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Before Military Intervention: Upstream Stabilisation in Theory and Practice

This book explores the natures of recent stabilisation efforts and global upstream threats. As prevention is always cheaper than the crisis of state collapse or civil war, the future character of conflict will increasingly involve upstream stabilisation operations. However, the unpredictability and variability of state instability requires governments and militaries to adopt a diversity of approach, conceptualisation and vocabulary. Offering perspectives from theory and practice, the chapters in this collection provide crucial insight into military roles and capabilities, opportunities, risks and limitations, doctrine, strategy and tactics, and measures of effect relevant to operations in upstream environments. This volume will appeal to researchers and practitioners seeking to understand historical and current conflict.

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Effective, Legitimate, Secure: Insights for Defense Institution Building

Today, the United States faces a security paradox. On the one hand, the U.S. military is unrivaled in size, strength, capacity, and budget; on the other hand, the global operating environment of the 21st century is diffuse and complex, and threats are often asymmetric and transnational. Such challenges stipulate that no single nation, regardless of its traditional military might, can completely address its security objectives alone. The United States is no exception. Developing a network of competent partners that can share the burdens and responsibilities of global security, embracing a strategy of coalition and cooperation, is therefore vital to U.S. interests. 

The challenge is how to best invest resources to help establish strong and capable defense partners. To this end, traditional security cooperation and assistance approaches have proven insufficient to instate sustained improvements to partners’ defense sectors. Defense institution building (DIB) seeks to fill this gap by supporting partner stakeholders as they seek to develop the systemic capabilities and strong institutional foundations needed for legitimate, effective, professional, and sustainable defense sectors that are responsive to civilian control and contribute to the overall security and prosperity of the state—and in turn, to regional stability and U.S. national security. 

Effective, Legitimate, Secure: Insights for Defense Institution Building  offers an introduction to the concept of DIB and argues that establishing effective and legitimate defense institutions to undergird a partner’s defense establishment is the only way to ensure long-term security.

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Introduction à la prévention des conflits internationaux

La contagion des conflits internationaux constitue un défi majeur
des relations internationales modernes. Face à ce danger, la
communauté internationale a fait de l’anticipation des conflits une
impérieuse nécessité. Des instruments juridiques, des acteurs, des
techniques et des méthodologies sont mobilisés afin de détecter
les conflits au plus tôt et d’en prévenir la survenance. Cet ouvrage
expose de façon concise l’ensemble des principes et des activités
qui ressortent de cet activisme en faveur de la préservation de la
paix. Il a pour ambition d’apporter un éclairage très large sur une
question qui est peu étudiée par les auteurs francophones.
Ainsi, il examine à la fois les succès, qui sont loin d’être
négligeables, et les défaillances des mécanismes de prévention
des conflits internationaux. L’auteur plaide pour la diffusion d’une
véritable culture de la prévention des conflits. Il souligne cependant
la complexité de cette ambition. Cet effort ne saurait en effet
faire l’économie d’une connaissance préalable et approfondie de
la mécanique des conflits et d’une parfaite maîtrise des outils
d’intervention sur les dynamiques de violence.


Securing Development : Public Finance and the Security Sector

This book highlights the role played by public finance in the delivery of security and criminal justice services. It seeks to strengthen policy and operational dialogue on security sector issues by providing national and international stakeholders with key information on security expenditure policy and management. The interplay between security, justice, and public finance is still a relatively unexplored area of development. Security and criminal justice are fundamental public goods provided by governments, and they often have significant claims on national budgets. Informed discussions on security sector expenditure policy and management are an essential part of the national budget cycle, through which central finance agencies fulfill their function of contesting sector expenditure proposals in the planning and budgeting process. Integrating the public finance perspective into broader security policy deliberations can significantly help defense, interior, and justice ministries and agencies address effectiveness and efficiency challenges arising in the provision of services in these sectors. Dialogue on security expenditure policy also strengthens international partners’ engagement on security issues, helping them make informed decisions regarding the appropriate level and form of external assistance. This book offers a framework for analyzing public financial management, financial transparency, and oversight, as well as expenditure policy issues that determine how to most appropriately manage security and justice services. It also provides advice on entry points for integrating expenditure analysis into security sector and broader governance reform processes. The book is the result of a project undertaken jointly by staff from the World Bank and the United Nations, integrating the disciplines where each institution holds a comparative advantage and a core mandate. The primary audience includes high-level, technically oriented government officials bearing both security as well as financial responsibilities, staff of international organizations working on public expenditure management and security sector issues, and development practitioners working in an advisory capacity.

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The Role of Parliament in Police Governance

As the primary agency for law enforcement, the police operates at close proximity to the public and exerts significant influence over the security of individuals and communities through its behaviours and performance. Therefore, ensuring accountability of both the individuals and institutions of the police is a fundamental condition for good governance of the security sector in democratic societies. The parliament, as the highest representative body in a democratic system, plays a significant role in maintaining police accountability.
The objective of the edited volume on “The Role of Parliament in Police Governance: Lessons Learned from Asia and Europe” is to put forward good practices and recommendations for improving police accountability, with an emphasis on the strengthening of the role of parliament in police governance. The comparative analysis includes insights and lessons learned from eight country case studies including Belgium, Germany, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, Philippines, Thailand and the United Kingdom. The findings of the cases studies can be taken into account when analysing and considering options for improving the accountability of the police to parliament as well as strengthening independent oversight bodies and parliament-police liaison mechanisms. However, it must be emphasised that these good practices always need to be adapted to the exigencies of the local context.