Institutional analysis in a post-conflict context: Capacity and Integrity Framework (CIF)

The Capacity and Integrity Framework (CIF) provides a simple methodological tool to assess institutional reform needs in post-conflict contexts and to develop realistic programmes. The CIF identifies two fundamental dimensions of public institutions, the individual and the organisational, and focuses on two central reform areas of public institutions in post-conflict contexts: capacity and integrity.

A public institution has an individual and an organisational dimension. On the one hand, it consists of individual employees; on the other, an institution has an organisational structure, policies and procedures to implement its mandate. Capacity refers to the resources that enable the institution to implement its mandate. Capacity is critical to ensuring the sustainability of a reform effort. Integrity relates to the means employed and the ends pursued in the use of the institution’s resources. Integrity enables the institution to fulfil its mandate in accordance with fundamental professional, good governance and human rights standards.

To see Figure 3.1 click here - Pg. 60

The two vertical columns represent the individual and the organisational dimensions. The horizontal rows correspond to the two basic qualities of capacity and integrity. The resulting four fields represent a basic framework to comprehensively assess the status of an institution in a post-conflict context:

Individual capacity relates to an employee’s education and professional training, professional experience and competence, as well as her or his physical and mental aptitude.

Individual integrity refers to an employee’s adherence to international standards of human rights and professional conduct, including a person’s financial propriety.

Organisational capacity refers to institutional qualities such as the number of staff, the organisational structure, resources, infrastructure and information systems.

Organisational integrity relates to procedures employed to establish the principles and values of an institution, including disciplinary and complaint procedures, oversight mechanisms, ethical guidelines, codes of conduct and representation (gender, ethnicity, geographic origin and religion).

The circle around the rectangle signifies the mandate of the institution: defining the tasks and responsibilities of the institution, the mandate provides the substantive parameters for the organisational structure, as well as for the terms of reference of each individual position.

Institutional reform in post-conflict contexts requires rapid intervention. At the same time, effective reform has to take a comprehensive and long-term perspective. The CIF is a useful diagnostic tool to analyse quickly the current status of the public institution in question, to identify and understand critical reform needs, and to design the necessary measures for an effective reform programme. The CIF can also help measure progress in the implementation of the reform programme. In its simplicity and clarity, the CIF can facilitate the communication among all stakeholders, including members of the public institution, political actors, civil society actors, representatives of international organisations and donor representatives. While the CIF is simple, it applies a coherent approach ensuring that institutional reform is not narrowly technical and one-dimensional but is widened to the broad range of good governance principles. Nevertheless, the CIF cannot provide a complete analysis and should
be complemented by surveys and assessments in other areas — for example public needs, the social and historical context, the broader public system, the connections and interrelations with other public institutions and the legal framework.

Applying the CIF in post-confl ict settings requires a two-step approach. First, the CIF can help to assess, in each of the four fi elds (individual capacity, individual integrity, organisational capacity and organisational integrity), the current status of the public institution and identify the critical reform needs. Second, the CIF can serve to develop, in each of the four fi elds, the crucial reform measures and design reform projects that specify implementation responsibilities, resource requirements, time
lines, and implementation indicators.

The CIF was first used by the United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1999 to develop its mandate implementation plan, and has since been used by several other United Nations peace operations. [See R. Monk, T.T. Holm and S. Rumin (2001), “OHR Report on a Police Follow-On Mission to UNMBIH and the UN International Police Task Forces”.]