recommendations for potential entry points for African and international engagement in promoting an African governance-driven SSR approach based on accountability, rule of law and human rights.

As well as the six Think Pieces, this blog highlights practical implications for identifying the challenges of SSR processes: Moving from concept to practice: SSR in West Africa.

The resources are also available in français.

Other Document

Protecting a democratic public space: maturing civil-military relations

This think piece, prepared by Boubacar N’Diaye and Eboe Hutchful (ASSN) for the Learning Lab on Security Sector Governance in Africa, looks at the challenges and implications to improve ‘civil-military relations’ (CMR) for a better protection of a democratic public space. The document explains how, since the end of the Cold war, the academic field of CMR has gone into decline whilst SSR has been ascending. If CMR focused insufficiently on the micro-politics of security institutions, it is argued that SSR has not necessarily resulted in integrated approaches. SSR is thus particularly challenged in this sector, with weak budgetary and expenditure controls and corruption in the security sector. There is also a potential for reversals in current CMR, as has been demonstrated recently in Uganda and Congo-Brazzaville, where police, military and paramilitary forces were used to violently suppress protests. To engage in efforts to improve CMR in Africa, it is argued that it is important to identify states where efforts already started, under the leadership of a new generation of military leaders who are willing to embrace new roles and responsibilities for civilian institutions.

Other Document